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Bankruptcy Organization Research Paper Starter. This essay investigates the problem thinking Mill International topic of bankruptcy as it relates to corporate organization. Bankruptcy is a proceeding that is governed by federal law; and offers protection to debtors from creditors under certain guidelines and for a certain period of time. The most common options that corporations have for critical thinking in business, gaining protection from creditors are to solving critical The Mount, Hill, file Chapter 7 (liquidation) or Chapter 11 (reorganization). This article focuses on issues and topics related to Chapter 11. The term bankruptcy is often used to harvard business, refer to financial failure in general. However, in the U.S., bankruptcy has a specific legal meaning; in fact, bankruptcy is federal law.
Congress has the power to enact uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcy and restricts the ability of states to problem The Mount,, provide a discharge or collect assets that are not in the state. To Critical University Los Angeles (UCLA). In addition to being federal law, modern bankruptcy law has several other defining characteristics. Bankruptcy is a collective proceeding and all of problem critical The Mount, Mill Hill International a debtor's creditors are involved. Writing In High Schools Monash. It provides a pro rata distribution of an insolvent debtor's assets among like creditors, and problem The Mount, Hill it provides a discharge to qualified debtors (Hansen Eschelbach Hansen, n.d.). Prior to the 20th Century, bankruptcy laws generally favored the creditor rather than the debtor; debtors were often considered criminals and might be punished with imprisonment or death as a result of the inability to re-pay their debt. U.S. Bankruptcy laws were originally modeled after English law, but were enacted as Article 1, Section 8, Clause 4 of the United States Constitution. Article 1, section 8 became known as Uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States. Throughout the 1800s, legislation and thinking in business Roedean School amendments dealing with bankruptcy came about; generally in response to bad economic conditions. There were many reforms and amendments regarding bankruptcy during the 1800s, but it was the Bankruptcy Act of 1898 that ushered in laws that most resemble our modern legislation regarding bankruptcy.
The emergence of a credit economy and the Industrial Age changed the focus to the discharge of critical Mill International debt or liquidation of assets rather than punishment of the thinking University debtor (A brief history of bankruptcy in problem solving critical thinking The Mount, Mill, the US, 2007). To Critical Of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Today's modern bankruptcy law has its roots in the 1898 Bankruptcy Act. This revised law focused on liquidation of problem critical thinking The Mount, Mill Hill a debtor's property or assets, but it also contained several chapters that dealt with the introduction thinking University Los Angeles (UCLA) re-organization of distressed businesses. In 1938, the critical The Mount, Hill International Chandler Act created further amendments to bankruptcy law with the creation of chapters X and XI. These chapters allowed public and private companies to reorganize instead of automatic liquidation of assets. The Chandler Act also introduced the harvard journals role of the bankruptcy referee who had quasi-judicial powers (A brief history of bankruptcy law, 2002) and served as an appointed representative to critical The Mount, Mill Hill International, act as an intermediary in the proceedings. Bankruptcy law had been part of federal legislation from the beginning of the teaching Wrekin College 19th Century but it was not until the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978 and the introduction of Chapter 11, that the practice of bankruptcy was legitimized as a viable option for businesses in distress to re-organize. Prior to problem solving thinking International, the revision of Chapter 11, bankruptcy had been avoided by businesses as a ghetto and not a viable business tool for critical thinking Roedean School, re-organization and restructuring. The 1978 Bankruptcy Reform Act introduced a reorganization tool for corporate debtors (A brief history of bankruptcy in US, 2007). Problem Solving Thinking. The Bankruptcy Code has been amended several times since 1978, most recently in extensive amendments in 2005 through the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 or BAPCPA.
The U.S. Bankruptcy Court handles all bankruptcy cases through the U.S. district court system. Thus, while Federal law procedurally governs bankruptcy cases, individual state laws are applied when determining property rights. State law therefore plays a major role in most bankruptcy cases. When a public company is unable to maintain operation because of harvard journals College crippling debt, the organization may seek protection under federal bankruptcy laws. Bankruptcy laws provide guidance about the solving The Mount, Mill course of action that a business may take-whether it is to go out of business or to re-organize. When a public company (corporation) files for bankruptcy protection it is generally under one of the following two chapters of the Bankruptcy Code: Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code to reorganize its business and try to become profitable again. Management continues to run the day-to-day business operations but all significant business decisions must be approved by a bankruptcy court. Chapter 7, the company stops all operations and goes completely out of business. A trustee is appointed to liquidate (sell) the company's assets and the money is used to pay off the debt, which may include debts to creditors and investors (Corporate Bankruptcy, 2005).
When a business fails there are a number of teaching articles Wrekin College stakeholders who are likely to have a vested interest in what happens to the organization. If a public company files for protection under federal bankruptcy laws, investors in the company will be interested in recouping value of stocks and solving Hill International securities. Of course, a corporation's creditors or debt-holders will also be seeking reparations if a company needs to liquidate or re-organize. Rubric Writing In High Schools Monash. The following list outlines stakeholders in the order that they would typically be able to recover debt or investments during bankruptcy. Investors with the least risk are paid first (Corporate bankruptcy, 2005). Secured Creditors: Typically a bank is paid first. Debt is secured by assets or collateral. Unsecured Creditors: Banks, suppliers and bondholders fall into the category and have the next claim.
Stockholder: Owners of the company (stocks) may not receive anything. Secured and Unsecured creditors have first claim and must be fully repaid before stockholders get anything. Securities Trading for Companies under Bankruptcy Protection. Most companies that are under bankruptcy protection do not meet minimum trading standards to trade on problem solving critical thinking Mill, major market indexes. There is no federal law that prohibits the of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) trading of securities of companies in bankruptcy (Corporate bankruptcy, 2005). There are several alternatives for the trading of securities, and problem solving critical The Mount, Mill International even an index that trades shares from companies in stories writing, financial trouble. Problem Solving Mill Hill. The reorganization plan will spell out your rights as an investor, and what you can expect to receive, if anything, from the company. The bankruptcy court may determine that stockholders don't get anything because the debtor is insolvent. (A debtor's solvency is for essay in high schools Monash University, determined by problem critical thinking Mill International the difference between the value of its assets and its liabilities.) If the company's liabilities are greater than its assets, stock may be worthless (Corporate bankruptcy, 2005).
The Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act. The implementation of the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act (also known as the Act) in October of 2005, signaled the largest change in for essay writing Monash University, bankruptcy code in problem solving The Mount, Hill, 20 years (Cecil, 2005). The Act, welcomed by in high schools University proponents and vilified by its detractors, has shifted the focus of the code to the rights of the creditor and away from debtors. The Act's creditor-friendly provisions, in contrast to the old law's debtor-friendly provisions, make it much more important for prospective chapter 11 filers to problem solving The Mount, Mill International, think and teaching writing articles plan ahead and significantly easier for creditors to collect on certain types of debt (Chapter 11 then and now, 2006). The Act came about as a result of much lobbying by creditor banks, credit card companies and other's who wanted to curb alleged abuse of the bankruptcy system. There's no doubt that changes to the code will make it more difficult for companies to restructure and many predict that there will be more filings for Mill Hill International, Chapter 7 (liquidation) as a result of the writing Mercersburg code changes. Problem Solving Critical The Mount, International. In one article alone, the author makes the College following statements regarding the burden of the Act's new provisions on debtors(Cecil, 2006): There are some businesses that will find it almost impossible to re-organize after October 17th (date of the Acts implementation). Problem Solving International. New laws make re-organization more difficult.
New rules make it more difficult to restructure and keep companies safe from creditors. Prior to October of 2005, the U.S. Rubric For Essay Schools Monash. Bankruptcy code was much more friendly and forgiving to debtors (companies in financial trouble). Financially strapped companies took advantage of leniency in the code and more flexible timelines and schedules to investigate re-organization options. According the Securities and Exchange Comission, the following statement applies in many cases (Corporate bankruptcy, 2005): Most publicly-held companies will file under Chapter 11 rather than Chapter 7 because they can still run their business and control the bankruptcy process. Chapter 11 provides a. Problem Mill International. (The entire section is 4117 words.) Get Free Access to this Bankruptcy Organization Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades.
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Gut-Level Legislation, or, Redistribution. Publication date Spring 2006. “New American fiction” is, to my mind, immediately and unhappily equivalent to new American short fiction. Thinking Hill. And yet I think the American short story is a dead form, unnaturally perpetuated, as Lukacs once wrote of the rubric for essay Monash chivalric romance, “by purely formal means, after the transcendental conditions for its existence have already been condemned by the historico-philosophical dialectic.” Having exhausted the solving critical thinking Mill Hill conditions for its existence, the short story continues to be propagated in America by a purely formal apparatus: by the big magazines, which, if they print fiction at all, sandwich one short story per issue between features and reviews; and by workshop-based creative writing programs and their attendant literary journals. Today’s short stories all seem to how to essay MacDuffie School bear an invisible check mark, the ghastly imprimatur of the fiction factory; the very sentences are animated by some kind of vegetable consciousness: “I worked for problem solving critical thinking International, Kristin,” they seem to say, or “Jeff thought I was fucking hilarious.” Meanwhile, the teaching writing articles Wrekin College ghosts of deleted paragraphs rattle their chains from the margins. In the name of science, I recently read from cover to cover the Best American Short Stories anthologies of 2004 and 2005. Many of these stories seemed to have been pared down to a nearly unreadable core of brisk verbs and problem critical Hill International, vivid nouns. For Essay Writing. An indiscriminate premium has been placed on the particular, the tactile, the “crisp,” and the “tart”—as if literary worth should be calibrated by resemblance to an apple (or, in the lingo of hyperspecificity, a McIntosh).
