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10 steps to write an essay Shawnigan Lake School

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Картинки по запросу 10 steps to write an essay Shawnigan

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Blank screen when resuming from connected standby. I am experiencing blank screen issue on Shawnigan Lake School, all driver versions after 10.18.15.4279. Many Helix 2 user also report the same problem on steps to writing of Central Florida, Lenovo forum, but the issue has never been resolved in 10 steps to write Shawnigan School, the newer versions. Version 4279 and before do not have this issue. Below is the great writing 3 from great paragraphs to great Anthony’s High, information: Answers (N/A if not applicable) Provide a detailed description of the an essay Shawnigan Lake, issue. When waking a computer from argumentative Dulwich College connected standby in windows 10, the screen is blank (power led is on), and then it seems the an essay Shawnigan School, machine freezes. I have to hard reset the computer to reboot into critical thinker of Northampton, desktop. Does it fail every single time, or only 10 steps Lake, sometimes? If you can offer a % rate please do. sometimes, about 50% Brand and Model of the system.

Thinkpad Helix 2nd gen tablet. Hybrid or switchable graphics system? ie Does it have AMD or NV graphics too? HD Graphics 5300 only. Make and model of argumentative writing Dulwich College any Displays that are used to see the issue (see note2 below). LFP = Local Flat Panel (Laptop panel) EFP = External Flat Panel (Monitor you plug in) How much memory [RAM] in the system ( see note2 below). 10 Steps To Write Shawnigan Lake School! Provide any other hardware needed to replicate the Appleby, issue. ie: Cablesbrand, cable type [vga, hdmi, DP, etc], dock, dongles/adapters, etc. Hardware Stepping ( see note1 below ). Operating System version ( see note2 below). windows 10 10586.164. An Essay Lake! VBIOS (video BIOS) version.

This can be found in “information page#8221; of how to write a discursive essay London CUI (right click on Desktop and select “Graphics Properties#8221;. 10 Steps Shawnigan School! Graphics Driver version; for both integrated Intel and 3rd party vendors ( see note2 below). Of Persuasive Essay College! Versions after 10.18.15.4279 (especially 20.xx.xx.xx family) SW or Apps version used to replicate the issue. Single display, clone, or extended ( see note2 below). Display resolution refresh rate setting of each display ( see note2 below).

AC or DC mode, i.e. is power cable plugged in or not? Please provide steps to replicate the Shawnigan School, issue. These steps are very crucial to finding the root cause and fix. Essay! A screenshot to illustrate the issue is a huge plus. A video of the an essay, failure is even better! Attach to the post or provide the YouTube link. Install driver (version after 10.18.15.4279 ) 2753 : Software Drivers : () 1. Re: Blank screen when resuming from connected standby. Branded computers such as Lenovo Thinkpad Helix 2sd gen tablet uses customized drivers provided with the manufacturer.

I suggest you to install the latest BIOS and drivers from The University (NAVITAS) Lenovo website. (0) (0) . 2. Re: Blank screen when resuming from connected standby. Thanks for the reply, however, for to write an essay Lake, Helix 2nd tablet, Lenovo simply uses public driver from Intel without customization (as reflected by their changelog). In addition, the to writing of Central, newest Intel graphics driver provided in their support page (which is after ver4279) has the to write Shawnigan School, same blank screen issue as described above. Introduction Appleby! I have updated all drivers and BIOS to 10 steps to write an essay Shawnigan School the newest version but none of them helps. Lenovo doesn't care about introduction essay Appleby College this issue although many users complained the same graphics driver issue in the support forum. That's why I think reporting here might be some help. (0) (0) . 3. 10 Steps An Essay Shawnigan Lake School! Re: Blank screen when resuming from connected standby. From Lenovo website I found as latest graphics driver the version 20.19.15.4331for Windows® 10 64bit. Let me know how it works. (0) (0) . How To Write! 4. Re: Blank screen when resuming from School connected standby.

After reinstalling windows 10 and trying 20.19.15.4364 for several days, it seems the issue is resolved. Thanks for the help. (0) (0) . 5. Re: Blank screen when resuming from connected standby. I am glad your system is working properly. (0) (0) . 6. Re: Blank screen when resuming from connected standby. Sorry, but my tablet start to encounter the same issue as before even after reinstalling windows 10. I have tried the driver version you suggested, and the version that is auto-updated by windows 10. Neither of them solve the issue.

It is still version 4279 that can avoid problem somehow. I also found that the blank screen didn't make the whole system freeze. It seems it is just lack of output to the tablet screen, and the system is still working (i can hear notification sound when the screen is blank). Could you offer some help? (0) (0) . Writing College! 7. Re: Blank screen when resuming from connected standby. If you are not getting video with the latest graphics driver by to write, Lenovo; neither our generic driver; it will be necessary to contact Lenovo for writing 3 from essays School, troubleshooting or maintenance. (0) (0) . 8. Re: Blank screen when resuming from connected standby. I am following your case. Let me know if you need further assistance. (0) (0) . Shawnigan Lake School! 9. Re: Blank screen when resuming from connected standby. Thanks!

I was trying to find the cause of this issue recently. Lenovo has released a new version 20.19.15.4416 a week ago. I am currently using this driver. How To Write Essay! Although the blank screen still happens with this version, I found it might actually be correlated with some other software. I found a clean installation of windows 10 will not incur blank screen issue (or at least very infrequently), but till some point the blank screen issue started to happen again. 10 Steps To Write An Essay Shawnigan Lake! I suspected it was because I installed some new software later on. For example, I suspected Lenovo's software for thinkpad or other drivers (e.g.

Cisco Anyconnect, as I saw fatal error in the event log when the blank screen issue happen). Write Essay DLD College! What I am doing recently is to get rid of these software. To Write Shawnigan! After making sure that the blank screen issue doesn't happen again, I will gradually reinstall them one by how to write essay Academy, one to see who is the culprit. I will let you know once I find the cause. An Essay Lake School! (0) (0) . 10. Argumentative And Persuasive Writing College! Re: Blank screen when resuming from 10 steps Shawnigan School connected standby.

I am glad your system is working properly now. To Writing Essay University Florida! I will be waiting your results. (0) (0) . 11. Re: Blank screen when resuming from connected standby. Lake! I am following your case. Let me know how the graphics driver is working in introduction Appleby College, your Thinkpad Helix 2nd gen tablet. (0) (0) . 10 Steps Shawnigan Lake School! 12. Re: Blank screen when resuming from connected standby.

Thanks for the followup. I didn't experience any blank screen issue any more since the installation of 3 from essays High School latest windows insider build 14342. My GFX driver version is 20.19.15.4416. I feel like this issue is resolved. Lake School! BTW, I didn't install any Lenovo companion software (like Thinkpad setting dependency or system foundation driver), and I don't have time to writing Dulwich College verify if they will bring about any more issues. (0) (0) . 13. Shawnigan School! Re: Blank screen when resuming from connected standby.

You are welcome. I am going to close your case. If you need further assistance, you just need to add a new post in steps University Florida, the thread. (0) (0) . 14. Re: Blank screen when resuming from connected standby. Problem is not fixed, nor it ever was ! Last driver, from Lenovo (same from Windows update build 1607) is v20.19.15.4444 from 13-06-2016 and it gives black screen very often as well as others. Shawnigan Lake! Only driver that ever worked well with sleep/RESUME without black screen was 2015/09/01 win64 v15.40.7.4279 which is how to Academy 1st Win10 driver (which makes sense as 1st product validation is Shawnigan Lake School most strict and later Intel patches bugs for other parts maybe not testing same way previously released parts!?). Initially, last year there was way to disable driver updating an it worked for a while, up until. July, but Microsoft started ignoring it and they force update driver with regular windows update despite user's setting/wish. Further insult is I can not anymore install old only working driver v15.40.7.4279, because Win10 TH2/build1607 now requires signed drivers and even if I would disable driver signing further problem is on Lenovo you can not use Intel drivers anymore (which it was allowed before).

This situation is big pain to all Helix 2nd. Note: I use Helix 2nd, Core M 5Y71, 8GB RAM, 256 GB Intel SSD (. and introduction essay, I've seen these machines being sold for dumping prices $300 most likely due to this problem that is ignored and not fixed for Lake School, so long!?). I did not fully characterized behavior of this but as I see there could be more details to argumentative Dulwich College its behavior, so I'll let Intel do that. Intel, please fix this: 1. making new HD 5300 driver update with proper fix. or 2. either signing v15.40.7.4279 and telling us how can we install this version on Lenovo Helix 2nd.

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Картинки по запросу 10 steps to write an essay Shawnigan

New Networking Features in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Microsoft® Windows Server® 2008 and Windows Vista™ include many changes and enhancements to networking technologies. This article describes the changes to protocols and core networking components, wireless and 802.1X-authenticated wired technologies, and 10 steps to write Shawnigan School, network infrastructure components and services in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Networking and Appleby, communications are critical for organizations to 10 steps to write an essay School meet the challenge of competing in the global marketplace. Employees need to connect to essay the network wherever they are and from any device. Partners, vendors, and an essay Shawnigan, others outside the network need to interact efficiently with key resources, and security is define thinker of Northampton, more important than ever.

This article is a technical overview of networking and communications enhancements in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista to 10 steps an essay Lake School address connectivity, ease of use, management, reliability, and security. With Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, IT administrators have greater and more flexible options for great 3 from to great essays High School, managing networking infrastructure, protecting their networks by requiring computers to 10 steps to write an essay prove their system health, deploying settings for authenticated wireless and wired connections through Group Policy or scripts, and deploying protected traffic scenarios. Protocols and Core Networking Components. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include many changes and define critical thinker The University, enhancements to an essay Shawnigan Lake the following protocols and core networking components: Next Generation TCP/IP Stack. Domain Name System.

Quality of Service. Server Message Block 2.0. Computer Browser Service. Windows Sockets enhancements. Network Device Interface Specification (NDIS) 6.0 and to great essays Saint Anthony’s School, 6.1. Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking enhancements. Windows Firewall enhancements. Internet Protocol security (IPsec) improvements. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include a new implementation of the to write an essay Shawnigan School, TCP/IP protocol stack known as the Next Generation TCP/IP stack. The Next Generation TCP/IP stack is a complete redesign of TCP/IP functionality for both Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) and Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) that meets the connectivity and performance needs of today's varied networking environments and technologies. The TCP receive window size is the amount of data that a TCP receiver allows a TCP sender to send before having to wait for writing to great Saint Anthony’s High School, an acknowledgement.

To correctly determine the value of the maximum receive window size for a connection based on the current conditions of the network, the Next Generation TCP/IP stack supports Receive Window Auto-Tuning. Receive Window Auto-Tuning continually determines the optimal receive window size on a per-connection basis by measuring the bandwidth-delay product (the bandwidth multiplied by the latency of the an essay Shawnigan School, connection) and and persuasive writing, the application retrieve rate, and automatically adjusts the maximum receive window size on 10 steps an essay Lake School, an ongoing basis. With better throughput between TCP peers, the utilization of network bandwidth increases during data transfer. Writing Essays Saint Anthony’s High School. If all the applications are optimized to receive TCP data, then the overall utilization of the network can increase substantially, making the use of Quality of Service (QoS) more important for networks that are operating at or near capacity. 10 Steps An Essay. For more information, see Quality of Service in this article. For TCP connections with a large receive window size and a large bandwidth-delay product, Compound TCP (CTCP) in the Next Generation TCP/IP stack aggressively increases the amount of data sent at a time by monitoring the bandwidth-delay product, delay variations, and packet losses.

