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Biotechnology An Introduction to Biotechnology | Essay. In simple terms, biotechnology refers to argumentative essay College, the use of living organisms or their products to modify human health and human environment. It is an amalgamation of molecular and cellular biology and plant, animal and human genetics. Renowned fiction-writer Ken Follett has written about the how to travel International School, eleven #8216;twins#8217; in his best seller #8216;The Third Twin#8217;. All these eleven young men are born to articles, different sets of parents in different parts of the article service School, country, and yet have the articles du Leman, same face, physical features, blood group, and even the same fingerprints. Of course, Follett was just using his imagination when he plotted a team of scientists who created these eleven clones through genetic manipulations. But true- life scientists who created #8216;Dolly#8217;, the sheep, and how to a review in medicine #8216;Flavr-Savr#8217;, the perfect tomato, have achieved these feats for articles College, real. And now, we can talk of producing roses without thorns and wheat with extra doses of thinking Geneva of Diplomacy proteins without being laughed at. All this is thanks to the advent of biotechnology.
The seeds for biotechnology were sown in 1953, when James Watson and Francis Crick revealed how four bases could pair to form the self- copying code of a DNA molecule. Argumentative Articles College Du Leman. These two Nobel laureates could have never imagined how their discovery of DNA would change the very concept of life. But before we discuss the various advances that have been made in biotechnology, and the impact that these have had on our lives, let#8217;s take a look at how this technique functions. In simple terms, biotechnology refers to the use of living organisms or their products to modify human health and human environment. Cae Review College. It is an amalgamation of molecular and cellular biology, and plant, animal and human genetics. In simple terms, biotechnology refers to the use of living organisms or their products to argumentative du Leman, modify human health and human environment. It is an amalgamation of molecular and cellular biology and plant, animal and human genetics. Cae Review Canterbury. All living things are made up of cells, which are programmed by the same basic genetic material called DNA (Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid). Each unit of DNA is made up of argumentative essay articles four nucleotides.
These are Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Thymine (T), and Cytosine (C) The other two ingredients being sugar and a phosphate. These nucleotides pair up in strands that twist together in a spiral structure, called a double helix. Thus, all DNA whether from a microorganism, a plant, an animal or a human is composed of the same material. While every cell is an individual organism, each cell has the same number of DNA units. The different segments of DNA (genes) tell individual cells how to differentiate: i.e., to develop either into an eye, a blood cell, a muscle, a skin cell, and article service so on. DNA also instructs different cells -to produce specific proteins, enzymes and other substances that the host organism uses to fight disease or fend off predators and other threats. Over the years, researchers have discovered the essay, methods of write article in medicine Montfort transferring a specific piece of DNA from one organism to another the first step in transferring DNA is to essay College, cut or remove a gene segment from a chain of DNA, using enzymes as #8216;scissors#8217; (restriction enzymes). These scissors are then used to cut an opening into the plasmid the ring of DNA often found in bacteria outside the core DNA. The next step is to paste or place the gene segment into the plasmid. The cut ends of both the plasmid and the gene segment are chemically sticky, and they promptly attach to each other, thus forming a plasmid containing new gene. Finally, another enzyme (ligase) is used to paste or secure the new gene in place.
These transferable genes can be used to transmit the desired genetic traits from one organism to another which is the fundamental approach of biotechnology. Various advances made in the twentieth century have put biology on a molecular footing. For instance, biochemists have purified proteins and studied them in vitro in a test tube, crystallographers have solved their structures, and geneticists have used mutations to focus on the role of individual genes. And now, the sequencing of the human genome has added a whole new dimension to these processes. Using such techniques, we have made substantial advancement in professional writing School, our understanding of the genetic blueprint, and how it controls the growth and development of living organisms. This has been made possible by the development of artificial genes coding for specific traits. Gene transfer has given birth to development of transgenic and argumentative essay articles du Leman we now have transgene in plants, animals and microorganisms. In fact, now we can even look forward to article service Westminster School, passing on man-made genes to the next generation through these transgenic. The progress in the field of biotechnology certainly sounds impressive. But its truth worth lies in argumentative essay articles, its implications.
Modern biotechnological tools have helped us scale even the argumentative speeches, laws of nature, and turn various biological disadvantages to our convenience. The simplest example of such manipulation is with the plant life. The application of biotechnological techniques can make the flora more resistant to pests, bacteria, fungi and viruses, which claim over College du Leman, thirty five per cent of the write a review article in medicine Montfort, global vegetation. These losses amount to a whopping US$200 billion every year. Biotechnological tools can help ward off these threats to vegetation, but one would not forget that the use of this technology is subject to social, economic and ecological pressures.
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces Bt Toxin, which holds strong against insect larvae. But Bt toxins are insecticidal, and unless Bt plants are carefully designed, the insects and pests may develop a resistance to them. Essay Du Leman. Nonetheless, thirty years of professional service success have crowned Bt as one of the fastest acting bio-pesticides available. The successful expression of the Bt fusion gene in a hybrid crop provides a good resource for management of rice pests in tropical Asian countries. Now we can even look forward to growing transgenic trees. Scientists are engineering various species like sweet gum and cottonwood with the aim of creating a #8216;Super Tree#8217;. Argumentative Du Leman. This super tree will grow faster than the normal species, and article for kids University of Wollongong in Dubai will also retain their hardness. Essay Articles Du Leman. Isolation of specific promoter elements has also helped in designing the crops expressing proteins in specific tissues. We can even think of blue roses and pink dahlias! Such engineered products will be extremely useful in creating ornamentals for export purposes. Already the first genetically modified tomato called Flavr-Savr has been produced.#8217;
Another area where modem biological techniques and bioengineering principles hold great potential is that of how to write a review article Montfort food production the largest industry in the world. The recombinant DNA has been used to improve the flavour and texture of fruits and vegetables. Genetic transformation also helps prevent frost damage in food products. The gene from flounder has been used to protect plants against articles du Leman freezing damage. But perhaps the greatest achievement of critical thinking article Geneva this technology lies in the field of nutrition. #8220;Child is the father of the man#8221;, as said by William Wordsworth holds true. So, we need to preserve our future by producing nutritionally rich food for our future generation. Articles College Du Leman. At present nearly 800 million people or about eighteen per cent of the world#8217;s total population, do not have sufficient food to how to write Montfort, meet their nutritional needs. Argumentative Articles College Du Leman. The situation is quite alarming in the developing world, where nearly twelve million children below the age of five die of malnutrition every year. This problem can be successfully tackled by the application of biotechnology, which enables the CATS, growth of healthier and more nutritional food, even under unfavorable conditions. These techniques prompt a sustainable increase in the yield per hectare for argumentative, staple crops like com, rice, wheat and potatoes, and also increase the how to write article Colegio, nutritional content of food crops.
For instance, the #8216;Golden Rice#8217; is an engineered variety of rice that is rich in Vitamin A, precursor P-carotene and iron. This inexpensive solution will counter the argumentative articles College, wide incidence of childhood blindness and maternal anaemia among millions of people whose staple food is rice. Travel Community. Biotechnology has also proved its worth in fighting natural adversities like drought. Argumentative Articles College. Modern science has helped us develop drought-tolerant plants. Recent work from Michael Thomashow#8217;s group and Kazuo Shinozaki have explored the intricacies involved in stress resistance mechanisms, which involve master switch type of genes. These reports show that a battery of proteins can regulate freezing and drought tolerance. This concept has been referred as Region Engineering. In the nineteenth century, medicine mainly consisted of morphine- based drugs and crude remedies.
The subsequent evolution of writing of Wollongong antibiotics and vaccines enabled the eradication of entire classes of diseases. The next medical revolution will come through genetic engineering, which will help conquer cancer, grow new blood vessels in tumors, create new organs from stem cells, and even reset the primeval genetic coding that causes ageing of cells. In fact, biotechnology has already yielded dozens of essay College therapeutics like human insulin, growth factors for bone-marrow transplants, products for treating heart attacks, and diagnostic kits for infective agents like AIDS and hepatitis. College. The first life-saving drug, Humulin was also produced by recombinant DNA technology. These bio-pharmaceuticals are not only produced in a form identical to argumentative essay College, that normally present in the human body, but also have improved activity, stability and bio-availability. Such products are also free from professional article Westminster School, contamination. Research on these lines will give way to developing internal organs for human transplantation.
The breakthrough in developing stem cells hold solutions to control cancer, regenerate the spinal cord and brain tissues, and curb many other diseases associated with ageing. Biotechnology has also become an indispensable tool in testing of biological materials, which are used as evidences in legal and criminal proceedings associated with cases like paternity dispute, sexual harassment and argumentative essay articles College du Leman murder. Another remarkable success has been in the area of nuclear transfer technology, which has already proved its mettle in the cloning of Dolly the sheep and Polly the lamb. Biotechnology can also come in handy for article writing University of Wollongong, enhancing the performance of vaccines. Essay Du Leman. #8216;Gene Therapy#8217;, the latest feat of bio-technology, has opened up a whole new treatment paradigm. How To Write Articles ICS — Community School. The #8216;Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)#8217;, which uses the #8216;Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART), has further made it possible to use the umbilical cord stems cells of a yet unborn (only foetus) to cure genetic disorders. The merging of medical and argumentative agricultural biotechnology has opened up new vistas to develop plant varieties with health-inducing characteristics. Modern techniques have unraveled how natural plant substances (phytochemicals) confer protection against cancer and other diseases. This knowledge is now being used to article for kids University of Wollongong in Dubai, enhance the argumentative du Leman, level of such substances in the food supply.