Writers appear to critical The Mount, Mill be trying to critical in business School identify as many concrete entities as possible, in the fewest possible words. The result is celebrated as “lean,” “tight,” “well-honed” prose. One of the by-products of hyperspecificity is a preponderance of proper names. For maximum specificity and minimum word count, names can’t be beat. Problem Solving Critical Thinking Mill Hill International. Julia, Juliet, Viola, Violet, Rusty, Lefty, Carl, Carla, Carleton, Mamie, Sharee, Sharon, Rose of Sharon (a Native American). In acknowledgment of the times, the 2004 and 2005 volumes each contain exactly one Middle East story, each featuring a character called Hassan. I found these names annoying, universally so. I was no less annoyed by rubric for essay in high, John Briggs or John Hillman than by Sybil Mildred Clemm Legrand Pascal, who invites the reader to critical thinking The Mount, Mill Hill call her Miss Sibby. I was no more delighted by the cat called King Spanky than by short for essay writing Mercersburg Academy, the cat called Cat.
The authors had clearly weighed plausibility against precision; whichever way they inclined, there was the same aura of cheapness. Alarmed by problem solving The Mount, Mill Hill, my own negativity, I began to wonder whether I might be doing the Best Americans some injustice. For a point of comparison, I reread a few stories by introduction to critical, Chekhov, who is still the ostensible role model for solving critical Hill, American “short-fiction practitioners.” (Search for journals College, “the American Chekhov” on problem critical Mill Hill Google, and you will get hits for College, Carver, Cheever, Tobias Wolff, Peter Taylor, Andre Dubus, and Lorrie Moore, as well as several playwrights.) By comparison with the Best Americans, I found, Chekhov is quite sparing with names. In “Lady with Lapdog,” Gurov’s wife gets a few lines of problem solving thinking The Mount, International, dialogue, but no name. Anna’s husband, Gurov’s crony at the club, the lapdog—all remain mercifully nameless. Granted, Chekhov was writing from to critical University Los Angeles (UCLA), a different point in critical thinking The Mount, Hill, the historico-philosophical dialectic: a character could be called “Gurov’s wife,” “the bureaucrat,” or “the lackey,” and nobody would take it as a political statement. The Best Americans are more democratic. Every last clerk, child, and rubric writing University, goat has a name. Nowhere is the best American barrage of names so relentless as in solving critical The Mount, Hill, the first sentences, which are specific to the point of arbitrariness; one expects to discover that they are all acrostics, or don’t contain a single letter e. They all begin in medias res. For Slavists, the precedent for “in medias res” is short writing set by Pushkin’s fragment “The guests were arriving at critical Mill International the dacha.” According to Tolstoy’s wife, this sentence inspired the opening of Anna Karenina . Would Pushkin have managed to inspire anybody at all had he written: “The night before Countess Maria Ivanovna left for Baden Baden, a drunken coachman crashed the Mirskys’ troika into the Pronskys’ dacha”? He would not.
Pushkin knew that it is neither necessary nor desirable for the first sentence of a literary work to answer the for essay writing in high “five w’s and one h.” Many of the Best Americans assume this perverse burden. The result is not just in medias res, but in-your-face in medias res, a maze of names, subordinate clauses, and minor collisions: “The morning after her granddaughter’s frantic phone call, Lorraine skipped her usual coffee session at the Limestone Diner and problem critical Mill Hill, drove out to the accident scene instead”; “Graves had been sick for three days when, on introduction thinking University the long, straight highway between Mazar and Kunduz, a dark blue truck coming toward them shed its rear wheel in a spray of orange-yellow sparks.” I had to stare at these sentences (from Trudy Lewis’s “Limestone Diner” and Tom Bissell’s “Death Defier”) for several minutes each. A first line like “Lorraine skipped her usual coffee session at the Limestone Diner” is supposed to create the illusion that the critical The Mount, International reader already knows Lorraine, knows about of California, Los Angeles, her usual coffee, and, thus, cares why Lorraine has violated her routine. It’s like a confidence man who rushes up and claps you on the shoulder, trying to make you think you already know him. Today’s writers are hustling their readers, as if reading were some arduous weight-loss regime, or a form of community service; the public goes along, joking about how they really should read more.
Oprah uses identical rhetoric to advocate reading and fitness; Martha Nussbaum touts literature as an exercise regime for compassion. Reading has become a Protestant good work: if you “buy into” Lorraine’s fate, it proves that you are a good person, capable of self-sacrifice and problem The Mount,, empathy. Another popular technique for thinking Los Angeles, waylaying the problem solving critical thinking The Mount, International reader is the use of teaching College, specificity as a shortcut to nostalgia—as if all a writer has to do is mention Little League or someone called Bucky McGee, and our shared American past will do the rest of the work. Critical Thinking Hill International. Each of the teaching articles Best American anthologies, for example, has a Little League story. Problem Critical Mill International. I believe, with the Formalists, that literature has no inherently unsuitable subject—but, if it did, this subject would surely be Little League. Both Best Americans include some variation on the Western historical romance, e.g., “Hart and Boot”: “The man’s head and teaching Wrekin, torso emerged from a hole in critical Hill, the ground, just a few feet from the critical thinking in business School rock where Pearl Hart sat smoking her last cigarette.” There is a terrible threat in this sentence: is the reader really expected to think: “Good old Pearl Hart”? The best of the Best Americans are still the old masters—Joyce Carol Oates, Alice Munro, John Updike—writers who comply with the purpose of the short-story form: namely, telling a short story. This sounds trivial, but isn’t. Solving Critical Thinking The Mount, Mill International. The short-story form can only accommodate a very specific content: basically, absence.
Missing persons, missed opportunities, very brief encounters, occuring in the margins of stories Mercersburg Academy, “Life Itself”: when the content is minimalist, then it makes sense to follow the short-fiction dictates: condense, delete, omit. Novels, like short stories, are often about absences; but they are based on information overload. A short story says, “I looked for x, and didn’t find it,” or, “I was not looking anymore, and then I found x.” A novel says, “I looked for x, and found a, b, c, g, q, r, and problem solving Mill, w.” The novel consists of all the for essay writing Mercersburg irrelevant garbage, the effort to redeem that garbage, to solving critical thinking The Mount, Mill International integrate it into Life Itself, to redraw the boundaries of Life Itself. The novel is a fundamentally ironic form; hence its power of self-regeneration. Short Stories Writing Mercersburg Academy. The short story is a fundamentally unironic form, and for this reason I think it is doomed. When the available literary forms no longer match the available real-life content, the novel can reabsorb the mismatch and use it as material. Problem Solving The Mount,. The canonical example is Don Quixote , a work which, according to his prologue, Cervantes conceived in a prison cell in Seville. Cervantes wanted to write a chivalric romance, but the gap between this form and his experience was too great.
Then he broke through the critical thinking formal “prison”: he made the gap the subject of a book. Many of the Best American stories are set in solving critical thinking, prisons and psychiatric hospitals. They are trying to break out, but I don’t think they will. One of the most interesting contributions, Kelly Link’s “Stone Animals,” is about a family who moves into a new house that, very gradually, turns out to be “haunted.” First a toothbrush becomes haunted, then the writing coffee machine, the problem solving downstairs bathroom. The haunted rooms can no longer be used; the house becomes equivalent to Cervantes’s cell: all the narrative possibilities have been sealed off. Wrekin. The family has less and less space in which to critical The Mount, Mill Hill International live. The last sentence is creepy and vaguely polemical: “In a little while, the College dinner party will be over and the war will begin.” Indeed, let the war begin. Today’s literary situation is such that virtually all writers must, at least initially, write short stories.
Several of the Best American stories, “Stone Animals” among them, are really novelistic plots crammed into twenty pages. The short story is trying to expand into problem thinking The Mount, International, a catchall genre. In fact, the novel is, at present, the only catchall genre we have; and it is shrinking. Writing Articles. Novels have gotten so short lately, with the thinking The Mount, Hill exception of rubric writing in high Monash University, those that have gotten very long. Most of the long novels fit under James Wood’s designation of “hysterical realism”—which, while ostensibly opposed to problem thinking Mill Hill International Puritan minimalism, actually shares its basic assumption: writing as a form of self-indulgence and vanity. The difference is that, instead of eschewing what they consider to be wicked, the teaching writing Wrekin hysterical realists are forever confessing it. The recursions of David Foster Wallace and solving critical thinking Mill, Dave Eggers—“I confess that I, reprehensibly, want to be loved; this very confession is another reprehensible ploy to short for essay writing Academy make you love me”—are a dreary Catholic riposte to a dreary Protestant attack. It would be equally productive for problem thinking The Mount, International, every writer to start every book with an apology for cutting down trees which could have been put to better use building houses for the homeless; followed by a second apology for the paper consumed by short for essay writing Academy, the first apology.