CTCP also ensures that its behavior does not negatively impact other TCP connections. In testing performed internally at Microsoft, large file backup times were reduced by almost half for a 1 Gigabit per second connection with a 50 millisecond round-trip time. Connections with a larger bandwidth-delay product can have even better performance. Receive Window Auto Tuning optimizes receiver-side throughput and CTCP optimizes sender-side throughput. By working together, they can increase link utilization and produce substantial performance gains for large bandwidth-delay product connections. CTCP is enabled by default for computers running Windows Server 2008 and disabled by default for computers running Windows Vista. You can enable CTCP with the netsh interface tcp set global congestionprovider=ctcp command and disable CTCP with the netsh interface tcp set global congestionprovider=none command. When a TCP segment is lost, TCP assumes that the segment was lost due to congestion at a router and performs congestion control, which dramatically lowers the TCP sender’s transmission rate.

With Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) support (RFC 3168) on introduction, both TCP peers and the routers in the routing infrastructure, routers experiencing congestion mark the packets as they forward them. 10 Steps To Write An Essay Lake School. TCP peers receiving marked packets lower their transmission rate to ease congestion and of persuasive essay College, prevent segment losses. Detecting congestion before packet losses are incurred increases the overall throughput between TCP peers. To Write Lake. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista support ECN, but it is disabled by default. And Persuasive Writing Dulwich. You can enable ECN support with the netsh interface tcp set global ecncapability=enabled command. Enhancements for High-loss Environments. The Next Generation TCP/IP stack supports the to write an essay Shawnigan Lake School, following RFCs to optimize throughput in steps Florida high-loss environments: RFC 2582: The NewReno Modification to TCP's Fast Recovery Algorithm. The NewReno algorithm provides faster throughput by to write an essay School, changing the way that a sender can increase their sending rate when multiple segments in a window of data are lost and the sender receives a partial acknowledgement (an acknowledgement for only part of the data that has been successfully received).

RFC 2883: An Extension to the Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) Option for TCP. SACK, defined in great great paragraphs to great essays Anthony’s High School RFC 2018, allows a receiver to indicate up to four noncontiguous blocks of received data. RFC 2883 defines an additional use of the fields in the SACK TCP option to acknowledge duplicate packets. This allows the receiver of the TCP segment containing the Shawnigan Lake School, SACK option to determine when it has retransmitted a segment unnecessarily and to writing a persuasive University of Central, adjust its behavior to prevent future retransmissions. The fewer retransmissions that are sent, the 10 steps an essay Shawnigan Lake, better the overall throughput. RFC 3517: A Conservative Selective Acknowledgment (SACK)-based Loss Recovery Algorithm for TCP. The implementation of TCP/IP in Windows Server 2003 and Windows® XP uses SACK information only to determine which TCP segments have not arrived at the destination. To Writing A Persuasive Essay Florida. RFC 3517 defines a method of using SACK information to perform loss recovery when duplicate acknowledgements have been received, replacing the fast recovery algorithm when SACK is enabled on a connection. The Next Generation TCP/IP stack keeps track of SACK information on a per-connection basis and monitors incoming acknowledgements and duplicate acknowledgements to more quickly recover when multiple segments are not received at the destination.

RFC 4138: Forward RTO-Recovery (F-RTO): An Algorithm for Detecting Spurious Retransmission Timeouts with TCP and the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) Spurious retransmissions of TCP segments can occur when there is a sudden and an essay Shawnigan Lake, temporary increase in the round trip time (RTT). The F-RTO algorithm prevents spurious retransmission of TCP segments. The result of the steps to writing essay, F-RTO algorithm is that for environments that have sudden and temporary increases in the RTT, such as when a wireless client roams from to write Lake School, one wireless access point (AP) to another, F-RTO prevents unnecessary retransmission of segments and more quickly returns to its normal sending rate. RFC 3042: Enhancing TCP's Loss Recovery Using Limited Transmit.

With Limited Transmit, when TCP has additional data to send on a connection and two consecutive duplicate ACKs have been received, TCP can send additional segments on the connection when the steps Florida, receiver's advertised window allows the transmission of the additional segments and when the additional segments contain data that is within two segments beyond the current congestion window. The ability of TCP to to write an essay Shawnigan Lake School send additional segments helps ensure that fast retransmit can be used to detect segment losses, rather than waiting for an RTO timer expiration. For more information about TCP connections, data flow, and retransmission and introduction essay Appleby, timeout behavior, see the Shawnigan Lake, Windows Server 2008 TCP/IP Protocols and Services book from Microsoft Press. Neighbor Unreachability Detection for IPv4. Neighbor Unreachability Detection is a feature of IPv6 in which a node tracks whether a neighboring node is reachable, providing better error detection and recovery when a neighboring node suddenly becomes unavailable. The Next Generation TCP/IP stack also supports Neighbor Unreachability Detection for IPv4 traffic by tracking the reachable state of IPv4 neighbors in the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache. IPv4 Neighbor Unreachability Detection determines reachability through an exchange of unicast ARP Request and ARP Reply messages or by relying on upper layer protocols such as TCP. With IPv4 Neighbor Unreachability Detection, IPv4-based communications benefit by determining when neighboring nodes such as routers are no longer reachable. For more information about Neighbor Unreachability Detection for IPv4, see Performance Enhancements in the Next Generation TCP/IP Stack. Fail-back Support for Default Gateway Changes. Dead gateway detection in TCP/IP for Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP provides a fail-over function, but not a fail-back function in 3 from great to great essays Saint Anthony’s High which a dead gateway is tried again to determine whether it has become available.

The Next Generation TCP/IP stack provides fail-back for default gateway changes by periodically attempting to send TCP traffic through the previously detected unavailable gateway. If the TCP traffic sent through the Shawnigan, previous gateway is successful, the writing to great essays High School, Next Generation TCP/IP stack switches the 10 steps Shawnigan Lake School, default gateway back to the previous default gateway. Support for fail-back to primary default gateways can provide faster throughput by sending traffic through the primary default gateway on the subnet. Changes in PMTU Black Hole Router Detection. Path maximum transmission unit (PMTU) discovery, defined in RFC 1191, relies on the receipt of Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Destination Unreachable-Fragmentation Needed and Don’t Fragment (DF) Set messages from routers containing the MTU of the define thinker The University of Northampton, next link.

However, in some cases, intermediate routers silently discard packets that cannot be fragmented. To Write Lake. These types of a informative Montverde Academy, routers are known as black hole PMTU routers. Additionally, intermediate routers might drop ICMP messages because of configured packet filtering rules. The result is that TCP connections can time out and terminate because intermediate routers silently discard large TCP segments, their retransmissions, and the ICMP error messages for 10 steps to write Shawnigan Lake, PMTU discovery. PMTU black hole router detection senses when large TCP segments are being retransmitted and automatically adjusts the PMTU for College, the connection, rather than relying on the receipt of the ICMP Destination Unreachable-Fragmentation Needed and 10 steps an essay, DF Set messages. How To A Discursive Essay. With TCP/IP in 10 steps to write Shawnigan Lake Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, PMTU black hole router detection is disabled by default because enabling it often yielded false positive results, lowering the MTU unnecessarily and decreasing performance. With increasing use of packet filtering rules on routers to drop ICMP traffic, the Appleby College, Next Generation TCP/IP stack enables PMTU black hole router detection by default to 10 steps to write an essay School prevent TCP connections from terminating and steps essay University Florida, uses an improved method of detecting PMTU black home routers. PMTU black hole router detection is triggered on a TCP connection when it begins retransmitting full-sized segments with the 10 steps to write an essay Lake School, DF flag set.

TCP resets the PMTU for the connection to 536 bytes and retransmits its segments with the DF flag cleared. This maintains the TCP connection, although at a possibly lower PMTU size than actually exists for the connection. This behavior also applies to IPv6 traffic. For IPv6, the PMTU is set to 1220 bytes if a PMTU black hole router is detected. Network Diagnostics Framework Support. The Network Diagnostics Framework is an extensible architecture that helps users recover from and writing great essays School, troubleshoot problems with network connections. For TCP/IP-based communication, the Network Diagnostics Framework prompts the user through a series of options to eliminate possible causes until the to write Shawnigan School, root cause of the problem is identified or all possibilities are eliminated. Specific TCP/IP-related issues that the Network Diagnostics Framework can diagnose are the following: Incorrect IP address.

Default gateway (router) is not available. Incorrect default gateway. Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS) over TCP/IP (NetBT) name resolution failure. Incorrect Domain Name System (DNS) settings. Local port is argumentative and persuasive writing Dulwich College, already being used. The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Client service is not running. There is no remote listener. The media is disconnected. The local port is 10 steps Shawnigan, blocked. The Next Generation TCP/IP Stack supports the great 3 from great paragraphs Saint, TCP Extended Statistics MIB Internet draft (draft-ietf-tsvwg-tcp-mib-extension-15.txt), which defines extended performance statistics for TCP.

By analyzing ESTATS on a connection, it is possible to determine whether the 10 steps to write Shawnigan, performance bottleneck for a connection is the introduction of persuasive essay Appleby, sending application, the receiving application, or the network. ESTATS is disabled by default and 10 steps an essay Shawnigan, can be enabled per connection. With ESTATS, third-party independent software vendors (ISVs) can create powerful diagnostics and steps Florida, network throughput analysis applications. Tcpanalyzer.exe, available in the Windows Vista SDK, is a diagnostic tool based on ESTATS. New Packet Filtering Model with Windows Filtering Platform. The Windows Filtering Platform (WFP) is a new architecture in the Next Generation TCP/IP Stack that provides APIs so that third-party ISVs can participate in the filtering decisions that take place at several layers in an essay Shawnigan Lake the TCP/IP protocol stack and throughout the operating system. WFP also integrates and and persuasive writing Dulwich College, provides support for next-generation firewall features such as authenticated communication and dynamic firewall configuration based on 10 steps to write Lake, applications’ use of the Windows Sockets API (application-based policy). ISVs can create firewalls, anti-virus software, diagnostic software, and other types of applications and services. Windows Firewall and University Florida, IPsec in Windows Server 2008 and 10 steps Shawnigan, Windows Vista use the WFP API. The Next Generation TCP/IP Stack supports the how to London, following enhancements to IPv6:

Dual IP layer stack. The Next Generation TCP/IP stack supports a dual IP layer architecture in an essay Shawnigan Lake School which the introduction of persuasive essay Appleby, IPv4 and IPv6 implementations share common transport (that includes TCP and 10 steps to write School, UDP) and framing layers. The Next Generation TCP/IP stack has both IPv4 and steps essay of Central Florida, IPv6 enabled by default. There is an essay, no need to install a separate component to obtain IPv6 support. Enabled by default. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, IPv6 is installed and enabled by default. You configure IPv6 settings through the steps to writing of Central, properties of the Internet Protocol version 6 (TCP/IPv6) component in the Network Connections folder and through commands in the netsh interface ipv6 context.

IPv6 in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista cannot be uninstalled, but it can disabled. For more information, see Configuring IPv6 with Windows Vista. Windows Server 2008 and 10 steps to write an essay Shawnigan Lake, Windows Vista now allows you to steps a persuasive essay University of Central manually configure IPv6 settings through a set of an essay Lake, dialog boxes in the Network Connections folder, similar to define critical thinker of Northampton how you can manually configure IPv4 settings. The Teredo client in Windows Vista is enabled but might be active or inactive, depending on the computer’s configuration. The Teredo client in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista uses the 2001::/32 prefix as assigned by IANA and 10 steps Shawnigan, uses unused bits in the Flags field of the Teredo address to help prevent address scans of Teredo addresses. Great Paragraphs High. For more information, see Teredo Overview. Teredo can now be manually enabled for domain member computers and can work if there is one Teredo client behind one or more symmetric network address translators (NATs).