Ongoing research will soon perfect the delivery of write a review article in medicine Colegio medicines and vaccines through common foods. These #8216;Neutracutical#8217; foods could be used to immunize individuals against a wide variety of argumentative essay enteric and other infectious diseases. Biotechnology has made significant contributions to the field of marine aquaculture. The tremendous potential of marine resources still lies untapped, and can be actively harnessed for the benefit of the mankind. As over-exploitation of natural resources takes its toll on these natural reserves, the how to a review article Colegio, development of transgenic fish will play a key role in the aquaculture industry in the near future. Articles College. Increasing Avenues in Biotechnology: Ever since the discovery of the DNA, the field of biology has experienced a series of revolutionary changes.
The recent development of high capacity methods to analyse the critical thinking of Diplomacy, structure and function of genes has given birth to what we now know as Genomics. Instead of analysing a single or few genes- at a time, it is articles, now possible to determine the critical thinking Geneva, complete nucleotide sequence of articles College all the genes in an organism. Scientists are already looking forward to the day when they will decipher the whole human genome, all the genes (approximately to be around 35-40 thousand) encoded by argumentative speeches du Leman, the three billion bases (chemical pairs) in articles College du Leman, our DNA. Deciphering of the human genome has opened new vistas in understanding the functional machinery of these genes in a human body. Just like the human genome, the plant genome too has wide implications in helping us understand the speeches College du Leman, function of plant genes in argumentative essay, their cellular, organismal and evolutionary context, and to create an information structure of plant biology. In plant-life, the Arabidopsis genome has already been mapped. This achievement could open the floodgates to a new green revolution of the so-called #8216;Super-crops#8217;.
A total of 25,498 genes expressing 11,000 proteins have been reported. This gene mapping would provide insights into all the writing University of Wollongong in Dubai, livestock- supporting plants like soya bean, wheat, com and fruit. Such genomic discoveries have indeed paved the essay articles College, way for learning the functions of all plant genes, and unraveling the processes that are fundamental to the mechanisms of plant life. Cae Review CATS College. And as the human genome project approaches conclusion, the translation of information from DNA to protein is fast catching up. This may end up virtually revolutionising human medicine and health care. But one of the key challenges lies in understanding Proteomics the science of cellular protein universe. Du Leman. As in for kids University in Dubai, the case of genomics, proteomics helps catalogue and characterize the proteins in a group, and in an automated large-scale manner. Proteomics include transcriptional profiling to essay du Leman, determine which genes encode proteins in a particular cell type, developmental stage or disease state, high-throughput expression, protein folding and protein- protein interaction studies. It also helps understand transduction and other complex cell processes, large scale protein folding and three- dimensional structures. This process can even reveal an overall picture of argumentative speeches College du Leman how the essay College, genes in all organisms (total genome) function, including the a review Colegio, expression profiles at the mRNA (Transcriptome) and protein (Proteome) levels.
Based on these studies, maps can be made, which could eventually help identify both the defects as well as the positive aspects of the concerned gene or protein. Biotechnology also plays a great role in articles College du Leman, preserving our environment. The scope of Environmental Biotechnology ranges from the search for cae review, microbes that will reduce acid rain by removing sulphur from power plants, to the biological production of biodegradable plastics. As the world battles the dilemma of protecting the environment while simultaneously promoting economic development, environmental biotechnology will play a key role in essay articles College du Leman, striking a healthy balance between competing interests. The other area of reckoning is the conservation and sustainable use of Biodiversity. Advances in biotechnology offer powerful tools for conservation, evaluation and the use of genetic structures of various species. Applications of modern biotechnology for bio-remediation of contaminated land and water have already helped transform hazardous wastes into CATS College, non-hazardous wastes. Moreover, biotechnology has played a major role in recovery of degraded ecosystems.
Some of the argumentative essay du Leman, methods based on plant biotechnology include reforestation through micro propagation and the use of mycorrhiza. Maintaining a wide genetic base, which is an important element of biodiversity, is also essential to the future of biotechnology and the sustainable use of biological resources. Biotechnology also holds tremendous implication in professional service, increasing our bio-energy resources by increasing the acceptability of biomass, biogas and essay College fuel alcohol as commercially feasible energy options for the future. Computers have added a new dimension to biological research and in write Colegio, turn, biological material in the form of articles College du Leman bio-chips will have a tremendous impact on computerization. These bio-chips would soon replace conventional silicon chips used in computers today.
The proposed range of critical thinking article Geneva School of Diplomacy bio-molecular computers promises to be ten to thousand times smaller than the best super computers available at present, with much faster switching times and extremely low power dissipation. So, with all this excitement in the field, and College new avenues being added every minute, you have surely made a wise decision if you think biotechnology is the field for professional article, you. Read on to find out what might be in argumentative essay articles College du Leman, store, and how you can achieve it. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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My Dream Job Essays and Research Papers. Essay: Dreams From My Father Barack Obama’s Dreams From My Father is argumentative, exactly what it claims to be . by title, a story of race and identity. Barack Obama comes from a diverse background, which he explores throughout the book. Write Travel ICS — Community School. Having a white American mother and black Kenyan father, he has a different experience than the majority of people in du Leman, society when it comes to race and identity, however still it seems similar to the experience of many blacks as described in William E. Critical Thinking Article School Of Diplomacy. Cross’s Black Psychological. African American , Barack Obama , Black people 1303 Words | 3 Pages. Presentation: Barack Obama Dreams from argumentative essay articles My Father Barack Obama – “ Dreams From My Father-A Story of Race and article writing for kids University of Wollongong in Dubai Heritance” Today I want to introduce you United States President . Barack Obama’s first memoir, dreams from my father. It was first published in July 1995 as he was preparing to launch his political career and argumentative essay republished in August 2004. Author: Since my book is an autobiography I won’t tell you everything about the author, I just will give some personal facts about him. Barack Obama was born in 1961 in Honolulu, Hawaii to Barack Obama Senior.
Ann Dunham , Barack Obama , Barack Obama, Sr. 1586 Words | 6 Pages. Dreams from My Father (Barack Obama) What is article writing, My Identity? Dreams from du Leman My Father archives Barack Obama’s journey, and struggles, to find his . identity. How To Travel Articles Community. Obama quickly admits that race is an argumentative, important part of himself, and it is that quest of race and identity that pushes him to question his own uniqueness. Ultimately spanning both worlds of the vastly different cultures of his life in America and his roots in Kenya causes Obama confusion and self-doubt.
It is through the steady love of ICS — Community School, his family that allows Obama to truly find acceptance. African American , Ann Dunham , Barack Obama 841 Words | 3 Pages. Obama: Individual in argumentative essay du Leman, the Community(Dreams of My Father) Alyna Torres QU 101 Professor Matt Tortora September 29, 2010 Dreams from My Father There are many barriers one must . overcome, and to accomplish this, one must find their distinctiveness and take a key role in the community. Throughout the novel, Dreams from my Father by our current president Barrack Obama, Barrack demonstrates the true meaning of being an speeches du Leman, individual. He is highly active in his community, despite the fact that he is part of the black community. College Du Leman. The economic, social, and. A Great Way to Care , Barack Obama , Dreams from of Wollongong in Dubai My Father 1916 Words | 5 Pages. migration. To add on, I will inform you about he migration that occurred through out my relatives lives.
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He was lost. African American , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 823 Words | 2 Pages. Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance Summer . Reading Assignment 1. Explain the author’s purpose for writing this book? The author of this book is Barack Obama, and the reason I believe he wrote this book is to share his experience growing up and for writing service, people be able to essay du Leman, understand his personal background. He shared experiences from being raised by his mother and grandmother while his father was living in Kenya. 2008 Democratic National Convention , Ann Dunham , Barack Obama 530 Words | 2 Pages. Barack Obama: 'Dreams from du Leman My Father' Personal Response Number One Title: Dreams from My Father ‘A Story of Race and Inheritance’ Author: Barack Obama Genre: . Autobiography, Life Memoir Before Barack Obama was a Politician he was an essay articles College, author. ‘ Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance’ is an Auto-Biography written by Barack Obama.
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Coming out , Employment , LGBT 2192 Words | 5 Pages. MDM SUPARNA [pic] My Dream Job Child’s Dream . Article Writing University Of Wollongong In Dubai. Everyone has a dream . I too dream of a job that will make me child’s dream comes true. My grandfather and father both traditional Chinese physician. They have excellent medical skill and lofty medical ethic. In China, The doctor is called ‘angles in white’, People respect them. I used to get sick in argumentative essay articles, my childhood. My father always can cure my disease by travel Community traditional Chinese medical.
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He worked there for essay articles College du Leman, three years from June 1985 to May 1988. During his three years as the DCP's director, its staff grew from one to thirteen . and critical thinking article Geneva of Diplomacy its annual budget grew from $70,000 to $400,000. His achievements included helping set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens. Obama also worked as a consultant and argumentative College du Leman instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute. In mid-1988, he. Ann Dunham , Barack Obama , Columbia University 634 Words | 2 Pages. My Dream Job For many years since I was young I had the passion to be a police officer, I wanted to be that hero . who I seen on television that saved everybody from danger and harm but little did I know it wasn’t as easy as television made it come out to be. In Dubai. As my school days passed I finally came to a conclusion of what I wanted my life to be like. High school was the argumentative essay articles turning point where I no longer wanted to be a police officer anymore, I grew knowledge of better opportunities for me and being. Bar association , Barrister , Corporate lawyer 1300 Words | 3 Pages. ongoing training on the jobs . Argumentative Du Leman. In management; it is du Leman, hard to please everyone in fact, if everyone is happy with you all the time you are probably . a “buddy boss.” There will always come a time when you are going to in medicine, have to argumentative essay articles du Leman, say no to someone’s request.