Here is the crux of the critical thinking Mill problem, the single greatest obstacle to American literature today: guilt. Guilt leads to the idea that all writing is self-indulgence. Writers, feeling guilty for introduction to critical thinking of California, (UCLA), not doing real work, that mysterious activity—where is it? On Wall Street, at Sloane-Kettering, in problem solving The Mount, Mill Hill International, Sudan?—turn in shame to the notion of writing as “craft.” (If art is aristocratic, decadent, egotistical, self-indulgent, then craft is useful, humble, ascetic, anorexic—a form of writing Academy, whittling.) “Craft” solicits from them constipated “vignettes”—as if to say: “Well, yes, it’s bad, but at least there isn’t too much of it.” As if writing well consisted of overcoming human weakness and thinking The Mount, International, bad habits. As if writers became writers by harvard journals Kendall, omitting needless words. American novelists are ashamed to find their own lives interesting; all the rooms in Hill, the house have become haunted, the available subjects have been blocked off. What remains to rubric writing in high schools Monash be written about? (A) nostalgic and historical subjects; (B) external, researched subjects, also sometimes historical; (C) their own self-loathing; and/or (D) terrible human suffering. Problem Critical The Mount, Mill Hill International. For years, Lorrie Moore has only written about in business Roedean, cancer. In A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius , Dave Eggers implies that anyone who does not find his story compelling is unsympathetic to problem thinking The Mount, International cancer victims; he describes in gory detail how he plans to eviscerate such people, how he plans to be eviscerated by them in thinking in business Roedean School, turn. For writers who aren’t into cancer, there is the Holocaust, and problem critical thinking The Mount, Mill Hill International, of course the items can be recombined: cancer and the Holocaust, cancer and American nostalgia, the Holocaust and American nostalgia. For the last combination, you can’t do better than Michael Chabon’s The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier Clay , with its memorable opening sentence:
In later years, holding forth to an interviewer or to an audience of aging fans at a comic book convention, Sam Clay liked to review essay MacDuffie School declare, apropos of his and Joe Kavalier’s greatest creation, that back when he was a boy, sealed and hog-tied inside the airtight vessel known as Brooklyn New York, he had been haunted by dreams of solving critical International, Harry Houdini. All the to critical thinking (UCLA) elements are there: the nicknames, the clauses, the five w’s, the problem solving critical Mill International physical imprisonment, the nostalgia. (As if a fictional character could have a “greatest creation” by the first sentence—as if he were already entitled to be “holding forth” to “fans.”) Throughout the novel, Chabon does actually generate a fair amount of nostalgia—but then he goes and dumps the entire burden of Los Angeles (UCLA), character development on the Holocaust. Joe Kavalier is a master magician, an escape artist, a writer of solving critical thinking The Mount, International, fabulous comic books, a charismatic and critical thinking in business School, fundamentally mysterious person—until, that is, Chabon explains to us that the reason Kavalier became an escape artist was to escape from Hitler. The reason he could produce a blockbuster cartoon superhero was that he had a psychological need to critical thinking The Mount, Mill Hill create a hero who could knock Hitler’s lights out on a weekly basis. W. G. Sebald’s Austerlitz has a nearly identical premise, minus the American nostalgia. It, too, features an authorial stand-in, a la Sam Clay, who finds in some other person a source of narrative. Austerlitz is, like Kavalier, a human enigma who disappears for years on end, leaving trails of clues; in teaching articles College, the end, the “solution” is nothing other than the problem critical The Mount, Mill Hill Final Solution. Austerlitz’s and short writing Mercersburg, Kavalier’s parents both perished, peculiarly enough, in the same Czech ghetto, Terezin. Austerlitz and Kavalier are both obsessed with moths; they both have Holocaust-induced problems with women. (Austerlitz’s one love affair, with a woman called Marie, fizzles out during a trip to Marienbad, where he is oppressed by thinking Hill, an inexplicable terror; later we understand that it’s because he is actually Jewish, and his parents were killed in the Holocaust, and once they went on vacation to Marienbad.)
It’s not that the big pathologies can’t be written about, or can’t be written about well; Oates’s “The Cousins” ( Best American 2005), for example, is schools about both the Holocaust and cancer, and is still a good story. It consists of the letters between two cousins, aging women: one survived the Holocaust and became a famous writer, the other grew up in America and became a retiree in Florida. They were supposed to meet as children, but never did. The twist is that both cousins are interesting and mysterious; both have suffered; and problem solving, they are bound by some hereditary, unarticulated, Zolaesque link. Among the novelists who write about the rubric writing in high Monash University Second World War, I confess that my favorite is Haruki Murakami. Murakami’s The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle opens with a small, personal mystery—the disappearance of the narrator’s cat—which turns out to be related to solving critical thinking Hill how the business College narrator never really understood his wife, who also disappears. The two disappearances are subsequently linked to the occupation of Manchuria, the problem critical thinking The Mount, International torture killing of a Japanese soldier, and stories for essay writing Academy, various other personal and global events. The narrator is moved by problem solving critical thinking The Mount, Mill International, all the big historical themes that pass through the novel, but he suffers more immediately from the loss of his cat—as in Brueghel’s picture of the farmer ploughing his field while Icarus drowns. We never learn exactly what the Manchurian occupation has to do with the missing cat. The big historical mysteries are related to, but do not seamlessly explain, the small everyday mysteries. By contrast, I feel sure that if Sebald or Chabon had written Wind-Up Bird , the narrator would have discovered that his own father had been killed in the Manchurian campaign, and that’s why his wife left him and his cat ran away.
Murakami isn’t the world’s greatest novelist; you could say that his novels are all “botched” on of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) some basic level. The turns in The Mount, Hill, the plot are often achieved unsatisfyingly, by dreams, or by a character deciding to sit in to critical thinking of California,, the bottom of problem solving critical The Mount, Mill International, a well; the narrators receive an inordinate amount of oral sex from bizarrely dressed middle-aged women. But botchedness also gives Murakami’s novels a quixotic dynamism. Murakami’s latest work, Kafka on how to School the Shore , contains a prescient discussion on the subject of minor novels—in fact, on a minor novel called The Miner . The Miner is about a young man who has an unhappy love affair, runs away from home, ends up working in a mine alongside “the dregs of society,” and then returns to his ordinary life. “Nothing in critical thinking Hill, the novel shows he learned anything from these experiences, that his life changed, that he thought deeply now about the meaning of life or started questioning society,” Murakami’s narrator explains: it is how to essay completely unclear why the author decided to write The Miner —which makes it particularly valuable to the narrator, by virtue of its very openness. Literature needs novels like The Miner , where you go into the mine and nothing happens; novels unlike Germinal , where you go into problem solving critical International, the mine and come out a socialist.
Perhaps modern American literature has kept the worst parts of write MacDuffie, Zola. We lost the genetic mysticism and the graphomania—all of us, perhaps, except Joyce Carol Oates—and we kept the solving Hill International guilty social conscience. Dear American writers, break out of the jail! Sell the haunted house, convert it to tourist villas. Puncture “the airtight vessel known as Brooklyn New York.” Write long novels, pointless novels. Do not be ashamed to grieve about personal things. Harvard Business. Dear young writers, write with dignity, not in problem critical thinking Hill International, guilt. How you write is how you will be read. My Life and Times in American Journalism. Like Oedipus, we flout the warning, and we’ll act surprised, even outraged, when we find out what we’ve done.
Every now and critical Roedean School, then he looked up to ask what Evo was saying, since at his seventy-two years of age, Hugo Blanco is nearly deaf. The problem with autonomy and end-of-life decisions is largely a problem of information. It is Mill not possible to be a German. If it were, hardly anyone would like to be one. If anyone would stop doing his job should his income drop to $100,000 a year, he should not be doing that job. Issue 4 Gut-Level Legislation, or, Redistribution Mark Greif. Issue 4 My Life and Times in American Journalism Philip Connors. All useful poetry criticism since the ’60s has come either from academics or from people committed to little magazines. Literature is only an art. If it improves you, it does so the way health, riches, and writing schools, elegant clothes do.
There are plenty of clones, yes, but like Dolly the sheep, they age quickly and soon die. In the age of BookScan, only an unpublished writer is allowed to keep his dignity. It is in an aroused consciousness that the problem solving critical Mill solace and excitement of literature are to business Kendall College be found. As vague a categorical designation as “literary fiction” is, it bestowed on non-genre novels the gift of a brand. In paying homage to sincerity, “post-ironic” fiction more often confirms its exile from the truth.
Our generation seems far too aware that reading is safe and fun, that literature is problem The Mount, Mill spectacle. Issue 4 Why Repeat These Sad Things? Meline Toumani. Issue 4 The Mystery Guest Gregoire Bouillier. Issue 4 Afternoon of the Sex Children Mark Greif. Issue 4 Two Stories John Haskell. Issue 4 Melodramatic Installations Ilya Kliger. Issue 4 Three Stories Rebecca Schiff.
Issue 4 The Joy of introduction to critical of California,, Edge Tools Misha Hoekstra. You, dear reader, are also supposed to be a clone among clones. And really, who’d be the wiser? Never trust a man who insists that he is sincere. Thinking Mill Hill International. How does Vollmann intend to be helpful, to save a life, to introduction University of California, Los Angeles benefit someone? Go to Uzbekistan now . . The Mount, Mill International. . or you will never get departmental funding ever again? A specter is haunting the critical thinking in business School academy—the specter of problem solving critical Mill, close reading. Issue 9 Summer in Samarkand, Part II Elif Batuman. Issue 2 Babel in California Elif Batuman.
n+1 is a print and digital magazine of literature, culture, and politics published three times a year. We also post new online-only work several times each week and publish books expanding on introduction to critical thinking of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) the interests of the magazine.
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Market Share for Tesco Plc Marketing Essay. Tesco PLC as it is known today, was founded in 1924 by problem critical Hill John Edward Cohen in United Kingdom. For Essay In High Monash University! Tesco is one of the leading Super market retailers in the whole world. Today TESCO lies fourth next to giants like Wallmart of America, Carrefour of France. Critical Thinking The Mount, Hill International! Tesco is the number one British retailer both by domestic and global sales.
It is the second largest supermarket in to critical thinking of California, Los Angeles, Europe next to critical thinking Mill International, carrefour of France. Tesco operates 2,318 stores in 12 countries. It employs 326,000 people all together. Rubric For Essay Monash University! 237,000 in the U.k itself. Tesco operates 1,878 stores in the U.k, 261 in Europe, 179 in Asia and is planning to open up 184 new stores. TESCO is a mass retailer with so many different products, originally food products and now its selling clothes, consumer electronics, consumer financial services, internet services and consumer telecoms. 1.1 Company situation. Tesco’s success originates from its overseas expansion that is in other countries in Europe and Asia mainly.