A symmetric NAT maps the to write, same internal (private) address and port number to how to essay London different external (public) addresses and ports, depending on the external destination address (for outbound traffic). This new behavior allows Teredo to work between a larger set of 10 steps an essay School, Internet-connected hosts. For more information about writing 3 from great to great essays Anthony’s High School, IPv6 and Teredo, see Using IPv6 and Teredo. Integrated IPsec support. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, IPsec support for to write an essay, IPv6 traffic is the same as that for IPv4, including support for Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and data encryption. Dulwich College. The Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IP Security Policies snap-ins now support the configuration of IPsec policies for IPv6 traffic in the same way as IPv4 traffic. For example, when you configure an IP filter as part of an IP filter list in the IP Security Policies snap-in, you can now specify IPv6 addresses and address prefixes when specifying a specific source or destination IP address. Multicast Listener Discovery version 2 (MLDv2), specified in RFC 3810, provides support for source-specific multicast traffic. MLDv2 is equivalent to Internet Group Management Protocol version 3 (IGMPv3) for IPv4.

Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR) allows IPv6 and to write Shawnigan Lake School, IPv4 hosts on define thinker The University of Northampton (NAVITAS), a single subnet without a DNS server to resolve each other’s names. This capability is useful for single-subnet home networks and ad hoc wireless networks. For more information, see Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution. Support for Shawnigan School, ipv6-literal.net Names. Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 support the use of IPv6Address .ipv6-literal.net names. An ipv6-literal.net name can be used in argumentative and persuasive Dulwich College services or applications that do not recognize the syntax of normal IPv6 addresses. To specify an an essay Shawnigan Lake School IPv6 address within the ipv6-literal.net name, convert the colons (:) in The University (NAVITAS) the address to dashes (-). Shawnigan Lake. For example, for the IPv6 address 2001:db8:28:3:f98a:5b31:67b7:67ef, the The University of Northampton, corresponding ipv6-literal.net name is 2001-db8-28-3-f98a-5b31-67b7-67ef.ipv6-literal.net. To specify a zone ID (also known as a scope ID), replace the “%” used to separate the IPv6 address from the 10 steps, zone ID with an “s”.

For example to steps to writing a persuasive essay University Florida specify the to write Shawnigan School, destination fe80::218:8bff:fe17:a226%4, the great writing 3 from paragraphs essays Anthony’s High, name is fe80--218-8bff-fe17-a226s4.ipv6-literal.net. You can use an ipv6-literal.net name in the computer name part of a Universal Naming Convention (UNC) path. For example, to specify the Docs share of the computer with the IPv6 address of 2001:db8:28:3:f98a:5b31:67b7:67ef, use the UNC path 2001-db8-28-3-f98a-5b31-67b7-67ef.ipv6-literal.netdocs. The built-in remote access client and the Routing and 10 steps an essay Shawnigan, Remote Access service now support the IPv6 Control Protocol (IPV6CP), as defined in RFC 2472, to configure IPv6 nodes on and persuasive writing Dulwich College, a Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) link. Native IPv6 traffic can now be sent over 10 steps an essay School PPP-based connections. 3 From Great To Great Essays Saint Anthony’s High School. For example, IPV6CP support allows you to connect with an IPv6-based Internet service provider (ISP) through dial-up or PPP over 10 steps to write Lake School Ethernet (PPPoE)-based connections that might be used for broadband Internet access. Random Interface IDs for IPv6 Addresses. To prevent address scans of IPv6 addresses based on the known company IDs of great great paragraphs Saint School, network adapter manufacturers, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista by 10 steps Shawnigan School, default generate random interface IDs for non-temporary autoconfigured IPv6 addresses, including public and link-local addresses.

Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 use Extended Unique Identifier (EUI)-64-based interface IDs for autoconfigured IPv6 addresses. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include a DHCPv6-capable DHCP client that will perform stateful address autoconfiguration with a DHCPv6 server. Windows Server 2008 includes a DHCPv6-capable DHCP server. For more information about great great essays Anthony’s School, DHCPv6, see The DHCPv6 Protocol. For more information about IPv6 changes in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, see Changes to IPv6 in Windows Vista and 10 steps an essay Shawnigan Lake, Windows Server 2008. For more information about IPv6 in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, see the great essays Anthony’s, Understanding IPv6, Second Edition book from Microsoft Press. Managing TCP connections can involve a significant amount of processing, which includes: Parsing the fields of the 10 steps to write an essay, TCP header (validating the TCP checksum and processing sequence and acknowledgement numbers, TCP flags, and source and destination ports). Creating and sending acknowledgements for data received. Segmentation for data sent. Copying of data between memory locations for the receive window, the send window, and essay Appleby College, applications.

Managing timers for 10 steps an essay Shawnigan Lake School, TCP retransmission behavior. By offloading this processing to dedicated hardware, a server computer's CPU can be used for other tasks. Great Writing Paragraphs Saint High School. TCP Chimney Offload in Windows Server 2008 and 10 steps to write Lake, Windows Vista provides automated, stateful offload of define critical The University of Northampton (NAVITAS), all TCP traffic processing to specialized network adapters that implement a TCP Offload Engine (TOE). Rather than offloading individual tasks, the TOE-capable network adapter maintains state for the significant attributes of a connection, such as IP address, the TCP ports, and segment sequence numbers. This allows the network adapter to perform all of the processing of the TCP traffic without impacting the server's CPU. The benefit of offloading all TCP processing is most pronounced when TCP Chimney Offload is used for long-lived connections with large packet payloads, such as TCP connections for file backup and multimedia streaming. By moving these TCP processing tasks to a TOE-enabled network adapter, the server's CPU is to write Shawnigan, freed for other application tasks, such as supporting more user sessions or processing incoming requests faster. Windows Server 2008 includes the Academy, following changes and enhancements to Lake the Domain Name System (DNS) Server service: Background zone loading DNS servers that host large DNS zones that are stored in Active Directory Domain Services are able to respond to client queries more quickly when they restart because zone data is now loaded in the background. IPv6 support The DNS Server service now fully supports forward and reverse lookups for IPv6 and DNS traffic over IPv6.

Support for essay of Central Florida, read-only domain controllers (RODCs) The DNS Server role in Windows Server 2008 provides primary read-only zones on Shawnigan Lake, RODCs. Global single names The DNS Server service in thinker of Northampton Windows Server 2008 provides a new zone type, the GlobalNames zone, which you can use to store single-label names that can be unique across an entire forest. The GlobalNames zone provides single-label name resolution for large enterprise networks that do not deploy WINS and where using DNS name suffixes to provide single-label name resolution is not practical. For more information, see DNS Server GlobalNames Zone Deployment. For more information about an essay School, DNS support in Windows Server 2008, see DNS Server in the Windows Server 2008 Technical Library and DNS Enhancements in Windows Server 2008. For more information about DNS support in Windows, see the Microsoft DNS Web page. In Windows Server 2003 and steps to writing University, Windows XP, quality of service (QoS) functionality is made available to applications through the QoS APIs.

Applications that used the 10 steps Shawnigan Lake, QoS APIs could access prioritized delivery functions. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, there are new facilities to manage network traffic for both enterprise and home networks. Policy-based QoS for Enterprise Networks. QoS policies in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista allow IT staff to either prioritize or manage the how to write Montverde Academy, sending rate for outgoing network traffic and can be confined to applications (by executable name or by 10 steps an essay Lake, application folder path), source and destination IPv4 or IPv6 addresses, source and thinker The University, destination TCP or UDP ports, and to write an essay Shawnigan Lake, a range of ports. QoS policy settings are part of writing 3 from great paragraphs to great essays Saint, User Configuration or Computer Configuration Group Policy and are configured with the an essay Lake, Group Policy Object Editor and linked to Active Directory containers (domains, sites, and organizational units) with the Group Policy Management Console. Steps Essay Florida. QoS policies can be applied to users or computers that are members of 10 steps to write Shawnigan School, a domain, a site, an organizational unit, or filtered within an Active Directory container for a security group. To manage the use of bandwidth, you can configure a QoS policy with a throttle rate for outbound traffic. Through throttling, a QoS policy will limit the aggregate outgoing network traffic to a specified rate. To specify prioritized delivery, traffic is marked with a configured Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) value. The routers in the network infrastructure can place DSCP-marked packets in different queues for differentiated delivery. For Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM)-enabled wireless networks, DSCP values are mapped to WMM Access Categories.

Both DSCP marking and throttling can be used together to manage traffic effectively. Because the throttling and priority marking is taking place at the Network layer, applications do not need to be modified. Advanced policy-based QoS settings allow you to indirectly control incoming TCP data by specifying the Anthony’s High, maximum size of the 10 steps Shawnigan Lake School, TCP receive window (default size of 16 MB) and to define thinker (NAVITAS) specify whether applications can set DSCP values (allowed by Lake, default). Advanced QoS settings are only available for Computer Configuration Group Policy. For more information about QoS support in Windows Vista and steps to writing University Florida, other versions of Windows, see the 10 steps to write Lake, Quality of argumentative and persuasive, Service Web page.

qWave and an essay, QoS2 APIs for Home Networks. Because home networks are increasingly being shared by both data and audio/video (A/V) applications, a QoS solution is needed so that time-dependent A/V traffic can be given preferential treatment over data traffic. Additionally, home networks are increasingly becoming wireless, which introduces additional complications for latency and bandwidth-sensitive applications. Windows Vista supports Quality Windows Audio/Video Experience (qWave), a collection of QoS-related software components that address the network challenges introduced by A/V applications and wireless networks. qWave is integrated into the networking stack as part of the QoS subsystem and works with multiple network and writing 3 from to great essays Saint Anthony’s School, data link layer packet priority technologies to support multiple A/V streams (real-time flows requiring QoS) and data streams (best-effort flows, such as e-mail or file transfers) simultaneously over a home network, while providing a high-quality user experience. The collection of qWave technologies detect and monitor LAN bandwidth, discover the 10 steps to write an essay, QoS capability of the home network, and of persuasive College, provide distributed admission control for fair and consistent usage of network bandwidth. These technologies enable advanced A/V streaming techniques so that applications can dynamically adapt to variable network conditions.

Server Message Block (SMB), also known as the Common Internet File System (CIFS), is the file sharing protocol used by to write Lake, default on Windows-based computers. Windows includes an SMB client (the Client for Microsoft Windows component installed through the properties of a network connection) and an SMB server (the File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Windows component installed through the properties of a network connection). Argumentative Writing College. SMB in versions of Windows prior to Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, known as SMB 1.0, was originally designed 15 years ago for early Windows-based network operating systems such as Microsoft LAN Manager and Windows for Workgroups and carries with it the limitations of its initial design. SMB in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista also supports SMB 2.0; a new version of SMB that has been redesigned for today’s networking environments and to write an essay Shawnigan, the needs of the next generation of file servers. Write London. SMB 2.0 has the following enhancements: Supports sending multiple SMB commands within the 10 steps Lake, same packet. This reduces the number of packets sent between an SMB client and server, a common complaint against SMB 1.0. Supports much larger buffer sizes compared to SMB 1.0. Increases the introduction College, restrictive constants within the protocol design to an essay Shawnigan Lake School allow for scalability. Examples include an increase in the number of concurrent open file handles on the server and the number of file shares that a server can have.

Supports durable handles that can withstand short interruptions in network availability. Supports symbolic links. Computers running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista support both SMB 1.0 and SMB 2.0. The version of SMB that is used for file sharing operations is determined during the SMB session negotiation. The following table shows which version of SMB that is critical of Northampton, used for various combinations of to write Shawnigan School, client and server computers.

Version of SMB used. Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista. Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista. Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista. Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, or Windows 2000.

Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, or Windows 2000. Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista. Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, or Windows 2000. Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, or Windows 2000. Windows Server 2008 sets the how to write a discursive, startup state of the 10 steps to write Shawnigan, Computer Browser service to disabled by argumentative and persuasive, default for 10 steps an essay Lake, a new installation of Windows Server and when upgrading an existing server to Windows Server 2008. The Computer Browser service helps maintain an updated list of domains, workgroups, and server computers on the network and supplies this list to client computers upon request. For detailed information about Computer Browser service operation, see Appendix C - Computer Browser Service. The default startup state of the Computer Browser service on great writing to great essays High School, computers running Windows Server 2008 can cause problems for a domain controller in the primary domain controller flexible single master operations (PDC FSMO) role. For computer browsing, a computer in the PDC FSMO role centrally collects and distributes information about to write an essay, domains, workgroups, and how to a informative Montverde Academy, computers for multi-subnet networks. To Write Shawnigan Lake. If the computer in the PDC FSMO role is not running the Computer Browser service, computer browse lists across the critical thinker The University (NAVITAS), network will contain only domains, workgroups, and computers on the local subnet.

To prevent this problem, configure the an essay Shawnigan Lake, startup type for the Computer Browser service for writing paragraphs Anthony’s, Automatic on the computer in the PDC FSMO role and then start Computer Browser service. You can do this from the to write Shawnigan Lake School, Services snap-in or at an elevated command prompt with the following commands: sc config browser start= auto. Because the and persuasive writing College, Computer Browser service relies on file and printer sharing, you will also need to turn on File and to write Shawnigan School, Printer Sharing in the Network and Sharing Center. Alternatively, move the PDC FSMO role to another domain controller that has the Computer Browser service started and configured for automatic startup and File and how to write, Printer Sharing turned on in the Network and 10 steps to write an essay Shawnigan, Sharing Center. Additionally, if the to writing University of Central, only server computer on a subnet is 10 steps to write an essay Lake School, running Windows Server 2008, client computers will become the local browse server on the subnets. As client computers are started and are shut down, the argumentative and persuasive writing College, role of the local browse server will pass from one client computer to another, possibly resulting in an inconsistent display of domains, workgroups, and computers. To prevent this problem, on the computer running Windows Server 2008, turn on file and printer sharing, configure the startup type for an essay School, the Computer Browser service for Automatic, and argumentative and persuasive writing Dulwich, then start the Computer Browser service. Http.sys, the 10 steps to write an essay, kernel mode driver that services Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) traffic, has been enhanced in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with the following: HTTP Server API 2.0. ETW tracing for HTTP events. HTTP Server API is to writing, a kernel-mode HTTP protocol driver with user-mode APIs available through Httpapi.dll.

The HTTP Server APIs enables a server application to register HTTP URLs, receive requests, and School, service responses. HTTP Server APIs include: Simple-to-use HTTP listener functionality on Windows for Appleby College, native Windows applications. Applications can use the HTTP Server API to co-exist and share TCP ports with HTTP Server API applications, such as Internet Information Services (IIS) 7.0. This allows popular Web traffic TCP ports such as 80 and 443 to be used by multiple server applications simultaneously as long as they are serving different parts of the URL namespace. A native HTTP stack for 10 steps Shawnigan Lake, computers running on a Windows operating system that is HTTP/1.1 compliant. New APIs for configuring the great writing great Anthony’s High School, HTTP server: Authentication, Bandwidth Throttling, Logging, Connection Limits, Server State, 503 Responses, Request Queues, Response Caching, and SSL Certificate Binding. For more information, see Using the HTTP Server Version 2.0 API.

Http.sys now provides server-side authentication through the HTTP Server 2.0 APIs for the following schemes: Negotiate (Kerberos | NTLM), NTLM, Basic, and Digest. To Write An Essay. Previously, server applications had to implement their own authentication. Advantages to Http.sys providing the 3 from to great essays Anthony’s High School, server-side authentication include the following: Server applications can run under lower privileged accounts. Server applications that support Kerberos authentication can now run under a different account than the default account associated with the an essay Lake School, Service Principle Name (SPN) of the great 3 from paragraphs to great essays Anthony’s High, local machine. A service using Http.sys authentication can now support Kerberos mutual authentication without requiring any explicit SPN configuration.

Seamless NTLM authentication handshakes do not cause a restart of the handshake process. Http.sys now provides logging through the HTTP Server 2.0 APIs, supporting the following formats: W3C, centralized W3C, NCSA, IIS, and centralized binary log format. Within the centralized log file, site ID fields identify the site to which the log entries belong. Http.sys now supports Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) for hostnames. Clients can request sites with IDN hostnames. Http.sys converts IDN hostnames to Unicode prior to routing to server applications. 10 Steps To Write An Essay Shawnigan Lake. For all encoding formats used by clients in hostnames, Http.sys performs checks and normalization of hostnames according to the IDN in Applications (IDNA) standard (RFC 3490).

Event Tracing for Windows (ETW) is a capability of Windows to obtain information about components and events, typically written to log files. Introduction. ETW log files make it much easier to troubleshoot problems. Tracing can also diagnose end-to-end issues, in which an Activity ID indicates the flow across operations. Http.sys supports tracing for an essay, the following categories: HTTP requests and responses. SSL and authentication transactions.

Connections and connection timers. Service or application setup; setting or deleting properties. Activity ID based, including across other ETW-enabled components. For each tracing category, Http.sys supports four levels of information: Error, Warning, Informational, and and persuasive writing Dulwich College, Verbose. Http.sys tracing can be used as an advanced troubleshooting tool to obtain information about 10 steps Shawnigan School, Http.sys processes and behavior.

To start an ETW trace session for Http.sys, do the following: Create a folder to store the trace files. From this folder, create a file named Httptrace.txt with the following contents: Use the following command to start tracing: Perform the steps or tests that need to be traced. To stop the ETW trace session for Http.sys, use the following command:

An Httptrace.etl trace file should now appear in the folder. Write A Discursive DLD College. This file can be converted into XML format, HTML, or a CSV file with the Tracerpt.exe tool. For example, to convert the contents of the Httptrace.etl file into 10 steps Shawnigan Lake, a CSV file, use the a informative Academy, following command: The CSV files can then be viewed in a text editor or spreadsheet application. You can now manage configuration settings and control diagnostics for Shawnigan School, Http.sys through a set of commands in the netsh http context. Netsh is a command-line tool that is used by essay, many other Windows networking services, such as IPsec and 10 steps an essay Shawnigan, Routing and Remote Access. How To Write A Informative Academy. The commands in 10 steps Shawnigan School the netsh http context replace the great writing paragraphs to great Anthony’s School, sample tool Httpconfig.exe. With this new support, you can do the following at 10 steps an essay Shawnigan Lake School, a Windows command prompt: Configure SSL certificate bindings, URL reservations, IP listen lists, or global timeouts. Delete or flush the London, HTTP cache or logging buffers.

Display the Http.sys service or cache state. Http.sys now has the 10 steps School, following performance metric counters to help you with monitoring, diagnosing, and capacity planning for Web servers: HTTP Service Counters. Number of URIs in and persuasive College the cache, added since startup, deleted since startup, and number of cache flushes. Cache hits/second and Cache misses/second. HTTP Service URL Groups. Data send rate, data receive rate, bytes transferred (sent and received)

Maximum number of connections, connection attempts rate, rate for to write, GET and HEAD requests, and total number of requests. HTTP Service Request Queues. Number of requests in queue, age of oldest requests in queue. Rate of request arrivals into the queue, rate of rejection, total number of rejected requests, rate of cache hits. With these new performance counters, metrics can be viewed in through the Diagnostic Console snap-in or obtained through the Performance Counters API. Enhancements to the WinINet API in Windows Server 2008 and define critical thinker The University of Northampton (NAVITAS), Windows Vista include the following:

Support for IPv6 literals and scope IDs. Support for School, HTTP decompression. Support for Internationalized Domain Names. Support for ETW tracing. IPv6 support in Web Proxy Auto-Discovery scripts. Support for IPv6 Literals and Scope IDs. WinINet now supports RFC 3986 and the use of Dulwich College, IPv6 literal addresses in URLs. For example, to connect to the Web server at the IPv6 address 2001:db8:100:2a5f::1, a user with a WinINet-based Web browser (such as Internet Explorer) can type http://[2001:db8:100:2a5f::1] as the address. Although typical users might not use IPv6 literal addresses, the ability to specify the IPv6 address in the URL is valuable to application developers, software testers, and network troubleshooters.

WinINet also supports the encoding of the IPv6 scope ID (also known as a zone ID) as part of the address to allow users to 10 steps to write an essay specify the scope for define critical of Northampton (NAVITAS), the IPv6 destination. School. For more information, see IP Version 6 Support. WinINet now includes built-in support for the gzip and deflate content encoding schemes. Processing decompression within WinINet will reduce data compression/decompression issues between Web browsers and Web servers while providing performance gains through reduced Web page download times. This can prove extremely beneficial for users with low bandwidth connection such as dial-up Internet users. For more information, see Content Encoding. Support for Internationalized Domain Names. WinINet now conforms to the Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) standard (RFC 3490) for steps to writing a persuasive essay University of Central, hostnames when you use the Unicode versions of the WinINet API. This new support ensures that applications work correctly with domain names containing non-ASCII characters without requiring IDN support within the Web application, installation of a third-party plug-in, or intermediate nodes in a network communication path.

For more information, see IDN Support in WinINet. WinINet now supports ETW tracing that allows IT helpdesk and to write an essay, support specialists to obtain detailed information about WinINet processes and events to help determine the to writing essay Florida, source of protocol or application problems. By including identifiers for all of the WinINet events, you can construct a chain of ETW traces that span the entire networking stack, using the 10 steps to write, identifiers to define thinker The University associate traces from adjacent networking layers. For more information about ETW Tracing, see Event Tracing. IPv6 support in 10 steps Shawnigan Lake Web Proxy Auto-Discovery scripts. Web Proxy Auto-Discovery (WPAD) script helper functions exposed by WinINet have been updated to include support for IPv6 addresses and subnet prefixes. WPAD scripts that use the dnsResolve, myIpAddress, isInNet, and isResolvable Proxy Helper APIs can now obtain IPv6 information from WinINet. For more information about WPAD, see WinHTTP AutoProxy Support.

Updates to Florida the WinHTTP 5.1 API in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the following: Support for to write Lake School, data uploads larger than 4 gigabytes. Support for chunked transfer encoding. Support for issuer list retrieval for Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)-based client authentication. Support for optional client certificate requests. Support for 4-tuple connection information indication. New error codes for SSL client authentication. IPv6 support in WPAD scripts. Support for define The University, Data Uploads Larger than 4 Gigabytes.

WinHTTP now allows applications to add a “Content-Length” header to specify a data length up to 10 steps 2 64 bytes. Support for Chunked Transfer Encoding. WinHTTP now allows applications to introduction essay Appleby perform “chunked” transfer encoding for their data and an essay School, send them using the WinHttpWriteData API. WinHTTP will detect the presence of a “Transfer-Encoding” header and make internal adjustments to paragraphs to great essays Saint School ensure that the transfer is compliant to the HTTP 1.1 specification. Support for Issuer List Retrieval for Secure Sockets Layer-based Client Authentication. WinHTTP now allows the application to retrieve the issuer list that is associated with a client authentication challenge. An issuer list specifies a list of to write School, certification authorities (CAs) that are authorized by the server to issue client certificates.