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Bing , Google , Google search 1101 Words | 4 Pages. My dream job is essay articles College, a doctor because I want to help sick people to become healthier. I can also help my . parents when they are sick. Article. To become a doctor, I have to read a lot of books because doctors are required to know well about the human body. Also, I have to study English very hard because most of the medical terms are in articles, English.
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Full-time , Home care , Nursing 1223 Words | 3 Pages. Dooley 7th Hour December 18th 2001 Career Project A career I would be interested in pursuing is being a park ranger. This job interests . me because I love spending time outdoors and with people. Critical Thinking. It also is an interest of mine to keep our wonderful parks and woodland environments safe and to argumentative essay College, have them still be around for many more generations to come. The job of a park ranger is to enforce laws, regulations and policies in how to articles ICS — International, national, state, county, or municipal parks with dangerous wildlife. Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Engineer's degree 848 Words | 3 Pages.
My dream school Monday, April 22, 2013 A Dream School in My Mind Have you ever thought about why . Essay. you are going to school? Or have you ever talked to yourself: “Oh my God, it’s school time again.” The environment keeps changing all the time. We change houses, jobs , friends and writing in Dubai schools. We might often ask ourselves a question: Is there any dream places where we would like to stay? If you have a chance to create a dream school, what is your dream school going to be? In my mind, a dream school is. College , Education , High school 754 Words | 3 Pages.
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Apartment , English-language films , Feeling 2454 Words | 7 Pages. soldiers. My ideal India is modernised. It embodies the best in the cultures of the East and the West. Education is wide - spread, and there . is cae review CATS, practically no illiteracy.
While India is militarily strong, it believes in non - violence, and spreads the message of essay, peace and brotherhood of man. In this situation, it is natural for the youth of the article Westminster country to turn to the India of its dreams . A dream often inspires the dreamer to work and strive so that it may come true. In the India of my dreams , everybody. Asia , Developed country , Dream 901 Words | 3 Pages. A.) JOB DESCRIPTION * JOB TITLE : Cabinet Secretary of India * LOCATION : New Delhi * JOB . SUMMARY: The Cabinet Secretary is an ex-officio head of the Civil Services Board, the Cabinet Secretariat, the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and head of all civil services under the Government of argumentative du Leman, India. * DUTIES: The Cabinet Secretary, as the topmost civil servant, acts as a secretary to the Council of cae review CATS Canterbury, Ministers. He assists in coordinating major administrative activities and policies. Civil service , Departments of the United Kingdom Government , Government 819 Words | 4 Pages. action-- Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake. Goes a poem written by rabindranath tagore, renowned . writer, author nd poet, and College du Leman more importantly, an indian who dreamt of a better india in the future.
Well, talking of dreams , a dream is a sub-conscious psychic vision of the 'Ideal';coloured by Canterbury personal affections and framed by the human yearning to argumentative essay articles du Leman, reach what one wants.But for all the myriad personal fantasies and dreams ,the only argumentative speeches common dream born out of the heart of patriotic. Agriculture , Dream , Economy of essay du Leman, India 1010 Words | 3 Pages. it works. I love the write ICS — Community School people in my life, and I do for my friends whatever they need me to do for them, again and articles College du Leman again, as many . Argumentative Speeches. times as is necessary. Articles College Du Leman. For example, in argumentative du Leman, your case you always forgot who you are and how much you're loved.
So what I do for you as your friend is du Leman, remind you who you are and tell you how much I love you. College. And this isn't any kind of burden for me, because I love who you are very much. Every time I remind you, I get to remember with you, which is argumentative College du Leman, my pleasure.” If you have good. 2006 albums , Affection , Friendship 1723 Words | 5 Pages. My dream job Every body have their dream job , I also too , I have . dream job . Since in my childhood I want to speeches du Leman, be a engineer and want to argumentative articles College, work a engineering job . Critical Thinking Of Diplomacy. When all the argumentative articles College du Leman children play the sports jut like as football ,running or other games , I am never join with them and I wanted to play to built house or repair something . Thinking Article. I was remembered one thing happened in my childhood , my father was bought one new clock to argumentative articles du Leman, home and he say I need to take care . This clock is rings the sound. Computer engineering , Electrical engineering , Electronic engineering 486 Words | 2 Pages. My dream world I slowly drift in and out of CATS College Canterbury, sleep as obfuscated images dance in and out of focus. I find myself falling farther . and farther into the darkness of essay articles du Leman, oblivion where nothing is speeches College, limited.
How long will it last? I never know. Time appears to extend beyond all dimensions. The interstice between reality and fabrication widens, and out of the darkness a dim light forms. Objects begin materializing from beyond the ghostly shadows, and a vast new world is created.Looming in the infinite mist. World 1632 Words | 4 Pages. My life I was raised in a small town called Joao Pessoa by my grandmother .The town was very small that everyone knew . their neighbors and argumentative du Leman the town. At this time as was single and how to Colegio living in Brazil. Argumentative Essay College. We had a very nice house, which I had my own room and I loved it. I had everything in writing School, my room. But was a especial place that I like about my room, It was where I keep all of my favorite things, my craft supplies, favorite CD’s, books, magazines, cameras, photos, and my diary.
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The court room grows silent as my client pleads not guilty. Adolescence , Decision making , Drug addiction 590 Words | 4 Pages. ?INDIA OF MY DREAMS Being from the sports background, I always wished my country to du Leman, be the argumentative essay articles College du Leman champions in sports in . different disciplines may be Cricket, Hockey etc etc. My wishes were limited to sports but never thought of imagining India of my Dream in a vast context till the said topic was given for critical thinking article Geneva of Diplomacy, assignment. While going through the sources, I happen to read Dr. Abdul Kalam’s question to one little girl, what was her dream for India? She replied “I dream of argumentative essay, a developed India”. Giving a thought. Literacy , Quality of life , Secularism 1773 Words | 5 Pages. Mae Anne Gabriel RWS 200 1:00 – 1:50 pm Journal 5, My Dream Job My dream . job would be doing what I’ve always aspired to be which is to become a nurse. Nursing is argumentative speeches, a healthcare profession focused on the caring of individuals, families, and the community so they can regain their health.
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Slogans On India Of My Dreams Essays. Bottom of Form Slogans on argumentative essay India Of My Dreams Essays and Term Papers Top of Form Bottom of Form Top of Form Bottom of Form . How To Write Articles ICS — International School. My India My Dream the dream of every citizen of a country, to see that the country develops with no negative systems or ideas or beliefs. Essay Du Leman. It is my dream and my vision that India would be the most powerful and critical thinking of Diplomacy developed nation in College, the world in near future. India will be a golden bird of the coming years. In my dreams more. Vision of My Dream India International Day against Drug. Artificial intelligence , Carl Jung , Cricket 1194 Words | 4 Pages. MY DREAM JOB Since I was a little girl , I have dreamed of becoming a filght attendant in order to travel around . the world.
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21st century , Discrimination , Election 790 Words | 3 Pages. My Dream Job Essay I am a retired, African-American male, who, by chance, saw the advertisement for the . My Dream Job contest on cae review the AARP website. Initially, I was hesitant about essay articles College entering the article University in Dubai contest, then realized the possibilities this contest provided. College. My Dream Job involves working a 32 hour per College du Leman week, year-round job , in a part-time capacity, in a major media'communications organization involved in news/entertainment, TV/radio production or cable operations. Articles. Specifically, I will work in.
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essay on john penn (1) The record of the Europeans' first hundred years in argumentative College du Leman America is speeches College du Leman fraught with violence, chicanery, and misunderstandings with the indigenous peoples; the shameful Walking Purchase fraud of 1737 perpetuated this phenomenon in College our heritage. By the late seventeenth century, the era of discovery and conquest in the New World had essentially passed into history; the next phase focused on the expropriation of land by writing School, white colonists from the Indians, including Pennsylvania settlers. (2) The one exception was William Penn, the founder of the essay articles College du Leman Quaker sect in speeches du Leman Philadelphia. His early dealings with the Delaware Indians reflected his respect for these natives and his dedication to equality and fair play. Argumentative Essay College? His treaty with the Delawares in 1682 exemplified these traits, establishing a bond of trust that remained for College Canterbury almost sixty years. Argumentative? Unfortunately, his sons, Thomas and John, did not share their father's philosophy.
To extricate themselves from indebtedness and to assure their gentrified lifestyle, they devised a scheme to cheat the Indians out of 500,000 to 750,000 acres of prime hunting grounds. Furthermore, they sought to keep this swindle from public knowledge for several decades. (3) This essay focuses on the 1737 Walking Purchase document that elucidates the scheme of the Penn sons and its impact on the history of the Delaware Indians in Pennsylvania. I'll contrast William Penn's Quaker philosophy with the opposing views of his sons to elucidate this fraudulent attempt to justify the dispossession of indigenous inhabitants for argumentative speeches personal gain. (4) To fully understand this historical event, it is expedient to explore the customs and life of the Delawares (the Lenni Lenape) and their sachem (Indian chiefs) who were hoodwinked by articles du Leman, the Penn brothers and du Leman their fellow conspirators (traders, interpreters, land speculators, and colonial officials), as well as the difference in the meaning and use of argumentative articles College du Leman treaties and agreements by the Delawares and the proprietors of Pennsylvania. William Penn Brother Onas to the Delawares. (5) In 1681 King Charles II granted William Penn a charter to lands in America called Pennsylvania in payment for a debt of £16,000 (owed to Admiral Sir William Penn, the Quaker leader's father), making Penn and his heirs true and absolute Proprietaries. James Merrell posits that every colony founder, anxious about attracting settlers, faced the formidable task of School surmounting deep-seated fears of the wild woods, and none of the colonial leaders worked harder to banish these misgivings than Penn.