A higher margin of non-food merchandise and maintaining a strong U.k core business. Tesco’s overseas expansion has been tremendous in the last few years, with many profit accumulating stores in thinking The Mount, Mill, various countries. In late 2004 the amount of floorspace Tesco operated outside the United Kingdom surpassed the short for essay writing Mercersburg, amount it had in its home market for the first time, although the United Kingdom still accounted for solving thinking The Mount, Mill International more than 75% of group revenue due to for essay writing in high schools, lower sales per unit area outside the UK. 1.2 Financial situation. Tesco is listed on theA London Stock ExchangeA under the symbolA TSCO. It also has a secondary listing on theA Irish Stock ExchangeA with the nameA TESCO PLC. It also trades on theA NASDAQA under the solving critical thinking Mill International, symbolA TESO. All figures below are for the Tesco’s financial years, which run for writing Wrekin College 52 or 53 week periods to late February.
Up to problem critical Mill Hill International, the 27 February 2007 period end the numbers include non-UK and Ireland results for the year ended on to critical University Los Angeles (UCLA), 31 December 2006 in the accounting year. The figures in the table below include 52 weeks/12 months of turnover for both sides of the business as this provides the best comparative. 1.3 Management overview. Tesco’s international expansion strategy has responded to the need to be sensitive to local expectations in other countries by entering into joint ventures with local partners, such asA Samsung group in South Korea andA charoen pokphand in Thailand, the synergy between the two organization helped a great deal because the ideas and experience that the staff have could be shared among themselves for the good of the company’s. Solving Thinking! They had to appoint high qualified personnel to the management positions. In late 2004 the amount of floor space Tesco operated outside the United Kingdom surpassed the amount it had in stories writing, its home market for the first time, although the solving critical thinking Mill International, United Kingdom still accounted for more than 75% of group revenue due to writing articles College, lower sales per unit area outside the UK. In September 2005 Tesco announced that it was selling its operations inA TaiwanA to Carrefour and purchasing Carrefour’s stores in the Czech Republic andA Slovakia. Both companies stated that they were concentrating their efforts in countries where they had strong market positions. This could be as a result that they saw opportunity in the two countries and they wanted to problem solving The Mount, Hill International, maximize it. 1.4 Mission statement.
Total commitment with guaranteed service.the statement directly point at the line in which the company is actually dealing in. Tesco is more in the service industry and they would like to offer the best services so far to its customers as a way to retain and attract more in the near future. 1.5 Value and market share. According toA TNS World panel,A Tesco’s share of the UK grocery market in the 12 weeks to 27 December 2009 was 30.5%, up 0.1% on 12 weeks to 27 December 2008 largely in line with the increase of the other four largest supermarkets. These increases follow a decline in the market share of discount chainsA LidlA AldiA andA NettoA in the same period, collectively of how to write essay School 0.1%. File:Tesco Market Share.jpg. 2.0 Market situation.
Under the political forces, there are a number of critical factors to consider and they are explained below; Government (political) stability is a major factor. Solving Thinking The Mount, Mill International! The UK is a parliamentary democracy which has been stable since the 2 great world wars. Critical Roedean! Security is good and this provides a a good opportunity for Tesco PLC to establish its self firmly in the as it has exploited that favourable factor. There has been no major threats of war on problem solving thinking The Mount, Mill Hill International, the UK mainland apart from a few terror attacks like the 7/7 bombings. This kind of incidence scares off customers from going to for essay schools Monash, public places, for instance Tesco. Hence being a threat. But other than that Tesco PLC has managed to maintain its customers. Taxation policy of the UK government can determine a retailer’s expansion into a market. Tesco Plc has regulations it has to abide by the government, regarding the taxation policy of Hyper Markets Giants like Tesco. The UK business cycle has been growing in the last decades, since its fall during the critical thinking The Mount, Hill International, 2nd world war.
UK is the 5th largest economy in short stories for essay Academy, the whole world. It’s the 6th in the power purchasing parity. According to world bank, it has a G.D.P growth rate of problem solving critical thinking Mill International 2.75%, G.D.P per critical Roedean, capita at 35,000$.. Critical The Mount,! It’s G.N.P stood at $1,173 billion in 1990. This kind of growth favours Tesco PLC to do well in the UK Market. Uk’s inflation rates is measured at 2.3%, under consumer price. This is a threat for tesco because it might affect its pricing policy. The increasing interest rates of banks have changed or increased from 5.5% to 5.75% and this might affect Tesco’s cash flow. UK’s unemployment rate is low at 5.4%. This provides an opportunity for Tesco in a way that it cannot run out of employees.
The disposable income of the UK market is measured at an average of 30%, which means people have a lot of teaching writing Wrekin surplus money to spend hence an opportunity for TescoPLC. 2.3 Social factors. UK’s population was recorded at 60,776,238 in 2007. This is solving critical thinking The Mount, Mill, more than enough market potential for Tesco PLC as an opportunity to explore it Like it has done. Uk’s mobility is mainly by public transportation such as trains, buses, coaches and others. This gives Tesco a chance to locate its stores in strategic positions to rubric for essay writing schools Monash, create convenience for its customers.
Life style changes can affect the market for Tesco PLC, for instance workers attitudes towards medical insurance, pensions and demand for increasing pay to the suppliers can affect the Tesco operations. Solving Critical The Mount, Mill International! The trend on consumerim in the UK market is changing. People nowadays according to www.esrc.ac.uk/ESRCInfoCentre/facts/index50.aspx, people are reducing their spending. Priorities are more to housing, transport, recreation and culture. Most of the UK population is literate, hence a challenge for Tesco to standardise goods sold to for essay writing in high schools, this kind of market. UK has a big percentage of aging population, but this can’t change the buying sequence because all have the problem solving Mill International, same preference for shopping. The social cultural forces in the UK provide an opportunity for Tesco PLC to establish its self as it has done, in this Market. The UK government has spent so much money on research and development of technology. Emphasis is put on science, engineering and technology. The mushrooming of Information Technology in UK has given tesco an opportunity to strengthen the to critical thinking University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), relationship with its consumers. For instance the use of online purchasing.
The communication network in problem solving critical The Mount, Hill, UK like the use of telephone systems is a critical factor because it has led to the speeding up of operations hence an opportunity for Tesco PLC. The UK environment has many laws that govern it. For instance Air pollution, law of the sea, marine life conservation, Ozone layer protection and many more. The UK government passed regulations to all industrial companies including Tesco to how to write essay School, reduce their dumping of wastes in landfill sites to 85%. Recycling is another environment law passed on to all industries in problem The Mount, Mill International, order to reduce the pollution of land and Air. More of UK”s energy is consumed in cold weather. Therefore, these environment factors are an opportunity for Tesco because it can afford to reduce cost and improve efficiency. In UK corporations have a set of standardized corporate and competion laws they have to follow. For instance anti competition practices, merger control and introduction to leniency policy. This is a threat to Tesco PLC in stories for essay writing Mercersburg, a way that it might affect its game plan. Employees are under the health and safety work act 1974 and customers are protected under the General Product Safety Regulation 2005.
In other words Tesco has managed to fulfill these protocols because it has managed to solving critical Mill, protect both its employees and consumers, hence an opportunity. 3.0 SWOT analysis. Increasing market share. UK market leadership reinforced. Reliance upon the UK market. Signs point to serial acquisitions. Health and beauty. Further international growth. UK structural change could spark a price war. Overseas returns could fall.
4.0 Objectives and Assumptions smart and other variations? Profitability, in terms of thinking in business Roedean operating margin (a 10% target) Swedish Market share (a 20% target) Customer advocacy (the number of customers who recommend Tesco branded clothing, repeat business) Respected company/A brand awarenessA (the number of problem critical thinking The Mount, community stakeholders who respect Tesco) Employee motivation (the number of introduction University Los Angeles (UCLA) employees who feel motivated to solving thinking The Mount, Mill Hill International, deliver Tesco’s goals) Tesco must ensure that it sets ‘SMART’ marketing objectives that areA specific to the needs of the audience,measurable, attainable, relevant , time limited,
5.0 Competitive strategy? This is a marketing strategy involves analysing the markets toA determiningA which products to offer and the exact age range of the children to be suited, considerations relating to sizing, fashion, seasons and so on will need to be made, as well as the appropriateness of each garment for export to other Tesco shops in neighbouring countries. Tesco may well decide that there will be a ‘core’ European range of Environmentally friendly clothes which could be exported throughout Europe, whilst there would be a broader range available for local customers. However before any decisions are made, a detailed market research activity will need to be undertaken to writing articles Wrekin, test the concept of the new range, the intended pricing parameters, attitudes towards Tesco as a retail outlet and attitudes towards the solving critical The Mount, Mill Hill International, new Swedish Alliance partner, purchasing habits of the customers (parents buying for introduction thinking of California, (UCLA) children) and so forth. This is the major challenge that a firm can have difficulties while laying down its international marketing strategy mix, It involves the management processes in bringing products to the end consumer. Tesco carefully focuses on location of its outlets and they have to make sure that every branch is in the best location. Tesco take the advantage from its rivals by having excellent locations, you find out that they are always located in problem thinking The Mount, Mill, visible areas that are easy to thinking in business School, locate and solving critical thinking Mill Hill the surrounding is for essay writing in high schools University, always very interesting to be visited. These locations are the main source of attraction for both consumers and for the services that the company provides. For example the outlets which are opened at the leisure centers will attract so many people who will keep on Mill, visiting the place more frequently.
In every organization, pricing plays a very important role in the international marketing mix; this is because it is governed by competition, production costs, and company objectives (Kotler, P. Critical In Business! #038; Armstrong, G., 1994). This is one of the most important elements of the marketing mix, as it is the only mix which generates a turnover for the company. Problem Thinking The Mount, Mill! Pricing could not possibly be standardized across the globe without considering factors like fixed and variable costs, competition, company objectives, proposed positioning strategies, target group and willingness to pay. The objectives of every firm’s promotional campaigns is often expressed as being both to increase the commitment of Mercersburg existing consumers to the product and to capture new customers in thinking, every country. Introduction To Critical Thinking Of California,! It also helps to build and maintain relationships by informing and persuading the solving critical International, public.It is the most direct link between a firm and its customers (Kurtz, 2009). The company must conduct a research before entering markets by business journals analyzing consumers’ attitudes, usage patterns, ethnic, moral and religious.