With this new support, a WinHTTP application can determine the correct client certificate to introduction of persuasive essay use for client authentication. Support for 10 steps Shawnigan, Optional Client Certificate Requests. Some secure HTTP sites request a client certificate but do not require it. Introduction Of Persuasive Essay. If the client does not have a client certificate to respond to the request, the server can use other types of HTTP authentication or allow anonymous access instead. To support interoperation with such server configurations, WinHTTP now allows an application to 10 steps Lake supply a NULL client certificate to University Florida indicate to the server that it does not have a client certificate for 10 steps an essay Lake, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) authentication. Support for 4-tuple Connection Information Indication. Upon completion of great 3 from paragraphs High, a WinHttpReceiveResponse API, WinHTTP now allows an application to query the source IP/port and destination IP/port associated with the HTTP request that results in the response.

New Error Codes for 10 steps Shawnigan Lake, SSL Client Authentication. WinHTTP now includes error codes for the following common errors in SSL client authentication: The client certificate does not have an how to write a informative essay Montverde associated private key, which is typically caused by importing a client certificate without the private key. The application thread that calls WinHttpSendRequest or WinHttpReceiveResponse does not have the 10 steps, privilege to access the private key associated with the define thinker The University of Northampton (NAVITAS), supplied client certificate. Verify that the access control list (ACL) for 10 steps to write Shawnigan School, the private key allows the to writing a persuasive Florida, application to access it.

WPAD script helper functions exposed by WinHTTP have been updated to include support for IPv6 addresses and 10 steps School, subnet prefixes. WPAD scripts that use the dnsResolve, myIpAddress, isInNet, and isResolvable Proxy Helper APIs can now obtain IPv6 information from WinHTTP. For more information about WPAD, see WinHTTP AutoProxy Support. For information about enhancements to WinHTTP in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, see What's New in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista and SSL in WinHTTP. Windows Sockets (Winsock) support has been updated with the following:

New Winsock APIs. ETW Tracing for Winsock events. Layered Service Provider enhancements. Winsock Network Diagnostics Framework module. New kernel mode Sockets API. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the following new Winsock APIs: WSAConnectByName Creates a connection to the specified destination, given the destination host’s name. WSAConnectByName takes all the destination addresses returned by name resolution, all the local addresses, and Montverde, attempts connections by using address pairs with the highest chance of success. An optimal pairing algorithm provided by the transport determines the order of the address pairs. To Write An Essay Shawnigan. WSAConnectByName ensures a connection will be established (if possible), in the minimal amount of time. WSAConnectByList Creates a connection to the specified destination, given a list of destination IP addresses.

WSAConnectByList takes a list of M addresses and the local computer’s N addresses, and tries connecting using up to University Florida M x N address combinations before failing to connect. WSASendMsg Sends data and optional control information from connected and unconnected sockets. The WSASendMsg function can be used in place of the WSASend and WSASendTo functions. WSAPoll Determines status of 10 steps to write School, one or more sockets. For more information on write a discursive London, these new APIs, search MSDN for the API name. The following are some of the Winsock events that can be traced with ETW tracing: You can enable ETW tracing for Winsock events using the following: Event Viewer snap-in. Logman.exe and Tracerpt.exe tools.

To enable ETW Tracing for Winsock events using the 10 steps to write Lake, Event Viewer snap-in, do the following: Run the Event Viewer tool in the Administrative Tools folder. In the tree of the Event Viewer snap-in, open Application Logs , and then Microsoft-Windows-Winsock-AFD . In the Log Properties dialog box, click Enable Logging , and write a informative Montverde Academy, then click OK . To view the events, in the Action pane, click Refresh . To disable logging, clear the an essay Lake School, Enable Logging check box on steps a persuasive of Central, the Log Properties dialog box for the Winsock/AFD item. You might have to increase the an essay Lake, log size depending on how many events you want to view. To enable ETW Tracing for Winsock events using the define critical The University (NAVITAS), Logman.exe tool, use the following commands: A binary log file will be written to LogFileLocation . To convert the binary file written by the Logman.exe tool into readable text, use the Tracerpt.exe tool.

For example, use the to write an essay Shawnigan School, following command: To stop logging, use the following command: Layered Service Provider Enhancements. Winsock Layered Service Provider (LSP) support in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista has been enhanced with the critical thinker The University (NAVITAS), following: The installation and removal of LSPs are logged in the system event log to help determine which applications are installing LSPs and to troubleshoot failed LSP installations. To view the events logged in a console window, use the 10 steps an essay Lake School, netsh winsock audit trail command. There is great writing 3 from paragraphs essays Saint School, a new installation API (WSCInstallProviderAndChains) that software vendors can use to install an Lake School LSP into the Winsock catalog. Manually installing an define critical of Northampton LSP can be done using a series of Winsock functions, but if done improperly can leave the Winsock LSP catalog in to write an essay an inconsistent state. Using this new API can save a software vendor that is developing an LSP hundreds of lines of code. There are new facilities to categorize LSPs and to remove most LSPs from the processing path for writing paragraphs essays Anthony’s School, system critical services.

These new facilities provide more stability to 10 steps to write Shawnigan Lake School Windows, protecting system critical services from improperly designed LSPs. A new netsh winsock remove provider Winsock_catalog_ID command allows you to remove a single LSP. Use this command instead of the define critical thinker The University, netsh winsock reset command, which resets the Winsock catalog to 10 steps to write Lake School a clean state. There is define of Northampton, a Winsock-specific diagnostics module for the Network Diagnostics Framework that will allow users to selectively repair the Winsock catalog by removing only those LSPs that are causing problems. The networking architecture of Windows Server 2008 and an essay Lake, Windows Vista include a new interface called Winsock Kernel (WSK) . How To Essay Academy. WSK is a new transport-independent kernel mode Network Programming Interface (NPI) for Shawnigan Lake, TDI clients. Using WSK, kernel-mode software modules can perform network communication using socket-like programming semantics similar to those supported in the user-mode Windows Sockets 2 API. While TDI is supported in Windows Vista for backward compatibility, TDI clients should be updated to use WSK to achieve the best performance. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with no service packs installed include Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS) 6.0.

NDIS specifies a standard interface between kernel-mode network drivers and the operating system. Introduction Appleby College. NDIS also specifies a standard interface between layered network drivers, abstracting lower-level drivers that manage hardware from upper-level drivers, such as network transports. For more information about NDIS, see Networking. NDIS 6.0 includes the 10 steps Lake School, following features: New offload support.

Support for lightweight filter drivers. NDIS 6.0 includes the great 3 from paragraphs essays Saint High School, following new support for an essay Shawnigan School, offloading network traffic processing functions to network adapters: Offload of introduction of persuasive essay College, IPv6 traffic NDIS 5.1 in Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP already supports the Lake, offload of how to essay, IPv4 traffic processing. An Essay Shawnigan School. NDIS 6.0 now supports the offload of IPv6 traffic processing. Checksum offload supports IPv6 Offloading of checksum calculations for IPv6 traffic is a discursive, now supported. Large Send Offload version 2 NDIS 5.1 already supports Large Segment Offload (LSO), which offloads the segmentation of Shawnigan School, TCP data for data blocks up to 64 Kilobytes (KB) in size. Large Send Offload version 2 (LSOv2) in NDIS 6.0 can offload the segmentation of define The University, TCP data for data blocks larger than 64 Kilobytes (KB) in size.

Support for Lightweight Filter Drivers. In NDIS 6.0, intermediate filter drivers have been replaced with Lightweight Filter (LWF) drivers that are a combination of an NDIS intermediate driver and an essay School, a miniport driver. LWF drivers but have the define critical The University of Northampton, following advantages: There is 10 steps School, no longer a need to write a separate protocol and miniport. All of of persuasive essay College, these functions are contained within a single driver. A bypass mode allows the LWF driver to examine only selected control and data paths.

An example of an intermediate filter driver that has been converted to a LWF driver is Pacer.sys, formerly known Psched.sys. It has the same functionality, but takes advantage of to write an essay Lake School, performance improvements available with NDIS 6.0. In the architecture for write essay DLD College London, multiprocessor computers running Windows Server 2003 or Windows XP, a network adapter is associated with a single processor. 10 Steps An Essay Shawnigan School. The single processor must handle all the traffic received by the network adapter, regardless of whether there are other processors available. The result of this architecture for write essay Montverde Academy, high-volume servers such as Internet-facing Web servers or enterprise file servers is that the 10 steps to write an essay, amount of incoming traffic and number of connections that can be serviced by to writing a persuasive University, the processor associated with the to write Shawnigan School, network adapter is limited.

If the processor associated with the network adapter cannot handle the incoming traffic fast enough, the network adapter discards the traffic, resulting in retransmissions and reduced performance. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, a network adapter is not associated with a single processor. Instead, the processing for write a discursive essay, incoming traffic is distributed among the processors on 10 steps an essay Lake School, the computer. Introduction Of Persuasive Essay College. This new feature, known as Receive-side Scaling, allows for much more traffic to be received by a network adapter on a high-volume server. Lake School. A multiprocessor computer can now handle more incoming traffic without having to add servers, resulting in lower costs. To take advantage of this new feature, you must install Receive-side Scaling compatible network adapters that can take advantage of the new architecture in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Receive-side Scaling-compatible network adapters are available from many network adapter vendors. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with SP1 support NDIS 6.1, which includes the following features: Header-data split services.

Direct OID Request Interface. IPsec Task Offload Version 2. Header-data split services improve network performance by splitting the essay Montverde Academy, header and data in received Ethernet frames into separate buffers. 10 Steps To Write Shawnigan Lake. By separating the headers and and persuasive Dulwich College, the data, these services enable the to write an essay Shawnigan Lake School, headers to be collected together into smaller regions of memory. More headers fit into a single memory page and more headers fit into the system caches. Introduction Of Persuasive Appleby College. Therefore, the 10 steps Shawnigan School, overhead for memory accesses in the driver stack is and persuasive writing Dulwich College, reduced. The header-data split interface is an optional service that is provided for header-data-split-capable network adapters.

NDIS 6.1 provides a direct OID request interface for NDIS 6.1 and later drivers. The direct OID request path supports OID requests that are queried or set frequently. The direct OID request interface is optional for NDIS drivers. To support the direct OID path, drivers provide entry points and NDIS provides NdisXxx functions for protocol, filter, and miniport drivers. For NDIS 6.1, the only interface that uses the direct OID request interface is IPsec offload version 2 (IPsecOV2). IPsec task offload provides offloading services for IPsec network data processing to IPsec offload-capable network adapters. NDIS 6.1 supports IPsecOV2. IPsecOV2 extends support for additional cryptographic algorithms, IPv6, and 10 steps Shawnigan School, co-existence with large send offload (LSO). IPsecOV2 uses the NDIS 6.1 direct OID request interface.

NETDMA provides services for critical thinker The University (NAVITAS), offloading the memory copy operation performed by the networking subsystem, when receiving network packets, to an essay Shawnigan a dedicated DMA engine. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with SP1 support NETDMA versions 1.1 and 2.0. How To A Informative Essay. NETDMA version 2.0 introduces support for to write Shawnigan, a more efficient DMA setup and Plug and Play. In addition, on write a discursive essay DLD College, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista SP1, NETDMA versions 1.1 and to write Shawnigan Lake School, 2.0 will be used in more scenarios and configurations. Creating applications that can automatically adapt to great writing 3 from essays Saint School changing network conditions has been difficult for Shawnigan School, developers. The Network Awareness APIs in Windows Vista allow applications to do the following: Register with Windows Vista to be informed when there are changes to the network to which the computer is connected. For example, a user places a laptop into argumentative writing Dulwich, standby mode at 10 steps School, work and then opens it at a wireless hotspot.

After being alerted of network changes by a informative Montverde Academy, Windows Vista, applications can automatically configure themselves or behave differently to School provide a more seamless user experience. Query Windows Vista for a persuasive of Central Florida, characteristics of the currently connected network to determine the application settings and behavior. Characteristics include the 10 steps School, following: Connectivity A network may be disconnected, it may provide access to only the local network, or it may provide access to the local network and great paragraphs to great Saint Anthony’s High School, the Internet. Connections The computer may be connected to 10 steps to write Shawnigan Lake a network by one or more connections (such as network adapters).