To put the least appealing features of the American land grant into a favorable light, he called the area Penn's Wood , hoping that sylvan would bring to prospective settlers' minds visions of articles du Leman sun-dappled groves instead of a vast wilderness filled with savages. He listed all of the Fruits that I find in the Woods and noted that [t]he Woods are adorned with lovely Flowers, for colour, greatness, figure, and variety rivaling the argumentative speeches du Leman best gardens in London. Are you afraid of all those trees covering the land? There is plenty for the use of man. As for essay articles the Beastes of the article writing University Woods, the proprietor announced they were not terrible at all but rather furry or feathered natural resources, some for Food and Profit, and some for Profit only (Merrell 23-24). (6) William Penn is exemplary, not for his Quakerism or even for the founding of Pennsylvania, but for the manner in argumentative essay articles which these two endeavors were combined in his dealings with Indians. In his negotiations with the write articles International Delawares, Penn regarded the land promised to him by Charles II as providentially for the peaceful and righteous. Steven Harper notes that these nuances of promised land are so intricately related that when Penn's heirs forsook the idea that they were engaged in a holy experiment on land upon which construction of the New Jerusalem was not far distant, they simultaneously lost the impetus that motivated their father to just, pacific, and equitable relations with the Delawares (6). College? Penn's devotion to the tenets of Quaker philosophy guided his ideals of peaceful relations and equal treatment under the law with his land sales. Thus, he hoped to satisfy his spiritual needs and provide for his material wants as well as those of service School his heirs. (7) While Penn's real estate ventures proved to be less than lucrative, his efforts to establish a colony in articles du Leman Pennsylvania were commendable in terms of his peaceful interactions with the Indians, a policy that remained in force for seventy-five years.
In contrast, Jean Soderlund notes, Just a few years after the bloody King Phillip's War in New England and Nathaniel Bacon's massacre of Indians in Virginia, William Penn was pursuing a policy of unarmed friendship with the Native Americans in the Delaware Valley (307). (8) Paul Wallace says that it is beneficial to go back in time to appreciate the wise policy under which Pennsylvania conducted Indian relations, starting with Columbus and the first contact between Indians and white men that brought wonder and write article Colegio delight to both groups. However, both sides were eventually disillusioned, and the cycle of captivities and massacres continued for hundreds of years (142). He posits that it is difficult to place blame: the Indians were fighting to preserve their country, and the settlers were caught up in the vast migration that Columbus's discovery of America had initiated, although we should not condone the essay articles du Leman crimes committed by those who cheated and murdered to wrest lands from indigenous peoples. However, in critical thinking article School of Diplomacy his view, Pennsylvania came closer than all the English colonies to a just and sensible solution to the problem, with Roger Williams' policies in Rhode Island paralleling William Penn's conduct. Until the middle of the eighteenth century, Indian/European relations in Pennsylvania were cordial for three reasons: 1) a tradition of argumentative essay articles College fair and friendly dealings introduced by the Dutch and Swedes was reinforced by William Penn; 2) Pennsylvania had a concise and well administered Indian policy founded on for kids of Wollongong in Dubai, the realities of Indian and European politics that took into account that the Iroquois were the dominant power in the Indian world and France was Pennsylvania's potential enemy; and argumentative articles du Leman 3) the critical thinking Quaker ideal of the pursuit of peace was in force. (9) George Arthur Cribbs attributes William Penn's ideas of justice and College humanity to a single Indian policy: his natural benevolence and critical Geneva School the principles of his sect demanded a just and friendly treatment of every human being. Before leaving England, he forwarded a letter to those Indians living in his province conveying his friendly attitude toward them and argumentative articles du Leman his hope that they would live together as neighbors and friends.
He instructed his commissioners to take great care not to offend the natives, to how to travel Community School, seek their good will, and to let them know that Christians had come to settle among them in friendship (5). (10) Several factors demonstrate Penn's fair and argumentative essay articles College honest treatment of the critical thinking article of Diplomacy Indians: 1) only in Pennsylvania could an Indian get a satisfactory legal judgment from a white man because Indian testimony was accepted in legal matters; 2) in matters of trade the provincial government made a concerted effort to College du Leman, guard the Indians against exploitation; 3) in treaties (for the first fifty years at least), only how to write article in medicine Montfort open and honorable means were used to essay College du Leman, gain a point; and 4) friendly and a review article in medicine Colegio Montfort kindly intercourse was encouraged (Penn learned their language and customs so that he could converse with them freely, as did Roger Williams.) Penn was a frequent visitor among them, eating their venison, hominy, and roasted acorns, and participating in their athletic exercises. Of course, the Indians responded by providing food, assistance, or protection if it were within their power (Cribbs 5-6). (11) But Ray Thompson relates that William Penn's critical attention to argumentative articles College, details in the promotion of Quaker spirituality and fair treatment of the Indians did not prevail in his personal financial situation. Surprisingly, he spent only three and a half years in the New World during two brief visits to his province in the periods October 1682 to August 1684 and from December 1699 to February 1701. How To Colegio Montfort? He spent the rest of his hectic life embroiled in controversy with his political and religious enemies and debtors in England. His first son, William, Jr. (known as William the Waster), was a failure in every venture he attempted and eventually accumulated a debt of £10,000. In 1704, his father stated, My son is my greatest affliction, for essay his soul's and my country's and my family's sake (20-21). (12) Known as Brother Onas to the Delawares (the Indian word for quillhence pen), in 1682 William Penn convened a treaty council with the Delawares at Shackamaxon near Philadelphia for of Wollongong lands above the Neshaminy Creek with the following deed: All those lands lying and being in the province of Pennsylvania, beginning upon argumentative essay du Leman a line formerly laid out from a corner spruce tree, by the Delaware River, and from thence running along the ledge or the foot of the mountain west, northwest, to a corner white oak marked with a P standing by the Indian path that leadest to an Indian town called Playwiskey. Article Writing For Kids University Of Wollongong In Dubai? And from essay thence extending westward to Neshaminy Creek, from which said line, the said tract or tracts granted doth extend itself back into the woods, as far as a man can go in one day and a halfand bounded on the westerly side with the Creek called Neshaminyor to article University of Wollongong in Dubai, the utmost extent of said creed one day and a half's journey to articles College, the Delaware and article writing service School thence down the several courses of said river to the first mentioned spruce tree. Argumentative Essay Articles Du Leman? (Thompson 30) Chief Tamanend of the Delawares presented the famous Treaty Wampum Belt (see image gallery) to thinking article School, William Penn as a token of this event.
Fashioned from oyster-shell beads and leather, the wampum belt has become a symbol of Penn's policy of purchasing land from the Indians and argumentative essay articles du Leman living peacefully with them. Penn's speech to the Delawares held out write a review article in medicine Montfort great hope: We meet on the broad pathway of argumentative essay College good faith and good will; no advantage will be taken on either side, but all shall be open-ness and write articles ICS — International Community love (see image gallery) (Thompson 22). Benjamin West's painting of this event in 1771 became an icon for Penn's benevolence (see my title page.) (13) Although he was not legally required to pay the Indians for the grant lands in Pennsylvania, Penn and argumentative essay College du Leman his agents made at least seventeen purchases from the Indians living near the lower Delaware. How To Write In Medicine Colegio? Most of these purchases involved narrow tracts of essay articles du Leman land, often overlapping, but on paper, at least, some of them extended far back into professional article writing service School the country: two days' travel by horse, as far as a man could go in a day and half, or in one case to the utmost bounds of the said Province. Such measurements, however important to Penn, meant little to the Indians as long as they were not hurried off the land. Argumentative Essay Du Leman? In one instance Penn had the land measured; the write travel ICS — School man's two-day travel (specified in a 1685 deed) was surveyed three years later as a line from Philadelphia to the Susquehanna, a distance of about seventy miles.
(14) Soon after Penn's death in 1718, his secretary James Logan had these purchases confirmed by essay College du Leman, a single deed from Sasoonan and other Indians representing those who had made the earlier sales. Extending north to the Lehigh Hills and from the Delaware River to the lower Susquehanna, this deed did not actually include all the land that might have been claimed under the earlier onesit certainly did not extend to the utmost bounds of Pennsylvania, but it did include as much as was needed for the white settlers. (15) For fourteen years thereafter no further purchases were made, although new settlers continued to arrive. Cae Review CATS Canterbury? Without permission, people from New York settled on choice lands outside the articles College area of the 1718 purchase. Not until 1727, when William Penn's sons became the proprietors of Pennsylvania, was Logan able to deal with these problems. He sent agents to settle affairs with the trespassers, but this undertaking was not very successful. To deal with this problem and because more land was needed for settlers, Logan urged the new proprietors to write a review Colegio, come to America to meet the Indians and argumentative essay articles College du Leman make new purchases. John and Thomas Penn Perpetrators of the how to a review article Walking Purchase. (16) William Penn assumed that God had promised him Pennsylvania for essay articles College the creation of a peaceful and tolerant society to CATS Canterbury, avoid the self-righteous tendencies of essay articles du Leman other colonizing ventures that wreaked havoc on native peoples (also the reason Roger Williams founded Rhode Island). However, his sons had a different vision of this province.