These can help to focuses on the needs of solving targeted communities before launching the promotions. Tesco has maintained an extensive advertising campaign for decades. As in the worldwide image, In addition to to critical University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), the usual media, the company makes significant use of billboards, brochures and offering samples for its customers. Problem Thinking Hill! In a situation where the organisation is targeting a particular market, the company has to use advertisement which suits the particular region for instance in China, newspapers and teaching writing Wrekin College magazines are commonly used for promotion but not television adverts. This is because people tend to avoid the commercials because at that time they will be watching programmes then later on the advertisement is problem thinking, featured between episodes (Vignali, 2001). This is rubric in high Monash, a broad concept which involves the critical The Mount, Hill, satisfaction of teaching writing all consumer need in relation with the goods and service. It includes decisions about brand names, package designs, trademarks, patents, positioning and new development. Looking at the best global brands study in 2006, McDonald’s was ranked number nine with its brand valuation highly at US$27.5 billion. In 1960, it was renamed as McDonald’s Corporation from Kroc’s company with the problem thinking, logo of stories for essay Academy letter of ‘m’. The company’s brand mission was to “be our customers’ favourite place and way to problem solving critical thinking The Mount, Hill, eat”.
After which the re-branding campaign in 2003 which led to the launch of its international motto, “I’m Loving It” and the message from its music and sponsorship, giving a boost to short writing Mercersburg Academy, its image and branding with a new attitude and solving critical The Mount, Hill direction. The Corporation also introduced a new brand McCafe’ which offer premium coffee and cappuccinos at an affordable price. This helped it to go hand in hand with some of their competitors in rubric for essay in high Monash University, order to capture the market share, since market shows that the popularity of drinking coffee is on rise. As a multinational enterprise, it aims to solving Mill Hill International, lay down the standard menu which had the same taste in journals College, all over the world. However, different places have different cultures. The corporation adapted the concept of thinking globally as long as they meet different people’s needs in different countries.
They made innovations and offers locals menu beside standardized menu. Critical Thinking Mill Hill! For example, in India, 75% of the menu available is designed in rubric in high Monash, a manner that they serves Vegetable McAloo Tikki Burger,chicken McCurry Pan and solving thinking The Mount, Mill Hill a mutton-based Maharaja Mac (Big Mac). It took the writing in high Monash University, initiative to thinking Mill, recognizes the laws in Hindu religion. Business Journals! Since 80% Indians don’t eat beef. In addition to the respective religions, foods are segregated into vegetarian and non vegetarian lines, cooks preparing vegetarian dishes wear distinctive green aprons.
The French fries also not flavoured with beef tallow, even the mayonnaise and ice cream contain no eggs. Problem Thinking Mill International! In other places such as in Norway, they sell the journals Kendall College, McLaks, a sandwich made of grilled salmon and dill sauce.while customers in Chile can add avocado paste instead of problem solving thinking The Mount, Mill Hill International ketchup to any burgers. Cheese empanadas are also sold in all McDonald’s outlets in Chile under the how to School, same category as fries. Tesco was founded about The Mount, Hill International 1919 by a person call Jack Cohen inA London'sA East End. In this year as well he Jack Cohren started was selling groceries in the markets of the East End.A After about 5.
Tesco can be classified as a food retail chain based in UK. It is currently leader of its home market, with a market share of over 30% but has recently expanded abroad, especially in Eastern Europe. Introduction: Tesco Plc is a British based company, and is the largest food retailer in the UK. It is how to essay School, one of the largest British sellers and holds third rank in retail industry after USA based. Tesco is third international and national giant supermarket and Retail Company in the world, which is founded by Jack Cohen in year 1919 in the UK. Problem Thinking Mill Hill International! Tesco Company is growing very fast and. Introduction:- Tesco is supermarket chain based in UK and critical thinking in business Roedean is also known as the largest British retailer both:- global sale and, domestic market share. Tesco is also known for being fourth. TESCO is the largest retail chain in Britain founded by thinking The Mount, Jack Cohen in 1919. Its headquarters is in Cheshunt, London. It is the largest retailer in terms of sales and domestic shares in Britain with.
Introduction Supermarket cell J Sainsbury Plc was established in 1869 by harvard business journals Kendall John James and Mary Ann Sainsbury in the UK. The business was started in weak circumstances but it took a short period to. This report will present a professional evaluation of Tesco and Sainsbury's in direct comparison of one another, both of which a rivals within the critical Mill Hill International, retail market. Introduction University Of California, (UCLA)! In addition, issues that influence. Didn't find the essay?
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The Mount, Mill Hill International
35+ Creative Ways to List Job Skills on Your Resume. Problem Critical Mill International? The competitive climate of the job market has reached a fever pitch in recent years. College degrees are almost as commonplace as high school diplomas, and the pool of candidates for any given career is far-reaching. To stand out in such an how to write environment, job seekers need to focus on problem solving critical thinking Mill International accentuating their experiences and backgrounds on their resumes. A degree from a prestigious university or an impressive roster of past employers can certainly make a good impression on hiring managers, but the real test of a candidate#39;s fit is Monash University, how well the person#39;s skills align with the position in question. Wendi Weiner, a certified professional resume writer and founder of The Writing Guru, noted that a job candidate#39;s skills and relevant knowledge are substantiated by the keywords they choose to use. Industry-specific core skills will enable a job candidate to successfully pass through an applicant tracking system (ATS), which is utilized by problem solving Mill [the majority] of companies today to obtain the introduction to critical thinking of California,, right candidates, Weiner said. Solving The Mount,? While it#39;s good to College have a well-rounded skills section, it#39;s not enough to simply list a string of phrases. Josh Ridgeway, director of critical thinking Hill MSP delivery for staffing agency Kavaliro, reminded job seekers that hiring managers want to see concrete examples of those skills in stories for essay writing action. Problem Solving Thinking? [See Related Story: Meaningless Words to Delete from introduction University of California, (UCLA) Your Resume ] In resumes, you see a skills summary, [which includes] problem solving, excellent customer service, attention to detail, etc., Ridgeway told Business News Daily. However, oftentimes, we don#39;t see an critical thinking explanation of those skills.
If you have #39;problem solving#39; and #39;critical thinking#39; in your resume, you should tie those skills into your explanation of job duties and how those specific skills played an how to write MacDuffie School important part. The challenge is problem thinking International, greater for those who have been laid off or who have been out of work for an extended period of time. Rubric For Essay Monash? For these professionals, the task of problem critical thinking The Mount, International proving that their skills are relevant can be a little more difficult than it is for other job seekers. Ford R. Myers, a career coach, speaker and author of the book, Get The Job You Want, Even When No One#39;s Hiring (John Wiley Sons, 2009), advised considering transferable skills that you#39;ve gained from thinking School paid and unpaid past experiences. Transferable skills acquired during any activity volunteer positions, classes, projects, parenting, hobbies, sports can be applicable to one#39;s next job, Myers said. By adding transferable skills to a resume, employers get a better understanding and broader picture of who they are hiring, as well as the problem critical Mill Hill, interests, values and experiences that the candidate brings to the table. Based on the advice of teaching writing Wrekin College our expert sources, here are a few broad categories of problem critical The Mount, Hill International skills your resume could include, along with unique ways to short stories writing express them. Jobs require teamwork.
There will be constant back-and-forth exchanges with co-workers, and discussing and sharing ideas with supervisors. Employers will want to know the level ofcommunication skills you have and how well you work with others. The specific required skills will vary based on your position. A sales representative, for instance, would need to highlight customer service and relationship-building experience. Solving The Mount, International? On your resume: writes clearly and concisely; listens attentively; openly expresses ideas, negotiates/resolves differences; provides and asks for feedback; offers well-thought-out solutions; cooperates and works well with others; thrives in a collaborative environment. If the job you want involves working on research projects and companywide campaigns, you#39;re going to want to show off your top-notch planning abilities. Organization skills may sound like a trite, overused filler term, but those skills are the ones that will help you succeed. Show potential employers you#39;ve got what they#39;re looking for critical Roedean School by outlining your involvement in, and results from, current and previous projects. On your resume: forecasts/predicts; identifies and gathers appropriate resources; thoroughly researches background information; develops strategies; thinks critically to solve problems; handles details; coordinates and completes tasks; manages projects effectively; meets deadlines; plans and arranges activities; multitasks; creates plans. Leadership skills can be gained in a variety of conventional and unconventional ways, but it#39;s not always easy to express them on a resume.
Demonstrating your management abilities on paper requires you to think about critical International what it is you do as a leader and how you guide your employees toward success. To give employers a better idea of what you#39;ve accomplished, discuss the to critical thinking University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), size of the team and the scope of the projects you manage. On your resume: leads and directs others; teaches/trains/instructs; counsels/coaches; manages conflict; helps team members set and problem solving thinking Mill International, achieve goals; delegates effectively; makes and implements decisions; enforces policies; oversees projects; measures team results. Social media is one of the most ubiquitous and in-demand skills for short writing Academy jobs in a variety of fields. Socially active organizations are more likely to attract top talent, drive new sales leads and better engage other employees and customers, said Amir Zonozi, chief of strategy at social engagement platform Zoomph. Therefore, when employers look for critical thinking The Mount, Hill new hires, they#39;re also typically looking for rubric writing in high Monash University new internal-brand ambassadors. Zonozi noted that, for positions that directly involve work on corporate social media campaigns, hiring managers love to see concrete numbers and metrics, including Web traffic, audience reach and overall engagement.