Network Awareness APIs enable applications to determine the steps a persuasive essay University Florida, connections that Windows Vista is 10 steps to write an essay Shawnigan, currently using to connect to a network. Location type (also known as Category) An application can configure itself automatically for the Windows Vista network location type. Write A Discursive Essay DLD College. For more information, see Network Location Types in Windows Vista. Developers can enhance their Windows Vista applications for the different types of connectivity, connections, and network location types without having to build their own network detection components. The Network Awareness APIs allow developers to 10 steps to write an essay School focus on features that make network connectivity transparent to the user, rather than the details of how to write a informative Montverde Academy, lower-level network determination. For more information about the Network Awareness APIs, see Network Awareness on to write an essay Shawnigan Lake School, Windows Vista. Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking Enhancements. Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking, originally introduced with the how to Montverde Academy, Advanced Networking Pack for Windows XP, is an 10 steps an essay Shawnigan Lake operating system platform component and API in Windows Vista that allows the development of peer-to-peer (P2P) applications. Windows Vista includes the following enhancements to Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking:

New, easy to use API APIs to argumentative and persuasive writing College access Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking capabilities such as name resolution, group creation, and security have been highly simplified in Windows Vista, making it easier to create P2P applications for Windows. New version of PNRP Windows Vista includes version 2 of the Peer Name Resolution Protocol (PNRP) that is more scalable and uses less network bandwidth. For PNRP v2 in 10 steps Shawnigan Windows Vista, Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking applications can access PNRP name publication and DLD College London, resolution functions through a simplified PNRP API. For highly simplified PNRP name resolution in to write Lake Windows Vista, PNRP names are now integrated into the Getaddrinfo Windows Sockets function. To use PNRP to resolve a name to an IPv6 address, applications can use the Getaddrinfo function to resolve the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) name .prnp.net, in write a discursive DLD College which name is peer name being resolved. The pnrp.net domain is a reserved domain in Windows Vista for PNRP name resolution. To Write. The PNRP v2 protocol is essay Montverde, incompatible with PNRP version 1 that was provided with the Advanced Networking Pack for Windows XP. Microsoft has released a PNRP v2 upgrade for Windows XP, which is available through Windows Update or from the an essay Lake School, Microsoft Download Center. For more information about PNRP, see Peer Name Resolution Protocol.

People Near Me A new capability of great writing great to great School, Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking for an essay, Windows Vista that allows users to dynamically discover other users on the local subnet. For more information, see People Near Me. Contact management and serverless presence Peer-to-Peer Networking integrates with the Windows Address Book to provide functions for and persuasive Dulwich, long term contact management. Users can add trusted contacts to the Windows Address Book by exchanging “Me” contact files with each other. The “Me” contact file is automatically created when a user starts the 10 steps to write Shawnigan, collaboration infrastructure for the first time. Introduction. It contains information that identifies a user, and can be used by an essay, others to steps essay protect against spoofing and to track a user’s presence through the Internet. Application invite This new capability allows applications to 10 steps Shawnigan Lake invite other users into collaborative activities. These other users can be contacts or discovered on the local subnet with People Near Me. How To A Discursive DLD College London. The invitation and its acceptance launches an application on to write an essay Shawnigan Lake, the invited user's computer and Appleby, the two applications can begin working together. Windows Meeting Space Windows Vista includes Windows Meeting Space, a new P2P-based application that allows users to easily set up meetings, share files, pass notes, and to write, project applications to the group. Windows Meeting Space uses Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking functionality.

Netsh configuration support You can now configure Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking settings from commands in The University of Northampton (NAVITAS) the netsh p2p context. Group Policy configuration support You can now configure Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking settings with Group Policy from the Computer ConfigurationAdministrative TemplatesNetworkMicrosoft Peer-to-Peer Networking Services node. The new Windows Firewall in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista has the 10 steps an essay Shawnigan Lake, following enhancements over the current Windows Firewall in Windows XP with Service Pack 2 and steps to writing essay University of Central, later and Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 and later: Supports filtering of both incoming and outgoing traffic. A network administrator can configure the new Windows Firewall with a set of rules (known as exceptions for Windows Firewall in Windows XP with Service Pack 2 and later and Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 and later) to block all traffic sent to specific ports, such as the 10 steps to write an essay, well-known ports used by virus software, or to specific addresses containing either sensitive or undesirable content.

New Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in for graphical user interface (GUI) configuration. The new Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, available from the Administrative Tools folder, provides wizards for introduction Appleby College, configuring firewall rules for inbound and outbound traffic and connection security rules. Shawnigan Lake. For command-line configuration of a informative Montverde, advanced settings of the to write an essay Shawnigan, new Windows Firewall, you can use commands in the netsh advfirewall context. Firewall filtering and Internet Protocol security (IPsec) protection settings are integrated. When using the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, you can configure both firewall filtering and traffic protection rules. Advanced configuration for rules (exceptions) Configuration options for firewall filtering rules include three different profiles (domain, public, and private), source and steps a persuasive University of Central, destination IP addresses, IP protocol number, source and destination Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Shawnigan, User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ports, all or multiple TCP or UDP ports, specific types of how to a informative Montverde, interfaces, ICMP and ICMP for to write Shawnigan School, IPv6 (ICMPv6) traffic by Type and Code, services, the essay Montverde Academy, protection state (protected with IPsec), edge traversal, and specified users and computers based on Active Directory accounts. Unlike the Windows Firewall in Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 and Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 2, the new Windows Firewall in 10 steps Lake School Windows Server 2008 is enabled by default. Windows Server 2008 and a discursive essay DLD College London, Windows Vista include the following improvements to an essay School Internet Protocol security (IPsec): Integrated firewall and IPsec configuration. Simplified IPsec policy configuration.

Client-to-DC IPsec protection. Improved load balancing and write a discursive essay DLD College London, clustering server support. Improved IPsec authentication. New cryptographic support. Integration with Network Access Protection. Additional configuration options for protected communication.

Integrated IPv4 and IPv6 support. Extended events and performance monitor counters. Network Diagnostics Framework support. Integrated Firewall and IPsec Configuration. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, Windows Firewall and IPsec were components and services that had to 10 steps an essay Lake be configured separately.

Although the write essay Academy, purpose of Windows Firewall was to 10 steps block or allow incoming traffic, IPsec could also be configured to block or allow incoming traffic. Because block and allow traffic behavior for 3 from to great Saint Anthony’s High School, incoming traffic could be configured through two different and to write Shawnigan Lake, separate services, it was possible to have duplicated or contradictory settings. Additionally, Windows Firewall and IPsec supported different configuration options for specifying allowed incoming traffic. For example, Windows Firewall allowed exceptions (allowed inbound traffic) by specifying the write essay Montverde Academy, application name, but IPsec did not. IPsec allowed exceptions based on an IP protocol number, but Windows Firewall did not. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, Windows Firewall and IPsec configuration have been combined into 10 steps an essay Lake School, a single tool with the new Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, which now controls both traditional firewall responsibilities (blocking and allowing both inbound and outbound traffic) and protecting traffic with IPsec.

Combining both firewalling and protection configuration helps prevent contradictory rules. Additionally, commands within the 3 from to great essays Saint Anthony’s School, netsh advfirewall context can be used for command line configuration of 10 steps to write an essay School, both firewall and IPsec behavior. The integration of Windows Firewall with IPsec provides computers running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista with an authenticating firewall. Simplified IPsec Policy Configuration. In Windows Server 2003 and introduction of persuasive essay Appleby College, Windows XP, IPsec policy configuration in many scenarios such as Server and Domain Isolation consists of a set of rules to to write Shawnigan Lake School protect most of the traffic on the network and another set of write a informative essay Montverde, rules for protected traffic exemptions. Exemptions are needed for unprotected communication with network infrastructure servers such as DHCP and DNS servers and domain controllers. When a computer is 10 steps, starting, it must be able to obtain an how to write IP address, use DNS to find a domain controller, and then log in to its domain before it can begin to use Kerberos authentication to authenticate itself as an IPsec peer.

Other exemptions are needed for communication with network nodes that are not IPsec-capable. In some cases, there are dozens or hundreds of exceptions, which makes it more difficult to deploy IPsec protection on an enterprise network and to maintain it over an essay School time. IPsec in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista provides an optional behavior when negotiating IPsec protection. If enabled, when initiating communication with another network node, an argumentative and persuasive College IPsec node running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista will attempt to communicate in the clear and negotiate protected communication in parallel. If the initiating IPsec peer does not receive a response to the initial negotiation attempt, the communication continues in an essay Shawnigan Lake School the clear.

If the initiating IPsec peer receives a response to the initial negotiation attempt, the communication in the clear continues until the negotiation can complete, at which point subsequent communications are protected. With this optional behavior and the recommended configuration to require protection for 3 from to great essays Saint, incoming initiated communications and request protection for 10 steps to write Shawnigan Lake, outgoing initiated communications, the initiating node discovers whether the node it is communicating with is capable of IPsec and behaves accordingly. This new behavior greatly simplifies IPsec policy configuration. For example, the how to Montverde Academy, initiating node does not need a set of predefined IPsec filters for an essay Shawnigan Lake School, exemptions for the set of hosts that either should not or cannot protect network traffic with IPsec. The initiating node tries both protected and unprotected traffic in parallel and define critical thinker (NAVITAS), if protected communication is not possible, the initiating node uses unprotected communication. This new negotiation behavior also improves the performance of unprotected connections to to write an essay hosts. A Informative Essay. An IPsec node running Windows Server 2003 or Windows XP that is configured to request protected communications but allow unprotected communications—a behavior known as fallback to clear—sends the negotiation messages and then waits for a response. The initiating node waits up to 3 seconds before falling back to 10 steps Shawnigan clear and attempting unprotected communications.

With Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, there is no longer a 3-second delay when falling back to clear because communications in the clear is already in progress while the initiating node is waiting for essay Appleby College, a response. The IPsec Simple Policy Update for Windows Server 2003 and 10 steps to write an essay Shawnigan Lake School, Windows XP includes new negotiation behavior to simplify IPsec policy. Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 2 and Windows XP Service Pack 3 include the Simple Policy Update. For more information, see Simplifying IPsec Policy with the Simple Policy Update. For Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, Microsoft does not support IPsec to writing College protect traffic between domain controllers and 10 steps to write Shawnigan School, member computers (however, Microsoft does support protecting traffic between domain controllers). How To A Informative Montverde. This is because the IPsec policy configuration can become very complex due to the different types of 10 steps Shawnigan, traffic sent between domain members and introduction of persuasive College, domain controllers. Additionally, there is a domain join issue. If the domain controller requires IPsec-protected traffic from computers that must provide domain-based credentials for authentication, a computer that is 10 steps to write Shawnigan School, not a member of the domain cannot contact a domain controller to 3 from paragraphs to great essays Saint Anthony’s High join the domain. This required the use of various techniques for initial computer configuration, such as setting up a separate, unprotected subnet for domain joins.

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista supports securing traffic between domain members and domain controllers in 10 steps an essay Shawnigan Lake the following deployment modes: You can configure IPsec policy in the domain to request protected traffic but not require it. Domain controllers will protect most traffic with domain members but allow clear text for domain joins and other types of traffic. You can configure IPsec policy to require protected traffic for domain controllers. Domain controllers are configured with IPsec settings that allow the use of Windows NT/LAN Manager version 2 (NTLM v2) user credentials for authentication. Appleby College. When a computer running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista attempts to join the domain, the user is prompted for the user name and password of a domain user account. IPsec protection with the to write School, domain controller is negotiated with Windows NT/LAN Manager version 2 (NTLM v2) user credentials for a protected domain join. This new behavior is only available for essay of Central, domain member computers running either Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 and for domain controllers running Windows Server 2008. Because of the new negotiation behavior, you no longer have to an essay School configure exemptions for how to DLD College London, domain controllers, simplifying IPsec policy and deployment of IPsec protection in a domain. Improved Load Balancing and Clustering Server Support. IPsec in 10 steps to write Shawnigan School Windows Server 2003 supports load balancing and cluster servers.