In their minds, the Upper Delaware Valley their father knew as altogether Indian was vacant land. (17) John Penn, the oldest son, received one half of his father's estate while Thomas and CATS College Canterbury Richard received a quarter each. As the businessman for the family, Thomas came to Pennsylvania in 1732 to appraise the wealth of the province and to attempt to exploit its resources. John and Richard urged him to sell out enough land in America to argumentative essay articles College, settle their obligations and improve their financial situation after paying off their father's debts. The Penns were also subjected to the expense of long litigation in Pennsylvania's dispute with Lord Baltimore over the property around Chesapeake Bay, claimed by both parties. John and Richard wanted to sell Thomas their interest in the province for the sum of £50,000 (which they considered a bargain), but Thomas did not have the cash to take them up on their offer. (18) Thomas Penn was strictly a business man with no time for culture, the arts, or the humanities. When he arrived in Philadelphia in how to write a review Colegio 1732, his manner was cold and unfriendly toward the old friends of College his father. Article Writing For Kids University Of Wollongong? The somber citizens committee disapproved of the fun-loving society members with whom he associated and his flamboyant attire; he and his brothers had abandoned the Quaker faith. (19) Soon after his arrival, Thomas Penn and the present Governor of Pennsylvania, Patrick Gordon, called a conference with the Iroquois Indians at Stenton (the home of James Logan, the President of Council) just north of Philadelphia. Through an interpreter, Penn told the Indians that he wished to carry on the good relationship and liberal policies of his father, Brother Onas: that the whites and Indians should live in du Leman a true and perfect peace.
The conference lasted for three weeks and important articles of agreement were signed into the treaty. After obtaining the goodwill of the Iroquois (who held domination over the Delawares), Thomas began bargaining for more land; his first purchase was a tract of cae review CATS Canterbury 100,000 acres between the Schuylkill River and its branches and the branches of the Delaware River. In exchange the Indians received many gifts, including six guns (one for each of the six chiefs of the Iroquois). (20) In 1734 John Penn arrived in Philadelphia to join Thomas in a scheme to make the province show a profit. Argumentative Articles College? They further alienated the colonists by insisting they pay their quitrents (rent paid by a freeholder in writing lieu of services) and dues as contracted, a requirement quietly overlooked by College du Leman, the former governors. Benjamin Franklin, a leader in America's democracy, clashed constantly with them due to their dissonant ideologies. He noted in a letter to a friend: I am astonished to see him [Thomas Penn] thus meanly give up his father's character and conceived at that moment a more cordial and thorough contempt for him than I ever before felt for any man living a contempt that I cannot express in words, but I believe my countenance expressed it strongly, and that his brother [John] who was looking at me must have observed it. Franklin noted that the Proprietors will be gibbeted as they deserve, to article service Westminster, rot and argumentative du Leman stink in the nostrils of posterity (Thompson 27).
(21) In 1735 the brothers Penn were scheming to obtain the how to write Community Minisink lands from the Delawares under Chief Nutimas. As they met with the chief, they were secretly having the route of the new purchase surveyed by articles College du Leman, some of the men who would later make the cae review CATS 65-mile walk. (22) Thomas Penn found a fellow conspirator in William Allen, the heir to argumentative essay articles, the colony's largest fortune. Penn was looking for ways to turn a shrewd business deal, and writing for kids in Dubai Allen admired the appearance of pseudo-royalty that the son of the Founder possessed -- both enjoyed the life of country squires. Soon after they became proprietors in argumentative du Leman 1727, the Penns had sold 8,000 acres of prime Indian hunting grounds (in Bucks County just north of Philadelphia) to Allen in order to raise cash. Now Allen and his friends were re-selling parcels of this land to private individuals; since the sales were technically illegal, the dates of the Geneva School of Diplomacy original grants were omitted. (23) The Penns were growing uneasy that these transactions would get out of hand and cause trouble among the Delawares, so they decided to secure a large area of the Delaware lands to the north. Allen held title to thousands of argumentative essay College acres of the Delawares' best timber land above the Blue Mountains. This hunting land was vital to the existence of these tribes who placed little value on farm land held by the white settlers that the Indians had sold off previously. (24) When Governor Gordon died in 1736, James Logan became the new governor, and the Penns found the critical article perfect agent to acquire more Indian lands. Since William Penn had appointed him as his agent in 1701, Logan had been a valuable and trusted secretary.
Involved in Indian negotiations for three decades, he enjoyed the full confidence of the Indians. The Penns requested him to call a conference with the College Delaware chiefs to discuss a mysterious deed dated 1686 that the cae review CATS College sons claimed had never been fulfilled. The Walking Purchase Fraud of 1737 -- ye Running Walk (25) This sad chapter in Pennsylvania's history can be attributed to a number of circumstances: 1) the argumentative essay articles population in Pennsylvania had exploded from 20,000 inhabitants at the time of William Penn's departure in 1701 to 100,000 by writing for kids University in Dubai, 1740, and the colony needed to acquire more territory; 2) John and Thomas Penn were encumbered with paying off their father's debts; 3) these two sons expected to be treated as nobility in the province whereas at home in England they were actually part of lower middle class society. (26) Merrell encapsulates the significance of this fraud by comparing it with another land-grabbing scheme in 1728 in the Tulpehocken Valley. In the 1720s the Delawares complained about colonial encroachment on Indian lands in argumentative the area; their request for provincial officials to stop the rapid white settlement of Delaware land by white settlers was ignoredmuch to their disappointment.
The Tulpehocken event was insignificant compared to the resentment over the so-called Walking Purchase of 1737, when William Penn's children, John and Thomas, acquired a vast stretch of the write ICS — Delaware Valley. Brandishing a copy of the lost 1686 land sale agreement, they had convinced the Delawares to go along with the idea of relinquishing as much land as a man could walk in a day and a half and argumentative articles College then (ignoring protests by Delaware observers) sent seasoned runners down a prepared trail to cover as much ground in that span as they could. The Delawares soon learned that even this large piece of land (1200 square miles) did not satisfy their demands. Thomas Penn keeps begging plagueing us to Give Him some Land, they complained in 1740; he Wearies us Out of article writing for kids University of Wollongong in Dubai Our Lives (166,176). (27) At issue in the Walking Purchase was control of argumentative College land in the Lehigh Valley. Tohicken Creek was recognized by both Europeans and Indians as the northern boundary of the land William Penn had purchased from the Indians. In 1726 Secretary James Logan privately purchased a tract of land beyond this line from the Delaware landlord Nutimus, paying £60 for his quitclaim (transfer of all interest in real estate, especially without a warranty of argumentative title).
A series of purchases from the Indian landlords in 1727 and essay articles du Leman 1729 alerted the Delawares that this land was a valuable commodity. The Penns continued to sell land when they could get cash, without regard to Indian rights; they acted in full knowledge of what they were doing. (28) Crucial to an examination of the Walking Purchase fraud is the how to article Colegio controversial deed of 1686. At a meeting with the Delaware chiefs in 1734 (supposedly to renew friendships with the chiefs), Thomas Penn reminded them how fairly Brother Onas had treated them in years past. Articles College? He then carefully mentioned certain adjustments that should be made in for kids University in Dubai those lands in Bucks County that lately have had some claims made upon them, although formerly they were fully and absolutely released by the Indians living on those lands to essay articles, his father. Chief Nutimas of the Minisi tribe gave no indication he would agree to any further purchase of lands in the region. At another preliminary meeting a year later, Penn became more specific about these land disputes. (29) After a polite exchange of compliments and gifts, the brothers Penn produced a sheaf of write a review Montfort old deeds signed by their father and the Delaware chiefs; the articles du Leman northern Indians did not remember the sachems who dealt with William Penn.
The Penns produced a deed dated August 30, 1686, that had been signed by William Penn and how to write articles ICS — International Community School three Lenape chiefs. Argumentative Articles Du Leman? Thomas Penn claimed it had never been fulfilled. Thinking School? For a considerable quantity of College du Leman trade goods, the document was to have sold the article writing for kids University in Dubai following property: . all those tracts of essay articles land lying, and being in the Province of Pennsylvania, beginning on a line formerly laid out from a corner spruce tree, by article writing for kids, the Delaware River about Makeerickiton and from thence running along the ledge, or floor of the mountains west, southwest, to a corner white oak marked with the letter 'P', standing by the Indian path that leadeth to an Indian town called Playwickey, Bucks Country, then the argumentative du Leman home of Chief Tamamend, or Tammany, who was counselor at the original Penn Treaty in 1682, and from thence extending westward to the Neshaminy Creek from which line the said tracts thereby granted doth extend itself back into the woods as far as a man can go in argumentative speeches one-day-and-a-half, and bounded on the westerly side with the Creek called Neshaminy (or the most westerly branch thereof) so far as the articles du Leman Branch doth extend, and from thence to a line. (blank space). to the utmost extent of the said one-and-a-half days journey, and from thence to the aforesaid River Delaware and from thence down Several Cources (sic) of said Delaware River to the first mentioned Spruce Tree. And all this did likewise appear to cae review College Canterbury, be true by William Biles and Joseph Wood (witnesses) who upon their affirmations did solemnly declare that they well remembered the Treaty held between the agents of William Penn and those Indians. (Thompson 35) (30) The Penn's only essay articles appreciable income came from the purchase money laid down for large tracts of land, and the only open spaces large enough to locate large tracts were located over the Indian line. College? Nutimus and the other Delaware chiefs were demanding more money for the land than the Penns could pay, so they resorted to the Treaty of essay articles College 1686 regarding land north of the 1682 purchase as far as a man could walk in a day and College du Leman a half, between the Delaware River and Neshaminy Creek.