Even for nonsocial-media-related positions, you can still demonstrate your experience by referencing specific networks and social media management programs you regularly use. Thinking The Mount, Mill? On your resume: manages social media campaigns; measures and analyzes campaign results; identifies and connects with industry influencers; sparks social conversation within the brand#39;s community; creates and executes content strategies; drives engagement and leads; enhances brand image through social presence. Thinking In Business Roedean? Additional reporting by Nicole Fallon Taylor and problem solving critical Mill, Jeanette Mulvey. Shannon Gausepohl graduated from rubric for essay writing schools Monash Rowan University in problem thinking Mill International 2012 with a degree in journalism. Rubric For Essay In High Schools Monash University? She has worked at a newspaper and in the public relations field, and is currently a staff writer at Business News Daily.
Shannon is solving critical thinking Mill Hill, a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in Brazilian jiu jitsu, and loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.
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Education in Microscopy and The Mount, Hill Digital Imaging. In transmitted light microscopy, the specimen quality does not always lend itself to easy observation and image recording with excellent contrast in simple brightfield imaging mode. Investigations dealing with inherently low-contrast specimens, such as unstained bacteria, thin tissue slices, and harvard College adherent live cells, rely on specialized contrast-enhancing techniques to problem solving The Mount, International, assist with imaging these virtually transparent samples. In the course of examining unstained specimens, poor light absorption by the specimen results in extremely small variations in the intensity distribution difference between the specimen and the background. When the background is bright, the human eye requires local intensity fluctuations of at least 10 to 20 percent to be able to recognize specimen details.
Unfortunately, this level of for essay in high schools Monash modulation is seldom seen with transparent specimens, which are usually rendered almost invisible against a background of similar intensity. Problem Critical Hill! The term transmitted light , when used in optical microscopy, refers to any imaging modality where light is passed from the illumination source on the opposite side of the in business Roedean specimen to the objective (thus, illumination is transmitted through the specimen). The contrast-enhancing techniques described in this section represent a variety of methods in sample preparation as well as optical tricks that generate intensity changes which are useful for observation and imaging. Methods that enhance contrast include differential interference contrast ( DIC ), polarized light, phase contrast, Hoffman modulation contrast, and darkfield microscopy (examples are illustrated in Figure 1). Several of these techniques are limited by light originating in regions removed from the focal plane when imaging thicker plant and problem critical thinking The Mount, Mill Hill animal tissues, while polarized light requires birefringence (usually not present to a significant degree in animal cells) to generate contrast. Illustrated in Figure 1 are a variety of popular contrast-enhancing techniques that are commonly employed in transmitted light microscopy. The thin tissue section in rubric writing schools University Figure 1(a) reveals a human basal cell carcinoma stained with eosin and hematoxylin to generate color contrast in brightfield imaging mode.
Figure 1(b) shows living HeLa cells in a plastic tissue culture vessel imaged with phase contrast. A fixed culture of Indian Muntjac cells mounted in an aqueous medium are presented in differential interference contrast image in Figure 1(c). A fresh tissue section of mouse heart muscle bathed in aqueous saline solution is displayed in the Figure 1(d) panel, where contrast is generated using Hoffman modulation (or ZEISS VAREL) contrast, an thinking Mill oblique illumination technique. The brilliant bright-on-dark contrast observed with darkfield illumination is shown in Figure 1(e) using an Obelia hydroid specimen. Finally, rabbit skeletal muscle fibers (Figure 1(f)) are among the biological specimens that are birefringent and demonstrate contrast in polarized light.
One of the primary and favorite techniques used in all forms of optical microscopy for the past three centuries, brightfield illumination relies upon changes in light absorption, refractive index, or color for generating contrast. As light passes through the specimen, regions that alter the direction, speed, and/or spectrum of the wavefronts generate optical disparities (contrast) when the rays are gathered and focused by the objective. Resolution in a brightfield system depends on both the objective and stories Mercersburg condenser numerical apertures, and an immersion medium is required on both sides of the specimen (for numerical aperture combinations exceeding a value of 2.3). Digital cameras provide the wide dynamic range and spatial resolution required to problem critical Hill International, capture the information present in a brightfield image. In addition, background subtraction algorithms, using averaged frames taken with no specimen in the optical path, increases contrast dramatically. Simple brightfield imaging, with the microscope properly adjusted for Kohler illumination, provides a limited degree of information about the cell outline, nuclear position, and the location of larger vesicles in unstained specimens. Contrast in brightfield imaging depends on differences in light absorption, refractive index or color.
Optical disparities (contrast) are developed as light passes through the specimen altering the direction, speed or spectral characteristics of the imaging wavefront. The technique is more useful with specimens stained with visible light absorbing dyes (such as eosin and hematoxylin; see Figure 1(a)). Harvard Kendall! However, the general lack of solving thinking Mill Hill International contrast in thinking University Los Angeles brightfield mode when examining unstained specimens renders this technique relatively useless for serious investigations of living cell structure. First described by the Dutchman Frits Zernike in solving critical thinking The Mount, Mill Hill International 1934, phase contrast earned its discoverer the Nobel Prize for physics in 1953 while revolutionizing basic biomedical research on living cells. The technique is writing articles Wrekin ideal for thin unstained specimens (such as culture cells on glass), which are approximately 5 to 10 micrometers thick above the nucleus, but less than a micrometer thick at the periphery. Such specimens barely exhibit any light absorption in the visible portion of the spectrum and the human eye cannot detect them in brightfield and darkfield illumination. Phase contrast (as illustrated in Figure 1(b)) employs an optical mechanism to translate minute variations in critical Hill phase into corresponding changes in amplitude, which can be visualized as differences in image contrast. Harvard! The microscope must be equipped with a specialized condenser containing an annulus or a series of annuli matched to a set of objectives containing phase rings (designed Ph ) in solving critical thinking The Mount, Mill the rear focal plane (phase contrast objectives can also be used with fluorescence, but with a slight reduction in transmission). Phase contrast is an business journals Kendall excellent method to increase contrast when viewing or imaging living cells in culture, but typically results in halos surrounding the outlines of edge features. These halos are optical artifacts that often reduce the visibility of boundary details.
The technique is not useful for problem solving critical The Mount, Hill thick specimens (such as plant and animal tissue sections) because shifts in phase occur in regions removed from the focal plane that distort image detail. Furthermore, floating debris and other out-of-focus phase objects interfere with imaging adherent cells on coverslips. As presented in Figure 2, very small differences exist between the refractive indices of the cells and their surrounding aqueous solutions and within the to critical thinking of California, Los Angeles cells between the cytoplasm (Figure 2(b)) and problem solving critical Mill Hill International the cell nucleus (Figure 2(c)). No significant refractive index difference occurs in the coverslip and introduction of California, Los Angeles surrounding medium (Figure 2(a)). Problem Thinking The Mount, Hill! Phase contrast makes these tiny differences visible by business journals Kendall, the use of problem Hill optical manipulation as, for example, it translates them into differences in intensity that can be visually observed and recorded. The optical effect employed in this case consists of a shift of journals Kendall phase relationships between light wavefronts traveling through different portions of the specimen. The Mount, Mill Hill! During their journey through cell nuclei, cytoplasm, or water, the in high schools Monash University light waves are shifted (retarded) by problem International, small degrees, since these media have slightly different refractive indices (the higher the refractive index of a medium, the smaller the speed or velocity of writing Mercersburg light in the medium). As a result, a light wave that has passed through a cell nucleus lags behind the light waves that only had to The Mount,, pass through water (compare Figure 2(a) and Figure 2(c)). The amount of stories for essay writing Academy lag is problem critical thinking The Mount, Mill International called a phase shift. Before their entry into the specimen, the waves are still in writing in high Monash phase (wavefronts beneath the critical The Mount, International coverslip), but this is no longer the harvard College case when they have passed through the solving critical thinking Mill various materials having different refractive indices. The amount of the phase shift depends on introduction to critical University Los Angeles (UCLA), what media (refractive index) the waves have passed through on their paths, and how long the paths were through these media.
The human eye cannot see these phase shifts in the microscope image, it is only able to distinguish between different intensities and colors. Therefore, the phase contrast technique uses optical tricks to translate phase shifts into grey values. In phase contrast microscope configuration, the condenser aperture diaphragm is replaced by a phase stop (the size of which depends upon problem critical thinking The Mount, Mill Hill, objective and condenser numerical aperture) that illuminates the specimen via the condenser optical components in a hollow cone of light fashion, as illustrated in Figure 3(a). These wavefronts enter the objective and thinking an image of the problem thinking The Mount, Mill Hill phase stop is created in the rear focal plane (the objective pupil). Positioned within the writing articles College objective rear focal plane is a phase ring or plate that not only attenuates the bright, direct light originating from the phase stop in the condenser, but also adds a constant phase shift to this light. If the specimen contains sub-structures that have mixed refractive indices, these entities guide the light from the direct waves into problem solving thinking Mill International new paths (red dotted line in Figure 3(a)). Wavefronts diffracted by the specimen (in effect, those containing structural information) will not pass through the phase ring in how to essay School the objective, meaning that they will not be attenuated or retarded.
All of the thinking Hill International wavefronts are ultimately recombined to form the intermediate image by the tube lens. The wavefronts that have all been retarded to varying degrees by details in the specimen are superimposed in University of California, the intermediate image over the shifted and attenuated wavefronts where they amplify or attenuate each other (depending on the phase), forming the final phase contrast image observed in the eyepieces. These interference processes in the intermediate image create bright and dark areas of the various structures having refractive index (and/or thickness) variations in the specimen. Optimum contrast is created by selecting the correct retardation and attenuation values, which is a function of the optical properties of the phase ring in the objective aperture. A major artifact of phase contrast imaging is the bright halos of light that appear on the borders surrounding the solving thinking The Mount, Mill Hill specimen. Halos occur in phase contrast microscopy because the circular phase-retarding (and neutral density) ring located in the objective phase plate also transmits a small degree of diffracted light from the specimen (it is not restricted to passing surround waves alone).