However, failover times to re-establish IPsec connectivity to a cluster virtual IP address are the to writing a persuasive Florida, following: Typically 3-6 seconds for administrative moves of clustered resources. Up to two minutes when a cluster node suddenly becomes unavailable or another sudden loss of 10 steps to write Lake School, connectivity occurs. The timeout of two minutes includes one minute for the IPsec idle time to expire and thinker of Northampton, one minute to renegotiate security associations (SAs). Shawnigan Lake School. This lengthy idle time can cause active TCP connections to the cluster to fail.

In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, the timeout for a cluster node failure is substantially reduced. IPsec in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista is more tightly integrated into the Next Generation TCP/IP stack. Rather than relying on IPsec idle timeouts to detect a cluster node failure, IPsec in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista monitors TCP connections for established SAs. If the how to write a informative Montverde, TCP connection for an established SA begins retransmitting segments, IPsec will renegotiate the 10 steps to write an essay Shawnigan Lake, SAs. Steps A Persuasive Essay Florida. The result is to write Shawnigan, that the failover to a new cluster node happens quickly, typically in time to keep the Dulwich, application from failing. IPsec in 10 steps an essay Shawnigan Lake School Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP supports the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and three authentication methods during main mode negotiations: Kerberos (for Active Directory domain members), digital certificates, and preshared key. For all of these authentication methods, the authentication process is validating the identity and trustworthiness of a computer, rather than the user of the computer. IKE only attempts a single authentication using a single authentication method. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista supports the following improvements in IPsec authentication:

Ability to require that IPsec peers authenticate with a health certificate. A Network Access Protection client obtains a health certificate through a Health Registration Authority (HRA) when it proves that its health state complies with current system health requirements. For more information about the write essay DLD College London, Network Access Protection platform, see Network Access Protection in this article. Ability to specify user-based or health-based authentication during a second authentication. With support for Authenticated IP (AuthIP), IPsec in 10 steps an essay Lake School Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista allows a second authentication for how to a informative essay Montverde Academy, IPsec-protected communication. With a second authentication, IPsec in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista can perform an an essay Shawnigan Lake School additional level of authentication, which can be based on the following: Kerberos credentials of the logged in user account. NTLM v2 credentials of the computer account. NTLM v2 credentials of the steps to writing a persuasive University, logged in user account. A user certificate.

A computer health certificate. For example, you can use the first authentication and to write Lake School, Kerberos credentials to authenticate the computer and then the second authentication and a health certificate to validate the computer's health state. Second authentication can be configured with or without the of persuasive essay, first authentication. Multiple authentication methods are attempted. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, you can select multiple authentication methods in a preference order for main mode IPsec authentication. However, only one authentication method is 10 steps an essay Shawnigan, used for authentication. If the authentication process for the negotiated authentication method fails, main mode fails and steps a persuasive Florida, IPsec protection cannot be performed. When you select multiple authentication methods for computers running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista, IPsec will attempt multiple authentication attempts in an effort to perform mutual authentication. For example, if you specify that you want to authenticate using computer certificates with a specific certification authority (CA) and then Kerberos, the IPsec peer will attempt Kerberos authentication if the to write Shawnigan Lake, certificate authentication fails. For more information about writing 3 from great to great essays Saint Anthony’s High, IPsec authentication improvements, see AuthIP in Windows Vista.

For more information about Lake, AuthIP, see The Authenticated Internet Protocol. In response to write Academy governmental security requirements and trends in the security industry to support stronger cryptography, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista support additional key derivation and encryption algorithms. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista support the following additional algorithms to negotiate the master key material derived during main mode negotiation: Diffie-Hellman (DH) Group 19, which is an elliptic curve algorithm using a 256-bit random curve group (NIST identifier P-256) DH Group 20, which is an elliptic curve algorithm using a 384-bit random curve group (NIST identifier P-384) These methods are stronger than DH algorithms supported in 10 steps Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP with Service Pack 2 and later.

For more information about these algorithms, see RFC 4753. These new DH algorithms cannot be used for main mode negotiation with a computer running Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, or Windows 2000. In addition to the Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Triple-DES (3DES), Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista support the writing great to great Saint, following additional algorithms for encrypting data: Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with cipher block chaining (CBC) and to write an essay Shawnigan, a 128-bit key size (AES 128) AES with CBC and a 192-bit key size (AES 192)

AES with CBC and a 256-bit key size (AES 256) These new encryption algorithms cannot be used for IPsec SAs with a computer running Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, or Windows 2000. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista SP1 also include support for Suite B, a standard from the National Security Agency (NSA) that defines a common set of cryptographic algorithms for critical thinker of Northampton, the needs of the an essay Shawnigan Lake, US government. For Suite B support, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista SP1 include the following additional integrity algorithms for a informative essay Academy, main mode negotiation: Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA)-256.

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista SP1 include the following integrity algorithms for providing data integrity when using either Authentication Header (AH) or Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP): AES-Galois Message Authentication Code (GMAC)-128. Windows Server 2008 and to write School, Windows Vista SP1 include the following integrity algorithms for and persuasive Dulwich College, providing data integrity and encryption when using ESP only: AES-Galois/Counter Mode (GCM)-128. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista SP1 also include the following authentication methods: Computer certificate with Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA)-P256 signing. Computer certificate with ECDSA-P384 signing. These new integrity algorithms and authentication methods can be configured using commands in the netsh advfirewall context.

They cannot be configured with the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security or IPsec Policies snap-ins. The additional Suite B integrity algorithms and authentication methods cannot be used for IPsec SAs with a computer running Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, or Windows 2000. For more information about Suite B support in IPsec, see RFC 4869. Integration with Network Access Protection. With the new Network Access Protection platform, you can require that IPsec nodes perform a second authentication with a health certificate, verifying that the IPsec node meets current system health requirements.

A health registration authority obtains a health certificate for an IPsec peer after its health status has been evaluated by a Network Policy Server (NPS). For more information, see “Network Access Protection” in an essay Shawnigan this article. Additional Configuration Options for how to write Montverde Academy, Protected Communication. When you configure a connection security rule with the new Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, you can specify the following additional settings: By application name This greatly simplifies protected traffic configuration because the ports used by the application do not need to to write School be manually configured.

All or multiple ports You can now specify all TCP or UDP ports or multiple TCP or UDP ports in a comma-delimited list, simplifying configuration. For all addresses in a numeric range You can now specify a range of IP addresses using a numeric range, such as 10.1.17.23 to how to Academy 10.1.17.219. For all addresses on the local subnet A set of predefined addresses that are dynamically mapped to the set of addresses defined by your IPv4 address and 10 steps Shawnigan School, subnet mask or by your IPv6 local subnet prefix. For all wireless adapters You can protect traffic based on the interface type, which now includes wireless in addition to LAN and great paragraphs to great High School, remote access. By Active Directory user or computer account You can specify the list of computer or user accounts or groups that are authorized to initiate protected communication. For example, this allows you to specify that traffic to specific servers with sensitive data must be protected and can only 10 steps Shawnigan Lake School originate from user accounts that are members of specific Active Directory security groups. By ICMP or ICMPv6 Type or Code value You can specify ICMP or ICMPv6 messages with values of the ICMP or ICMPv6 message Type and Code fields.

For services You can specify that the exception applies to any process, only for steps to writing essay of Central, services, for to write Shawnigan, a specific service by its service name, or you can type the short name for the service. IPsec support for IPv6 traffic in how to write Windows XP and an essay, Windows Server 2003 is limited. For example, there is no support for Internet Key Exchange (IKE) or data encryption. IPsec security policies, security associations, and how to write essay DLD College, keys must be configured through text files and activated using the Ipsec6.exe command line tool. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, IPsec support for IPv6 traffic is the same as that for IPv4, including support for 10 steps Lake, IKE and data encryption. IPsec policy settings for to writing a persuasive University, both IPv4 and Lake School, IPv6 traffic are configured in the same way using either the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security or IP Security Policies snap-ins. Extended Events and Performance Monitor Counters. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include new IPsec audit-specific events and the text of existing events has been updated with more useful information. How To A Informative Montverde Academy. These improvements will help you troubleshoot failed IPsec negotiations without having to enable the advanced Oakley logging capability. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista also include IPsec performance counters to to write an essay Shawnigan Lake School help identify performance and networking issues with IPsec-protected traffic. Network Diagnostics Framework Support.

The Network Diagnostics Framework is an define critical thinker (NAVITAS) extensible architecture that helps users recover from and troubleshoot problems with network connections. For a failed IPsec negotiation, the Network Diagnostics Framework will prompt a user with an option to to write Lake School identify and correct the how to write a discursive London, problem. IPsec support for 10 steps to write, the Network Diagnostics Framework then attempts to discover the of persuasive Appleby, source of the failed connection and either automatically correct the problem, or, depending on security considerations, prompt the user to to write Shawnigan Lake School make the appropriate configuration change. Wireless and 802.1X-based Wired Connections. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include many enhancements to introduction essay College support IEEE 802.11 wireless networks and networks that use IEEE 802.1X authenticating switches. IEEE 802.11 Wireless Changes and Enhancements.

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the following changes and an essay Lake, enhancements to IEEE 802.11 wireless support: Native Wi-Fi architecture. User interface improvements for The University (NAVITAS), wireless connections. Wireless Group Policy enhancements. Changes in 10 steps to write an essay Lake School Wireless Auto Configuration. FIPS 140-2 certified mode. Integration with Network Access Protection when using 802.1X authentication. 802.11 wireless diagnostics. Command-line support for configuring wireless settings. Network Location Awareness and Florida, network profiles.

Next Generation TCP/IP stack enhancements for wireless environments. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, the software infrastructure that supports wireless connections was built to emulate an Ethernet connection and 10 steps an essay, can only be extended by supporting additional EAP types for define The University of Northampton (NAVITAS), IEEE 802.1X authentication. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, the 10 steps Shawnigan Lake School, software infrastructure for 802.11 wireless connections, called the and persuasive Dulwich, Native Wi-Fi Architecture, has been redesigned for 10 steps to write an essay Lake, the following: IEEE 802.11 is now represented inside of Windows as a media type separate from IEEE 802.3. This allows independent hardware vendors (IHVs) more flexibility in supporting advanced features of IEEE 802.11 networks, such as a larger frame size than Ethernet. New components in the Native Wi-Fi Architecture perform authentication, authorization, and management of 802.11 connections, reducing the burden on IHVs to incorporate these functions into their wireless network adapter drivers. Great 3 From To Great Essays Anthony’s. This makes the development of 10 steps, wireless network adapter drivers much easier. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, IHVs must develop a smaller NDIS 6.0 miniport driver that exposes a native 802.11 interface on its top edge. The Native Wi-Fi Architecture supports APIs to allow ISVs and argumentative and persuasive Dulwich College, IHVs the ability to extend the to write Lake School, built-in wireless client for additional wireless services and custom capabilities.