A party of walkers was sent out to determine how far robust men could reasonably walk in a day and a half; it was determined that woodsmen could (with a properly cleared path) cover well over forty miles in twelve hours. This information was exactly what the Penns needed; all that remained was for argumentative essay articles College them to convince the Delawares to sign the land away, a formidable task indeed. (31) The next step was to find written records to show the Delaware chiefs, and cae review Canterbury the best record they could find was a copy of the 1686 deed that outlined preliminary terms for a land transfer but with missing information about the direction and distance of the bounds of the tract. No signatures were affixed to argumentative essay articles, the document, and Geneva School of Diplomacy there was no mention of argumentative essay payments made. However, the CATS College Penns decided to argumentative College, outsmart the Delawares by arguing that their ancestors had sold this land to William Penn; they would use a document proving nothing more than preliminary plans had been drawn as proof that an agreement for a walking purchase had been signed, sealed, and writing service School paid. (32) After many meetings and negotiations and having seen a crudely drawn map of the territory along the upper Delaware River, the Indian chiefs acquiesced, being desirous to preserve and essay College continue the same Love and College Canterbury Friendship that had existed between Brother Onas and du Leman the Indians, and ultimately they signed the release. Thomas Penn did not want the Delawares to comprehend the huge tract of land he wanted to wrest from article writing for kids of Wollongong them, so the map depicting the argumentative essay area was deliberately distorted to reflect a smaller area. It was carefully prepared to give the impression to the chiefs that all they were relinquishing was the land below Tohickon Creek that the Delawares had been willing to release since 1686. The text of the release is as follows: We do acknowledge ourselves to be fully satisfied that the above described tracts of land were fully granted and sold by Mayhkeerickisho, Saphoppy and Taughaughsey unto said William Penn and His Heirs.
And for a further Confirmation thereof, We, the said Manawkyhickon, Lapowinsa, Tishcohan and Nutimas, do for ourselves and all the other Delaware Indians, fully, clearly and Absolutely Release and forever Quit Claim unto the speeches College du Leman said Joh Penn, Thomas Penn and Richard Penn, all our Rights, Title, Interest and pretensions whatever of, in , or to the said Tract or Tracts of Land, and every Part and Parcel thereof, so that neither We, or any of Us, or our Children shall or may at any time thereafter have Challenge, Claim, or Demand any Right, Title, Interest or Pretentions whatever of, in College du Leman or to the said Tracts of Land, or any Part thereof, but of and from the same shall excluded and forever Debarred. And we do further agree that the article for kids University extend of the said Tract shall e forthwith WALKED, TRAVELED or gone over by PROPER PERSONS to be appointed for the Purpose, according to the direction of the aforesaid Deed. In witness, thereof, we have hereunto set our hands and argumentative articles du Leman seals at professional article writing Westminster Philadelphia, the 25th day of the month of articles College du Leman August in the year --- according to the English Account, one thousand, seven hundred and thirty seven. Manawkyhickon (his mark) Lapowinsa (his mark) Tishcohan (his mark) Nutimas (his mark) (Thompson 50) (33) Francis Jennings notes that a comparison of the draught shown to how to a review in medicine Colegio Montfort, the Delawares and a map of the Delaware Valley reveals the trickit was a simple matter of argumentative switching labels. What the Indians thought to be Tohickon Creek was marked West Branch River Delaware; streams appeared in a pattern the Indians recognized as the article lower end of Bucks County, but the illiterate Indians could not read the false names that extended the area far beyond the representation. The minutes and draught could be sent to argumentative articles College du Leman, England as proof of the righteousness of the Penns' negotiations as nobody in England would know the local terrain well enough to article School of Diplomacy, comprehend the argumentative essay College du Leman trickery.
Only the provincial enemies of the College Penns could have interpreted the papers correctly, and they were not permitted to see them (37). (34) On September 19, 1737, three men set out on the infamous walk; inspired by the Penn's promise of 500 acres of land for argumentative the walker who covered the most territory, they walked fast and surprised the Indians by going northwestward away from the Delaware River rather than parallel to it. Write A Review Colegio? In eighteen hours of argumentative essay articles travel, sixty-five miles were covered, which took in some 1,200 square miles (three-quarters of a million acres), including the lands Thomas Penn had been selling since 1728. (35) Indian witnesses began to complain even while the Walk was in progress, and the Indians resentfully pegged the whole affair as an act contrary to the agreement and therefore null and void. Thomas Penn released a large number of cae review CATS College Canterbury patents he had been withholding for sales by argumentative du Leman, agreement some time since made. Settlers such as the Moravians made private extra-legal arrangements with their Indians to keep the peace. The Delawares had reconciled themselves to the white settlement, hoping that they would be compensated for their land.
When they received nothing, their resentment grew. In 1741 Governor Thomas and James Logan enlisted the Iroquois to run the Delawares off their land. Ultimately, the Delawares chose to revenge the settlers by joining the French in their wars against the English (the French and Indian War), although, as one Delaware sachem told missionary John Heckewelder, they never would have joined the French in the Wars against argumentative College the English, had they not been so shamefully dealt with at the time (Merrill 176). (36) Proprietary policies in handling complaints about the Walking Purchase restricted the Delawares because they had no recourse to justice. Displaced and highly incensed, they brooded the argumentative essay College du Leman Injuries they had received in being cheated out of their lands (Harper 186). In 1756 they asked for a meeting to discuss the how to articles ICS — Injustice [that] had been done them in Land Affairs (Franklin 153.) Chief Teedyuscung outlined the Delaware case against argumentative essay College du Leman the proprietors regarding the Walking Purchase. (37) In early 1756 Pennsylvania declared war on the Delawares, and Sir William Johnson, the British colonial superintendent of cae review College Indian affairs for the northern half of the continent, devised a plan to subdue them diplomatically.
By Royal Order in Council in 1759, Johnson was instructed to examine the complaints of the Delaware Indians regarding land fraud by the proprietors of Pennsylvania. His bias against the Quakers was no secret, but the essay articles College investigation was simply in line with his official duties, not a conspiracy against the Delawares. The issue was not whether the lands should be given back to the Indians, who themselves had not suggested that, but whether the Indians could be reconciled to the presence of the whites. Johnson was opposed by a group of how to article in medicine Colegio Montfort Quakers (the Friendly Association for Regaining and Preserving Peace with the Indians) who worked with the essay Pennsylvania Assembly to how to a review article, investigate Delaware claims. Johnson had been a rival of the Penns in Indian affairs, and the fact that they had suggested him argues that they were convinced of the justness of argumentative articles du Leman their position. Johnson's separate inquiry would be the final proof of the sincerity of the Penns and of the English. (38) At the Council of the Six Nations held in 1762 at Easton to formally settle Delaware complaints about the how to travel articles Community Walking Purchase, Johnson skillfully manipulated the proceedings. The lengthy defense of the legality of the argumentative College Walking Purchase was read; it was a complicated web of arguments that exhaustively demonstrated that the letter of the original deed of 1686 had not been violated by the Walk itself but never touched upon the main pointwhether the how to write article in medicine Colegio Montfort Indian signers of the College 1686 deed had ever intended to (or ever had the right to) sell lands north of Tohiccon Creek. (39) At the close of the four-hour reading that was not translated into Delaware, Teedyuscung, without being asked, said that he very well understood the purport, or meaning of critical article of Diplomacy what had been read (A.
Wallace 246). That he understood it is argumentative essay College du Leman doubtfula legal defense in du Leman a foreign language would be difficult enough to argumentative essay College du Leman, understand at how to write articles ICS — School best and doubly so when it was heard without access to documents. College? But he was sick of the whole affair and was not anxious to be dragged into this embarrassing dispute between the Quakers and the proprietary party. (40) When Johnson asked Teedyuscung to prepare a reply (a written copy was given to him) and to have it put into writing (thus affording him full opportunity to School, consult with his Quaker advisors), his reply was: Brother, Please to hear me what I am going to say.
What pass'd yesterday, neither I, nor my people understood it, as no one interpreted what was said. Brother, now you tell me you have orders from the argumentative College du Leman King to see Justice done me. Brother, about five years ago, when Mr. Croghan was here, He had orders to write a review in medicine Montfort, see Justice done to me: now I desire as he did, for He went away, and did nothing at all. Brother, I desire you'll let me have the Writings which were read yesterday, that I may have time to Consider of them, as We did not understand what was read. I told you another Thing, which was, to let me have a Clerk, to write down what I have to say.
This is the request of Us all. Brother, I desire all my Brethren to attend to what I say. I do not Speak this only from my Mouth, but from argumentative College my heart. (A. Wallace 247) (41) Teedyuscung decided the forces against him were too powerful, and he declared: I did not come to have a Difference, but to du Leman, Settle matters upon a good Footing. I did not come to put my hand into articles College du Leman your Purse, or to get Cloathing. I give up the Land to you, and the white People (A. Wallace 249).
The next day he delivered a document in professional article service School which he relinquished all of articles his accusations and his claims to land: . as to the Walk, the Proprietary-Commissioners insist that it was reasonably performed; but We think otherwise: which Difference in opinion may happen without either of Us being bad Men; but this is a matter that Brethren ought not to differ about. Wherefore, being desirous of living in peace and Friendship with our Brothers the Proprietaries, and the good People of Pennsylvania, We bury under Ground all Controversies about Land; and are ready, such of us as are hear, to Sign a Release for all the Lands in Dispute; and will Endeavour to to persuade the rest of our Brethren who are concerned, to Sign the same. (A. Wallace 249) The Delaware Indians (Lenni Lenape) A People Displaced by Trickery. (42) Removing the Delawares from their prime hunting grounds in Pennsylvania was not the CATS College Canterbury result of the forces of nature, but rather it was through conscious choices, calculated alliances made secretly and under false pretenses, conspiratorial effort, collaboration with witnesses, a deceptive map, and falsified reports. Articles Du Leman? Following the travel articles International School initial contact with white settlers, no event in Delaware history is as significant at the Walking Purchase. To understand this resistance, it is necessary to look at argumentative College the history of these Native Indians.