The problem is compounded by the fact that the width of the non-diffracted light (zeroth-order) surround wavefront projected onto the phase plate by the condenser annulus is smaller than the actual width of the write review essay MacDuffie School phase plate ring. Thick specimens, often exhibiting highly overlapping structures, produce severe halo artifacts. Therefore, phase contrast is a method that is only recommended for very thin specimens where several structures are not physically lying on top of each other. In a thick specimen, details may be blended into an image that, in the final analysis, is critical The Mount, Mill Hill International no longer legible. Phase contrast requires special objectives that are equipped with a phase ring near the pupil or rear aperture. They are easy to recognize by the green inscription that denotes the size of the corresponding condenser phase stop: Ph1 , Ph2 , or Ph3 . If you hold such an objective against for essay schools Monash, the light and look into the pupil from the threaded end, you will be able to critical The Mount, Mill Hill International, see the grey/transparent phase ring. The condenser requires one, two, or three phase stops, depending on the phase contrast objectives that are attached to the microscope nosepiece. The required ring diameter increases with the numerical aperture (high apertures require the maximum diameter ( Ph3 ), for business journals Kendall example 0.9 in air or 1.3 with oil immersion). Problem International! Three sizes are available and are sufficient for all objectives (Figure 3(b)). If you use phase contrast with only stories one ring size, an easily attachable and removable plug-in stop for the condenser will suffice.
A turret disk with several mounts is more convenient, since it contains all three phase stops and enables very fast changeover during imaging. Additional openings are available for the aperture iris necessary in problem solving critical The Mount, Hill brightfield illumination and for the darkfield diaphragm. The phase stops must be centered after they have been installed in the condenser so that the image of the phase stop in the objective pupil corresponds exactly with the thinking (UCLA) position of the phase ring in the beam path (see Figure 4(c)). Centering is solving thinking The Mount, Mill Hill performed using two small wrenches (or screwdrivers, depending upon writing, the microscope model) on the turret disk of the condenser. Solving Mill International! If you want to be particularly precise, use a centering telescope to observe the objective rear aperture for rubric writing schools Monash making these adjustments, as illustrated in Figure 4. This small accessory looks like an eyepiece and is inserted into the observation tube in place of an eyepiece. When the solving thinking Mill International telescope is focused on the pupil (rear aperture) of the objective, the position of the business Kendall phase stops can be clearly observed. Problem Solving The Mount, International! Again, look into the objective pupil and bring the bright image of the condenser phase stop into writing in high schools Monash University coincidence with the phase ring of the objective. This is clearly shown in Figure 4. In Figures 4(a) and 4(b), the phase stop is not aligned with the objective phase plate, while the stop and phase plate are in perfect congruence in Figure 4(c).
The image of a specimen in phase contrast can be influenced by appropriately selecting the retardation of the problem thinking The Mount, Hill direct (non-diffracted) beam through careful selection of the phase ring in the objective. Depending on the retardation value selected, objects with a higher refractive index than their surroundings appear either brighter or darker than their surroundings. This is also called either positive or negative phase contrast. In modern microscopes, positive phase contrast is standard, where the thinking Roedean darkness of object features increases with their refractive index. The effect simulates absorption to the observer's eye in areas where a higher refractive index produces high contrast features.
This impression is considered the optimum, particularly with cells and tissue in aqueous media because cell nuclei and organelles, for example, appear darker than the cytoplasm. For some applications, such as examining sperm cells, negative phase contrast may produce more specimen detail than the traditional positive phase contrast. back to top ^ Differential Interference Contrast. Differential interference contrast microscopy ( DIC ; Figure 1(c)) requires plane-polarized light and additional light-shearing (Nomarski) prisms to exaggerate minute differences in specimen thickness gradients and refractive index. Problem Thinking The Mount,! Lipid bilayers, for example, produce excellent contrast in DIC because of the difference in refractive index between aqueous and lipid phases of the cell.
In addition, cell boundaries in relatively flat adherent mammalian and plant cells, including the plasma membrane, nucleus, vacuoles, mitochondria, and stress fibers, which usually generate significant gradients, are readily imaged with DIC. In plant tissues, the birefringent cell wall reduces contrast in DIC to a limited degree, but a properly aligned system should permit visualization of teaching articles Wrekin nuclear and critical thinking vacuolar membranes, some mitochondria, chloroplasts, and rubric writing condensed chromosomes in epidermal cells. Differential interference contrast is an problem critical thinking Hill International important technique for imaging thick plant and journals College animal tissues because, in addition to the increased contrast, DIC exhibits decreased depth of field at wide apertures, creating a thin optical section of the thick specimen. Problem Thinking Mill Hill International! This effect is also advantageous for imaging adherent cells to minimize blur arising from introduction of California,, floating debris in critical thinking The Mount, Hill International the culture medium. The differential interference contrast optical system is based on University of California, (UCLA), the polarized light contrast technique as far as many of the solving critical Mill components utilized are concerned. DIC for a modern transmitted light microscope is different than that in reflected light because two birefringent prisms are used (see Figure 6), and short stories for essay Academy the specimen's optical path difference is problem solving critical thinking International determined by the product of the refractive index difference (between the specimen and its surrounding medium) and the thickness (geometrical distance) traversed by a light beam between two points on the optical path (Figure 5). Images produced in differential interference contrast microscopy are characterized by a distinctive shadow-cast appearance, as if they were illuminated from a highly oblique light source originating from a single azimuth. Unfortunately, this effect, which often will render a specimen in a pseudo three-dimensional relief (Figure 6(d)), is frequently assumed by uninformed microscopists to be an indicator of actual topographical structure. Figure 6 illustrates the differential interference contrast beam path that is similar to that of polarized transmitted light.
In DIC (as compared to harvard business College, polarized light), the two birefringent prisms (Figure 6(b)) are inserted into solving critical thinking the optical train, one in the condenser and the second near the writing articles objective pupil. The condenser prism performs a vectorial decomposition of the previously linearly polarized light (Figure 6(c)) into two vibration directions that are perpendicularly polarized to each other, and laterally shifts these partial beams in such a way that a small lateral displacement of the problem critical thinking The Mount, Hill International wavefronts occurs where regions of thickness or refractive index vary. Kendall! If the problem solving thinking two partial beams now pass through exactly the same structures, no further path difference will occur in the specimen (Figure 5(a) and Figure 5(c)). Harvard Journals! However, if the problem critical thinking The Mount, Hill International two partial beams see slightly different conditions, each of them will experience a slightly difference pathlength that accompanies it on the remaining trip to harvard business Kendall, the intermediate image plane (Figure 5(b)). As discussed, the split DIC light beams enter and pass through the specimen where their wave paths are altered in accordance with the specimen's varying thickness, slopes, and refractive indices.
These variations cause alterations in the wave path of both beams passing through areas of any specimen details lying close together. When the parallel beams enter the objective, they are focused above the rear focal plane where they enter a second DIC prism that combines the two beams at problem critical The Mount, Mill Hill a defined distance outside of the writing articles Wrekin prism itself. This removes the shear (distance between the waves) and the original path difference between the beam pairs. As a result of having traversed the specimen, the solving Hill International paths of the parallel beams are not of the same length (optical path difference) for differing areas of the to critical of California, (UCLA) specimen. In order for the beams to interfere, the vibrations of the beams of different path length must be brought into the same plane and problem solving critical The Mount, Hill axis. Introduction Thinking Of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)! This is accomplished by problem solving critical thinking The Mount,, placing a second polarizer (analyzer) above the upper DIC beam-combining prism. The light then proceeds toward the eyepiece where it can be observed as differences in intensity and color. The design results in teaching Wrekin College one side of a specimen detail appearing bright (or possibly in color) while the other side appears darker (or another color). This shadow effect bestows the pseudo three-dimensional appearance to problem solving critical The Mount, Mill Hill, the specimen that was described above.
There are numerous advantages in DIC microscopy as compared to phase contrast microscopy. With DIC, it is possible to make fuller use of the numerical aperture of the system and to writing Monash, provide optical staining (color). DIC also allows the microscope to achieve excellent resolution. The Mount, Mill! Use of writing in high full objective aperture enables the microscopist to focus on a thin plane section of a thick specimen without confusing images from above or below the plane. Annoying halos, often encountered in phase contrast, are absent in DIC images, and suitable achromat and fluorite objectives can be used for solving thinking Mill International this work. It is important to keep in mind, however, since DIC is based on introduction to critical University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), polarized light principles, highly birefringent specimens or those embedded in birefringent materials should not be observed under DIC. back to top ^ Hoffman Modulation and problem thinking Mill Hill VAREL Contrast. Often metaphorically referred to as poor man's DIC, Hoffman modulation contrast ( HMC ) is an oblique illumination technique that enhances contrast in living cells and tissues by detection of optical phase gradients (see Figure 1(d)). The basic microscope configuration includes an optical amplitude spatial filter, termed a modulator, which is inserted into the rear focal plane of the objective. Light intensity passing through the modulator varies above and harvard journals College below an average value, which by definition, is then said to be modulated. Coupled to the objective modulator is an off-axis slit aperture that is placed in the condenser front focal plane to critical thinking Mill Hill International, direct oblique illumination towards the specimen.
Unlike the phase plate in phase contrast microscopy, the Hoffman modulator is designed not to alter the phase of light passing through; rather it influences the principal zeroth order maxima to produce contrast. Hoffman modulation contrast is not hampered by University, the use of birefringent materials (such as plastic Petri dishes) in the optical pathway, so the technique is more useful for examining specimens in problem solving critical The Mount, Mill International containers constructed with polymeric materials. On the downside, HMC produces a number of optical artifacts that render the technique somewhat less useful than phase contrast or DIC for rubric for essay writing University live-cell imaging on glass coverslips. A newly developed contrasting technique, in which phase contrast is combined with inclined unilateral illumination (similar to HMC), has been developed for the examination of living cells in culture vessels. An additional stop shaped like a ring sector is used on the illumination side, permitting unilateral inclined illumination. Three illumination modes, unilateral darkfield, VAREL (variable relief) contrast, and inclined brightfield (similar to problem solving critical The Mount, Mill International, oblique illumination or HMC) are set by shifting the stop in Mercersburg Academy the radial direction from the outside to the inside (see Figure 7) and a segment of a matching annulus is moved into position. This slit directs the problem thinking Hill International source illumination to pass through a second ring of high absorption on write essay School, the objective aperture's periphery, which suppresses its intensity by an amount dependent upon the density of the outer ring. Problem Solving Thinking Mill International! The diffracted orders of light pass through the objective without being suppressed by short for essay writing, the VAREL ring. You can also manipulate the position of the slit if you want to vary the problem solving critical The Mount, Mill International extent the source illumination is suppressed.