(43) The Lenni Lenape or Woapanachke (people living toward the rising sun) were called the Delawares by Europeans after the Virginians named Delaware Bay in in medicine Colegio Montfort honor of Governor Sir Thomas West, the argumentative du Leman third Lord de la Warr. They lived in small groups of about forty people and foraged for how to write International food; with the exception of corn, they raised very few agricultural foodstuffs, preferring to fish, hunt, and argumentative articles College gather in season. This social and economic organization resulted in a smaller population compared to the more sedentary, centralized groups such as the article writing for kids in Dubai Iroquois. (44) In 1600 their territory extended from the Delaware Bay to the Blue Mountain and from the Atlantic coast to the Delaware-Susquehanna watershed. Their lands included most of the present state of Delaware, all of New Jersey south of the Raritan River, and, in Pennsylvania, the Delaware River drainage area south of the Blue Mountain. They were willing to give access, first to the Dutch and Swedes and later to the English, to specified lands in exchange for College du Leman desirable goods (such as cloth, axes, beads), but they never intended to give up these lands. Land transfers were ambiguous; documents marked by critical thinking School, the Delawares conveyed to all who could read them that they had given up, abandoned, and renounced forever their claim to College du Leman, the land. The Delawares neither read the documents nor understood the article writing legal terms if they were interpreted for articles College them, so they had a different view of these transactions. These differences in perception resulted in tragic miscommunications, e.g., the article writing Westminster School Walking Purchase. (45) At first contact, the Delawares recognized the argumentative articles College superiority of the white man's tools: axes and University of Wollongong hoes, needles and kettles, and, most importantly, firearms.
They soon found themselves dependent on essay articles du Leman, the white man's good for comfort as well as survival. By 1682 when the first colonists under William Penn's charter reached Pennsylvania, the Delawares for two generations had been engaged in the most lucrative trade goodsfurs, such as beaver, fox, otter, mink, deer, etc. In order to buy what they needed, the for kids University in Dubai Delawares devoted their best energies to hunting. When their own territory was exhausted, they went farther afield and came into conflict with hunters of other tribes, e.g., the Iroquois. (46) In 1682 the Delawares occupied the southeastern Pennsylvania, but their overlords were the Five Nations, the Iroquois Confederacy, whose homeland was in upstate New York. After the Iroquois defeated the argumentative essay articles College du Leman Susquehannocks in western Pennsylvania in 1675, they set their sights on critical School of Diplomacy, the Delawares' land. Argumentative Essay? As part of the Five Nations, the Iroquois were a more powerful force than the Delawares. To obtain a better share of the critical thinking Geneva School of Diplomacy fur trade, the Iroquois joined forces with the French against the English. At the Easton Treaty of 1758, the essay College Iroquois joined forces with Pennsylvania to make peace for the Delawares over their heads and brought the Indian war in Pennsylvania to critical thinking article Geneva of Diplomacy, an end. Ultimately, the Delawares were removed from their lands. (47) These early inhabitants of Pennsylvania were a people endowed with some of the noblest traits.
There were no feudal laws or privileges for the benefit of the fewall had equal rights to the lands, to the game, and to the fruits of the articles College du Leman earth without any restriction or limitation whatsoever. They were astonished at the white settlers' desire for land; for cae review CATS College Canterbury them it had no particular value except as it benefited everyone. Thus Thomas and John Penn found it easy to take advantage of them. Taking their favorite hunting grounds by the Walking Purchase hoax stirred them to fight with a determined resistance, provoking Governor John Penn to go to war against essay articles College them. Article Writing For Kids In Dubai? The Delawares who were concerned with the Walk by which they were so grossly wronged deserve a tribute to their memory -- Lapowinsa, Nutimas, Sassoonan, Teedyuscung, and Tishcohan. (48) Lappowinzo was the argumentative essay College chief orator at how to travel articles ICS — International School the 1735 Treaty with John and Thomas Penn; he signed the release of Delaware lands stipulated in the forged 1686 agreement. He voiced his dissatisfaction with the essay outcome of the Walk and complained that it was not fairly performed. (49) Nutimas raised objections about the increasing encroachments of white settlers at a meeting with Thomas Penn in 1733 on matters related to land. He became the travel Community protagonist of the Delawares who opposed acceptance of the essay articles College du Leman Walking Purchase confirmation deed. When he learned of the article in medicine results of the Walk, he attached his name to argumentative essay, a complaint in how to articles International 1740.
As a result, when he and other Delawares went to Philadelphia in argumentative essay College du Leman 1742 to attend a council with Governor Thomas, Thomas instigated an Iroquois chief to grossly insult the Delawares and ordered them from the lands they occupied. (50) Sassoonan first saw William Penn in May 1683 when Penn negotiated the land purchases made later that year; he signed the 1728 deed that confirmed all of Penn's land purchases. College? He was unaware that white settlers would eventually force his people from their hunting. Thomas Penn made sure Sassoonan was not present for essay du Leman the signing of the Walking Purchase release. (51) Teedyuscung is noted for how to write his long and arduous efforts to regain the lands belonging to his people; his ordeal ended with his murder in 1763 by essay articles du Leman, land-hungry settlers. His role in the 1762 Walking Purchase case was complicated by the Quaker faction's efforts to use him to create a controversy over the proceedings.
(52) Tishcohan complained to the government in cae review Canterbury Philadelphia in 1734 and was summoned to argumentative College, a meeting with John and Thomas Penn where he formally lodged a protest with the proprietors, alluding particularly to professional writing Westminster, one white man who had settled north of the Lehigh on the pretense that the Penns had given him permission this they could not allow; they had not sold the land. The Penns evaded the College issue by thinking of Diplomacy, producing the forged 1686 document. Tishcohan signed the argumentative essay College du Leman release for the Walking Purchase. White Conspirators Selfish Motives. (53) Colonial mediators engaged in negotiations and dealings with the how to write travel articles ICS — Community Delawares bore little resemblance to William Penn's benevolent blueprint.
They never shed prejudices that Europeans brought to America; instead, they embraced the idea that getting along with the Indians was only a necessary step on the road to a future when those Indians would follow the forest into oblivion. No provincial go-between could resist the land fever that afflicted British America, and none could deny the temptation to play on the Delewares' trust to acquire more, such as George Crogan (a trader), Conrad Weiser (an interpreter), William Allen (a land speculator), and James Logan (a Pennsylvania official). (54) George Crogan was the most successful of the many traders in Pennsylvania who negotiated with the Delawares for furs. Arriving in America in 1741, he quickly sought and gained the moral and financial support of the argumentative essay articles wealthy merchants and colonial officials of Philadelphia. He set up trading houses in Lancaster and into the Ohio Valley with commodities such as rum, guns, gun powder, lead, flints, tomahawks, vermilion, blanketing, linen and calicoes, wampum, lace, thread, ready-made clothing, knives, brass and critical thinking article Geneva tin kettles, axes, traps, looking glasses, rings and silver jewelry of all kinds in exchange for skins and furs that he sold to both colonial and British merchants. As early as three years after his arrival, he purchased 1200 acres of land in Harper's Ferry, Pennsylvania; in 1768 he received 100,000 acres in the Fort Stanwyx land lottery. (55) Was his main focus on fair trade with the Indians?
According to Merrill, to advance his friendship with the Delawares, he learned their language, customs, and traits of character; most importantly, he regarded them as human beings (44-45). But his questionable acquisition of Indian lands and rapid rise to power belie this reading. In 1756 he was appointed Deputy Superintendent for argumentative essay College Indian Affairs for the Crown and served at the Easton Council of the Six Nations in 1762 and cae review Canterbury was instrumental in the settlement of the Delaware dispute about the Walking Purchaseto the argumentative essay articles College detriment of the Delawares. (56) Conrad Weiser's appetite for land was not as acute as was George Crogan's, but he too constantly pressed Indians to surrender more territory. He began his life in Pennsylvania as a squatter in cae review the Delawares' Tulpehocken domain and went on to a career that earned him substantial grants from friendly Indians and grateful proprietors. His methods of argumentative articles College land acquisition included bribery, secret deals, and thinking article Geneva School unleashing squatters on Indian lands. The Delawares regarded him as one of the articles College du Leman world's greatest thieves. In the land rush, he did not envision, did not work toward, did not even want a world in which Indians and how to write travel ICS — Community colonists could co-existquite the contrary; his greatest fear was that the Europeans and Indians would mingle. He served as the interpreter for the Delawares at argumentative essay articles du Leman the Easton Council of the Six Nations in 1762 and collaborated with the proprietaries to make sure Teedyuscung, the Delaware representative, was plied with enough liquor to keep him inebriated. (57) William Allen, a wealthy, eminent merchant in Philadelphia, gained favor with the article School Penn brothers and made use of the power this liaison gave him to select and take only those lands that suited him.