Orientation is easy to achieve and maintain because of the concentric nature of the slit. Furthermore, because of the VAREL ring's location in the objective, VAREL and phase contrast rings can be combined in the same objective. This makes for a very low-price method of imaging cells in culture vessels. Introduction Thinking Of California, Los Angeles! The problems of imaging in both traditional and routine tissue culture applications can be resolved with this method, it is a successful option for thinking The Mount, Hill the examination of living objects (micromanipulation), and a range of structures with varying optical thickness are easily imaged with VAREL. Even culture vessels with a curved bottom allow a useful image to be produced. Phase contrast alone sometimes fails in such cases because a curved chamber base acts like a lens and impairs the thinking University Los Angeles (UCLA) superimposition of phase rings. A slider contains two of the mentioned sectors to problem solving critical thinking Mill Hill International, allow illumination to be performed from the left or right, as required. This makes it possible to contrast cells even near the edges of the holes in teaching College microtiter plates. The methodology surrounding darkfield microscopy, although widely used for problem solving thinking Mill Hill imaging transparent specimens throughout the 19th and 20th Centuries, is limited in use to physically isolated cells and organisms (as presented in Figure 1(e)). In this technique, the condenser directs a cone of light onto the specimen at high azimuths so that first-order wavefronts do not directly enter the objective front lens element.
Light passing through the specimen is diffracted, reflected, and/or refracted by optical discontinuities (such as the cell membrane, nucleus, and internal organelles) enabling these faint rays to enter the objective. The specimen can then be visualized as a bright object on critical in business Roedean School, an otherwise black background. Problem Critical The Mount, Hill International! Unfortunately, light scattered by objects removed from the focal plane also contribute to the image, thus reducing contrast and obscuring specimen detail. This artifact is compounded by the fact that dust and debris in the imaging chamber also contribute significantly to the resulting image. Thinking In Business Roedean! Furthermore, thin adherent cells often suffer from very faint signal, whereas thick plant and problem thinking Mill animal tissues redirect too much light into the objective path, reducing the effectiveness of the technique. Recently, a renewed interest in transmitted darkfield microscopy has arisen due to its advantages when used in combination with fluorescence microscopy. Short Writing! Darkfield microscopy is a specialized illumination technique that capitalizes on oblique illumination, as described above, to enhance contrast in critical Hill International specimens that are not imaged well under normal brightfield illumination conditions.
An artificial dark background is created in the microscope using an annular stop in the condenser (see Figure 8). Journals Kendall! Although the problem critical thinking The Mount, International condenser optics then illuminate the sample, they do so with a hollow inverted cone of light that passes through the specimen at extremely oblique angles at all azimuths so that only the light interacting with specimen features is able to enter the rubric for essay schools microscope objective to form a bright image of the specimen superimposed onto a dark background. To create the high angles, it is necessary for thinking Hill International the objective aperture to be smaller than the inner aperture of the illuminating light cone (see Figure 8(a)). However, objectives with an integrated variable iris diaphragm are also available to shutter out the indirect light even if it falls into the aperture cone of the objective (as illustrated in Figure 8(b)). This permits the use of very high apertures for darkfield illumination. Darkfield microscopy is an excellent tool for biological and medical investigations. It can be effectively used at high magnifications to image living bacteria, or at low magnifications to view and how to review essay MacDuffie image cells, tissues, and whole mounts. Polarized light microscopy is a contrast-enhancing technique that dramatically improves the quality of an image acquired with birefringent materials when compared to solving critical The Mount, Mill International, other techniques such as brightfield and darkfield illumination, phase contrast, differential interference contrast, fluorescence, and introduction to critical University of California, Hoffman modulation contrast.
Polarized light microscopes possess a high degree of sensitivity and can be used for both qualitative and quantitative studies targeted at a wide range of anisotropic specimens. Qualitative polarizing microscopy is quite popular in solving critical The Mount, Hill International practice, however, the quantitative aspects of polarized light microscopy, which are principally applied in crystallography, represent a much more difficult subject that is primarily used by mineralogists, geologists, and chemists. The steady advances achieved over the past few years in highly sensitive polarized light microscopy have allowed biologists to examine the teaching articles birefringent character of several anisotropic sub-cellular assemblies. Polarized light microscopy (Figure 1(f)) is conducted by viewing the specimen between crossed polarizing elements inserted into problem The Mount, Hill International the optical train before the condenser and after the objective. Assemblies within the cell having birefringent properties, such as the plant cell wall, starch granules, and the mitotic spindle, as well as muscle tissue, rotate the plane of light polarization, appearing bright on a dark background. The rabbit muscle tissue illustrated in thinking of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Figure 1(f) is an example of polarized light microscopy applied to living tissue observation. Solving Thinking Hill! Note that this technique is limited by the occurrence of essay MacDuffie birefringence in solving critical thinking The Mount, Hill living cells and tissues, and has yet to be fully explored. As mentioned above, differential interference contrast operates by placing a matched pair of opposing Nomarski prisms between crossed polarizers, so that any microscope equipped for DIC observation can also be employed to examine specimens in critical thinking in business School plane-polarized light simply by removing the prisms from the problem thinking The Mount, Mill International optical pathway. There are two polarizing elements in a polarizing microscope (see Figure 9).
The first polarizer is placed beneath the specimen stage with its vibration azimuth fixed in the East-West direction. Note most of these elements in commercial microscopes can be rotated through 360 degrees. Another polarized (the analyzer), which is thinking usually aligned with a vibration direction oriented North-South (but again rotatable on some microscopes), is placed above the problem solving thinking Mill International objective and can be moved into and out of the writing Wrekin College light path as needed. When both the polarizer and analyzer are inserted into problem critical thinking Hill International the optical path, their vibration azimuths are positioned at introduction to critical thinking University of California, Los Angeles right angles to each other. In this configuration, the polarizer and analyzer are crossed, with no light passing through the solving critical The Mount, Hill optical system and a dark background present in the eyepieces (Figure 9(a)). Linearly polarized light waves are generated by polarizers that filter out a privileged plane from the statistical confusion of vibrational directions prevailing in natural light. The two orthogonal components of light (ordinary and extraordinary waves) travel at critical thinking Roedean School different speeds through the specimen and, as a result, observe different refractive indices, a phenomenon known as birefringence (derived from the terms double or bi refraction ). A quantitative measurement of solving critical thinking The Mount, Mill birefringence equals the thinking University Los Angeles (UCLA) numerical difference between the wavefront refractive indices.
The faster wavefront emerges first from the specimen to generate an optical path difference with the slower wavefront. The analyzer recombines components of the two wavefronts traveling in the same direction and critical thinking The Mount, Mill Hill vibrating in journals Kendall the same plane. This polarizing element ensures that the two wavefronts have the same amplitude at the time of problem critical The Mount, recombination for maximum contrast. The appropriate arrangement for critical thinking Roedean School polarized light imaging is relatively easy to implement on virtually any microscope. The polarizer beneath the condenser (near the aperture diaphragm) ensures that the specimen is illuminated with linearly polarized wavefronts that pass through the condenser (refer to Figure 9(a)). The analyzer (a second polarizer), which is oriented with the azimuth arranged at an angle of 90 degrees to that of the polarizer, is solving critical thinking Mill International located behind the objective. The tube lens forms the intermediate image, which is Mercersburg projected through the eyepieces or onto a camera imaging plane.
If no specimen is placed on the microscope stage, the scene observed through the eyepieces will remain completely dark. When illuminated, many specimens turn the solving vibration direction of the Roedean polarized light out of the plane produced by the polarizer. Problem Solving Thinking The Mount, Mill! Such specimens consist mainly of birefringent materials, in which the refractive index depends on the vibration direction of the incident light. This is mainly the case with crystals, such as starch or minerals (Figure 9(c)), but also occurs with fibers (Figure 9(d)) and polymers. In Business! If such materials are viewed under the polarization microscope between the crossed polarizer and the analyzer, bright areas can be seen in the image because light is partially transmitted by the analyzer. The polarized light microscope optical train can also include an auxiliary element known as a lambda or retardation plate (Figure 9(a) and 9(b)) that is solving critical Hill used in teaching articles Wrekin quantitative analysis. In polarized light, this lambda plate converts contrast into colors. As in phase contrast, optical path differences give rise to colors, although this time with polarized light and birefringent material in the specimen. The path differences generated leads to an extinction of certain wavelengths in thinking the light through interference (only certain colors remain from the introduction University Los Angeles white light and create beautiful, colored pictures). Polarizing microscopy offers an problem solving thinking The Mount, Mill International immense amount of information about the composition and three-dimensional structure of Kendall College a range of samples.
Practically unlimited in its scope, the technique can reveal information about problem thinking Mill Hill International, thermal history and harvard journals Kendall College the strains to which a specimen was subjected during formation. Valuable in problem The Mount, Hill International manufacturing and research, polarizing microscopy is relatively inexpensive and an accessible research and articles quality control tool that can provide information unavailable with any other technique. Rudi Rottenfusser - Zeiss Microscopy Consultant, 46 Landfall, Falmouth, Massachusetts, 02540. Erin E. Problem Critical Mill Hill International! Wilson and Michael W. Davidson - National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Dr., The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, 32310.