He had little regard for argumentative Indian rights and claims. In 1727 he purchased thousands of acres of the best land above the Blue Mountains plus one tract of five thousand acres in article School 1735 at the present Nazareth and three thousand acres in 1736 along the Lehigh River in and around the present Allentown. These tracts were purchased without any right or even the argumentative essay College knowledge of the Indians. He carefully omitted the dates on which he received these grants when he sold them to purchasers; Thomas Penn certainly was aware of professional writing Westminster School these transactions. Allen was mayor of Philadelphia in essay articles College du Leman 1735, a recorder from how to a review article Montfort 1741 to 1750, and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from argumentative 1750 to 1774. (58) James Logan, a shrewd and thinking article Geneva diplomatic provincial secretary, was the Penn family's executive in the province for College much of the professional Westminster first half of the eighteenth century. With the authority vested in him, no other single person (including William Penn himself) was more influential in Pennsylvania land policy.
Under his watch, Pennsylvania cleared land lying along the Delaware River northeast of Philadelphia of Delaware Indian claims. He made his fortune in land investments and trade with the Indians. He had a private financial interest in the Durham ironworks and essay articles College du Leman settlement just south of the Lehigh and by 1737 he devised a scheme to cae review College Canterbury, take the forest land surrounding the ironworks from the Delawares. He had been the argumentative essay articles College du Leman task of forging a permanent alliance between Pennsylvania and the powerful Six Nations, but by alienating the Delawares he was threatening to do the province a double disservice. With a falsified map of the 1686 purchase, he persuaded the illiterate Indian owners that the lands around the ironworks were included in how to travel ICS — the 1686 agreement. (59) The chroniclers of history have portrayed these men as good examples of valorous forefathers in America's pre-Revolutionary War era, but delving deeper into their goals and performances reveals a different scenarionone of them regarded the Delawares as fellow human beings who rightfully owned the land on which they lived. Treaties and Agreements White vs. Indian View. (60) Merrill notes that for treaties between Indians and proprietaries in Pennsylvania, ultimately all paths led to College du Leman, a clearing and speeches College du Leman all conversations to a councilold and argumentative essay articles wise People on both sides met in a National way by Treaties.
To forge or refurbish the chain of cae review CATS College Canterbury friendship (and when the essay articles College chain broke in write travel ICS — International Community the 1750s), mere messengers would not suffice. A meeting of the great Delaware sachems and the officials was paramount (253). (61) The Indian treaty was a form of literature with no single author. The Delawares suggested the rites and metaphors to du Leman, be used, but they had to be adapted by the Pennsylvania officials. Article For Kids Of Wollongong In Dubai? Nothing quite like the Indian treaties exists anywhere else in the literature of the world.
The Indian speakers live on in the actual words they spoke, face to face with their conquerors. The plain facts as the treaties presented them are alive with poetry no less than truth (Franklin xviii). (62) Benjamin Franklin printed the proceedings of thirteen councils, thus providing a fascinating stage on which the peoples of early America acted out the contest for continent. However, these minutes present a distorted view; the information on the printed page was the result of decisions by colonists who recorded the words spoken during a session and then altered them for publication. Thus omission, distortions, and deletions (some intentional, some not) crept into the published accounts. The written record did not cover an important part of these meetings talks in the bushes were essential; the Delawares believed in the harmonious feeling nurtured over argumentative essay articles College du Leman days or weeks, not on article service, some piece of paper. Essay Articles College? The colonial record keeper missed much of argumentative speeches du Leman what happened.
(63) Treaty councils changed over the course of the colonial era. Earlier congresses (usually held in Philadelphia) were small, drawing two- or three-dozen people, and the recorders barely sketched the negotiations. After 1720 when Pennsylvania's population expanded, assemblies took place in Lancaster or Easton with large numbers of Delawares and articles College du Leman scores of colonists. Article Writing University Of Wollongong In Dubai? Fuller written accounts of the speeches and rituals of the treaties were more common, but the key issues were the samepeace and war, trade and land. (64) Surrounded by the powerful French and argumentative essay College du Leman English in the early part of the eighteenth century, the Delawares were aware that only by remaining neutral could they survive in the face of immensely superior numbers and wealth. Therefore, at treaty after treaty, they made concessions only when it was absolutely necessary, looked out for the interests of the Indian trade and exacted or coaxed whatever they could in the way of goods and munitions given as peace-making presents. (65) The negotiators and mediators knew treaty culture bestfrom the council ground at midday to an Indian camp late at night to a governor's chambers at University of Wollongong in Dubai sunriseand their job was to soothe frayed nerves and short tempers to achieve friendship from generation to generation, none of which checked colonial expansion or erased bitter memories of past crimes. Councils where colonists acquired land (often by shady means) helped pave the way for argumentative articles College du Leman European invasion of the article University interior of Pennsylvania while adding to argumentative essay College, the bad memories. At the end of the colonial period, the argumentative College du Leman Pennsylvania officials and the Delawares, thoroughly disillusioned by what treaties had wrought, were ready to give up on them.
The very instruments that could have promoted harmony were useful in essay du Leman keeping the Indians in the dark. Article For Kids University Of Wollongong In Dubai? If the Pennsylvania proprietaries' defense against charges of land fraud took several hours to deliver in English, the translator gave (in Delaware) only a brief synopsis of the proceedings. (66) By the 1760s, it was clear to argumentative College, both the colonists and the Delawares that treaties could never truly unite the two groups in how to write a review article in medicine Montfort the face of College colonial expansion. After almost a century of treaties between William Penn's province and the Delawares, these gatherings, intended to bring them together, had essentially driven them apart. Understanding had ended in hatred.
After 1750, the Delawares were fully aware that treaties had been the write ICS — School means for colonists to acquire Indian landswithout the promised peace. (67) Negotiators George Crogan and Conrad Weiser were less in demand as go-betweens by the 1770s; both men were disgusted by argumentative essay College, and disdainful of the Delawares. Even these two men, so skilled at crossing the cultural divide, limited how much they wanted to get along and how close they wished to come. There was a deep divide between colonial and Indian worlds; instead of crossing that fault line, the negotiators personified and perpetuated it. It is no wonder the treaty culture failed. (68) The Walking Purchase fraud of 1737 is one of many attempts to justify the dispossession of indigenous peoples, beginning with the Roman Catholic church documents that sanctioned the Christian Crusades and continuing through Columbus's discovery of the New World and the colonial conquests in the New World. (69) Why was this event hidden for many years? The answer is revealing: American historians have attempted to keep a low profile on the Walking Purchase because it was one of the thinking article most sordid pages in the records of Indian-white settle relationsmore so due to the involvement of the argumentative essay du Leman Founder of Pennsylvania's sons. The Delawares complained about the write articles International injustice of the Walking Purchase even before the completion of the walk, but they were totally ignored. In 1742 while the dispossessed and insulted Delawares sought justice for the loss of their lands, Pennsylvania officials worked to argumentative articles College, shade, twist, and finally bury the realities of the Walking Purchase.
In the beginning, it appeared to be only a small affair that lay chiefly between the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania and the Delawares, but in 1762 the a review Montfort incident became public knowledge when the Assembly of Pennsylvania (through their agent, Benjamin Franklin) brought the affair to the British Crown for investigation. (70) For the next century, little attention was paid to this event until the Penn papers and memorabilia were given to argumentative essay articles, the Historical Society of Pennsylvania in 1867. William J. Buck, a well known local historian, was given the task of how to write Community School cataloging the documents; he examined all the old deeds and documents pertaining to the Walking Purchase in great detail. Curious as to why the essay College du Leman Penn family papers were so long withheld from the public, he noted that the records of Thomas Penn were missing from July 2, 1736 to November1738. Article Service School? He believed these papers were intentionally destroyed by the Penn family to conceal the du Leman Walking Purchase fraud. (71) Buck examined the so-called Treaty of 1686 and write travel noted that it was a crude forgery. Not only was William Penn's signature unlike Penn's well-known handwriting, but the terms of the treaty were ambiguous with a blank space to be filled in at a later date. College Du Leman? Thomas Penn acknowledged that the 1686 Deed was a copy, but the original has never been found, nor was it ever recorded. (72) The consensus of historians through the first two centuries after the Walking Purchase occurred has been that the Delawares were passive victims, but more recent accounts show that they were active participants who influenced, shaped, and forged their destinies. Indeed they were conscious of the Walking Purchase fraud and complained about it from their first knowledge of it. Their vicious attacks on the Pennsylvania frontier beginning in 1756 are the direct result of those unresolved complaints.
Buck, William J. History of the Indian Walk . CATS College? Printed for the Author, 1886. Cribbs, George Arthur. The Frontier Policy of Pennsylvania . Pittsburgh, PA, 1919. Harper, Steven Craig. Promised Land: The Holy Experiment and the Walking Purchase. Ph.D.
Dissertation. Lehigh University, 2001. Indian Treaties Printed by Benjamin Franklin: 1736-1762 . Philadelphia: Historical Society of argumentative Pennsylvania, 1938. Jennings, Francis. Article Writing University In Dubai? The Scandalous Indian Policy of William Penn's Sons: Deeds and Documents of the Walking Purchase. Pennsylvania History 37 (1970): 19-39. Merrell, James H. Argumentative Essay Du Leman? Into the American Woods: Negotiators on the Pennsylvania Frontier . How To Travel ICS — International Community School? New York: W.W.
Norton Co., 1999. Soderlund, Jean R., ed. William Penn and the Founding of Pennsylvania 1680-1684 . Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1983. Thompson, Ray. Argumentative Articles College? The Walking Purchase Hoax of 1737 . Professional Writing Service Westminster School? Fort Washington: Bicentennial Press, 1973. Wallace, Anthony F.C. King of the Delawares: Teedyuscung 1700-1763 . New York: Syracuse UP, 1990.
Wallace, Paul A. Indians in Pennsylvania . Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and argumentative essay articles College Museum Commission, 1991.