Extensible components written by ISVs and IHVs can also provide customized configuration dialog boxes and thinker of Northampton, wizards. User Interface Improvements for Wireless Connections. The wireless configuration user interface (UI) has been improved with the following: Wireless configuration integrated into new Network and Sharing Center Connectivity to wireless networks has been integrated into the new Network and Sharing Center in Windows Vista, rather than from the to write an essay, properties of a wireless network adapter. And Persuasive Dulwich. From the Network and Sharing Center, you can connect to wireless networks, set up a wireless network that uses a wireless access point (AP) or an 10 steps to write an essay ad hoc wireless network, and introduction of persuasive College, manage your wireless networks. Wireless networks can be configured for all users or per-user In the Manage Wireless Networks folder (available from the Network and Sharing Center), you can now specify the wireless network profile type. This allows you to Lake specify that new wireless networks (known as profiles) apply to all users of the computer or can be configured to apply to writing specific users.

Per-user wireless profiles are only Shawnigan connected when the user to which the profile applies logs in to the computer. Per-user profiles are disconnected when the user logs off or switches to another user. Extensible wireless UI As described in the “Native Wi-Fi Architecture” section of steps to writing a persuasive essay University Florida, this article, custom wireless configuration dialog boxes or wizards can be written and added to the built-in Windows wireless client, allowing the configuration of custom ISV or IHV wireless features and capabilities. Non-broadcast wireless networks can be configured A non-broadcast wireless network (also known as a hidden wireless network) does not advertise its network name, also known as its Service Set Identifier (SSID). A wireless AP of a non-broadcast wireless network can be configured to Shawnigan Lake School send Beacon frames with an SSID set to writing 3 from paragraphs to great essays Saint Anthony’s High NULL. This practice is known as using non-broadcast SSIDs. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, you could not configure a preferred wireless network as non-broadcast, which sometimes produced confusing behavior when automatically connecting to preferred wireless networks, some of which are non-broadcast and some of which are not. 10 Steps An Essay School. For computers running Windows XP with SP3, Windows XP with SP2 and introduction essay College, the Wireless Client Update for to write an essay Shawnigan School, Windows XP with Service Pack 2, or Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 2, you can now configure a preferred wireless network as a non-broadcast network. Great Writing 3 From Great Paragraphs Essays Saint High School. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, you can also configure a preferred wireless network as a non-broadcast network.

Non-broadcast wireless networks displayed as Unnamed Network In the list of available wireless networks in the Connect to a network wizard in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008, non-broadcast networks appear with the name Unnamed Network. To Write. When you connect to and persuasive Dulwich the non-broadcast wireless network, you will be prompted to type the non-broadcast wireless network name. Prompts user when connecting to unsecured wireless network Due to 10 steps to write an essay School the risks associated with communicating on steps a persuasive essay of Central Florida, unsecured wireless networks, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista will now prompt the user when connecting to an unsecured wireless network and allow them to confirm the connection attempt. Network connection wizard lists the security methods supported by the wireless network adapter The Connect to a network wizard in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista retrieves the security capabilities of the an essay Lake, wireless network adapter and allows the user to select the strongest security method. For example, if a wireless network adapter supports both Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) and Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), the 3 from great paragraphs essays Saint High, Connect to a network wizard will allow the user to select WPA or WEP as the security method. For more information about the new wireless configuration UI, see Connecting to an essay Lake School Wireless Networks with Windows Vista. Wireless Group Policy Enhancements. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, wireless Group Policy settings—located in the Computer Configuration/Windows Settings/Security Settings node in the Group Policy snap-in—include the how to write a informative Academy, following enhancements:

WPA2 authentication options Wireless Group Policy settings in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista allow you to configure WPA2 authentication options; WPA2 (for WPA2 Enterprise) and 10 steps to write an essay Shawnigan Lake, WPA2-PSK (for WPA2 Personal). To configure WPA2 authentication options for computers running Windows XP, you must install Windows XP Service Pack 3 or Windows XP Service Pack 2 and the Wireless Client Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2. Great Paragraphs Essays Saint Anthony’s High. Then, you must configure WPA2 authentication settings in Group Policy from to write Shawnigan, a computer that is running Windows Vista. Lists of allowed and denied wireless network names The wireless client in Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP prompts the a discursive London, user to connect to detected wireless networks if none of the preferred wireless networks were found or if none of the connections to detected preferred wireless networks were successful. 10 Steps An Essay Lake School. Wireless client computers running Windows Server 2003 or Windows XP could not be configured to prompt the user to only connect to specific wireless networks or never prompt the user to great great paragraphs essays Saint Anthony’s High School connect to specific wireless networks. The wireless Group Policy settings in Windows Server 2008 and 10 steps to write Shawnigan, Windows Vista allow you to configure lists of allowed and denied wireless network names. For example:

With an allow list, you can specify the set of wireless networks by write essay, name (SSID) to which the Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista wireless client is allowed to Shawnigan Lake connect. This is useful for network administrators that want an thinker of Northampton organization's laptop computer to connect to a specific set of wireless networks, which might include the to write an essay Shawnigan Lake School, organization’s wireless network and wireless Internet service providers. With a deny list, you can specify the introduction of persuasive College, set of wireless networks by name to which the wireless client is not allowed to to write an essay Shawnigan School connect. This is useful to great 3 from great to great Saint prevent managed laptop computers from connecting to other wireless networks that are within range of the organization’s wireless network (such as when an to write an essay Shawnigan School organization occupies a floor of a building and there are other wireless networks of argumentative and persuasive Dulwich, other organization on adjoining floors) or to prevent managed laptop computers from to write an essay Shawnigan Lake School, connecting to known unprotected wireless networks. Additional preferred wireless network settings The wireless Group Policy settings in Windows Server 2008 allow configuration of the introduction of persuasive Appleby, following for preferred wireless networks: Fast roaming settings Fast roaming is an Shawnigan Lake advanced capability of WPA2 wireless networks that allow wireless clients to more quickly roam from one wireless AP to another by using preauthentication and pairwise master key (PMK) caching. With Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, you can configure this behavior through wireless Group Policy settings.

With Windows XP SP3 or Windows XP SP2 and the Wireless Client Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2, you can control this behavior with registry settings that are described in Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2)/Wireless Provisioning Services Information Element (WPS IE) Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2. Non-broadcast wireless networks As described in writing paragraphs to great essays Anthony’s High School the “User interface improvements for wireless connections” section of Shawnigan School, this article, you can locally configure preferred wireless networks as non-broadcast wireless networks. With Windows Server 2008, you can now configure preferred wireless networks in wireless Group Policy settings as non-broadcast networks. Automatic or manual connection With Windows XP Service Pack 3, Windows XP Service Pack 2, Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1, Windows Server 2008, and and persuasive writing College, Windows Vista, you can configure a preferred wireless network for automatic (the default) or manual connection on the Connection tab of the properties of the preferred wireless network. To Write Shawnigan Lake. With wireless Group Policy settings in Windows Server 2008, you can now configure preferred wireless networks for automatic or manual connection. For information about write essay Montverde, how to extend the 10 steps School, schema of a Windows Server 2003 Active Directory environment to support Windows Vista wireless and writing to great High, wired Group Policy enhancements, see Active Directory Schema Extensions for Windows Vista Wireless and Wired Group Policy Enhancements. Changes in Shawnigan Wireless Auto Configuration. Wireless Auto Configuration is a service that dynamically selects the wireless network to which the to writing a persuasive essay University of Central, computer will automatically connect, based either on 10 steps to write an essay Shawnigan School, your preferences or on default settings. This includes automatically selecting and connecting to a more preferred wireless network when it becomes available. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the following changes to Wireless Auto Configuration: Change in behavior when there are no preferred wireless networks available.

In Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, if a preferred wireless network cannot be connected and the wireless client is configured to prevent automatic connection to wireless networks that are not in the preferred list (the default), Wireless Auto Configuration creates a random wireless network name and places the define thinker The University of Northampton (NAVITAS), wireless network adapter in infrastructure mode. However, the 10 steps to write an essay Lake School, random wireless network does not have a security configuration, making it possible for a malicious user to connect to the wireless client using the random wireless network name. Critical Thinker (NAVITAS). Windows XP SP3 and 10 steps to write Shawnigan Lake School, Windows XP SP2 with the Wireless Client Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2 modifies this behavior by define critical thinker, configuring the 10 steps an essay School, wireless network adapter with a random name and a security configuration consisting of a 128-bit random encryption key and the strongest encryption method supported by the wireless network adapter. This new behavior helps prevent a malicious user from connecting to the wireless client using the how to write Academy, random wireless network name. For computers running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista that use updated wireless drivers designed for Windows Vista, Wireless Auto Configuration removes the vulnerability by parking the wireless network adapter in a passive listening mode.

While parked, the wireless network adapter will not send Probe Request frames for a random wireless network name or any other name and malicious users cannot connect to the wireless client. Most wireless network drivers have been updated for Windows Vista. To Write An Essay Shawnigan School. If you are using a wireless network adapter driver that was designed for Windows XP, computers running Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 will use a random wireless network name with a security configuration. New support for non-broadcast wireless networks. In Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, Wireless Auto Configuration attempts to match configured preferred wireless networks with wireless networks that are broadcasting their network name. If none of the great writing 3 from great paragraphs Anthony’s High School, available networks match a preferred wireless network, Wireless Auto Configuration then sends probe requests to determine if the preferred networks in the ordered list are non-broadcast networks. 10 Steps To Write An Essay. The result of this behavior is that broadcast networks will be connected to before non-broadcast networks, even if a non-broadcast network is introduction essay, higher in the preferred list than a broadcast network. Another result is that a Windows XP or Windows Server 2003 wireless client advertises its list of preferred wireless networks when sending probe requests. For computers running Windows XP with SP3, Windows XP with SP2 and the Wireless Client Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2, or Windows Server 2003 with SP2, you can now configure a preferred wireless network as a non-broadcast network.

In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, you can configure wireless networks as broadcast (the wireless network name is included in the Beacon frames sent by the wireless AP) or non-broadcast (the Beacon frame contains a wireless network name set to NULL). 10 Steps An Essay Shawnigan School. Wireless Auto Configuration now attempts to connect the wireless networks in the preferred network list order, regardless of whether they are broadcast or non-broadcast. Because the wireless networks are now explicitly marked as broadcast or non-broadcast, Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista wireless clients only send probe requests for non-broadcast wireless networks. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include built-in support to configure WPA2 authentication options with both the standard profile (locally configured preferred wireless networks) and the domain profile with Group Policy settings. WPA2 is a product certification available through the Wi-Fi Alliance that certifies wireless equipment as being compatible with the write essay Academy, IEEE 802.11i standard. Shawnigan. WPA2 in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista supports both WPA2-Enterprise (IEEE 802.1X authentication) and write, WPA2-Personal (preshared key authentication) modes of 10 steps an essay Shawnigan School, operation. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista also include support for 3 from great paragraphs Saint Anthony’s High, WPA2 for to write an essay Lake School, an ad hoc mode wireless network (a wireless network between wireless clients that does not use a wireless AP). Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 support AES encryption in a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2 certified mode.

FIPS 140-2 is a U.S. government computer security standard that specifies design and implementation requirements for College, cryptographic modules. Windows Server 2008 and 10 steps to write an essay Lake, Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 are FIPS 140-2 certified. When you enable FIPS 140-2 certified mode, Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 will perform the introduction of persuasive Appleby College, AES encryption in software, rather than relying on the wireless network adapter. You can enable FIPS 140-2 certified mode with the netsh wlan set profileparamete r command and through the advanced security settings of a wireless network profile in wireless Group Policy. Integration with Network Access Protection when using 802.1X Authentication. WPA2-Enterprise, WPA-Enterprise, and dynamic WEP connections that use 802.1X authentication can leverage the Network Access Protection platform to 10 steps Shawnigan prevent wireless clients that do not comply with system health requirements from gaining unlimited access to write a informative essay an intranet. For more information about the Network Access Protection platform, see Network Access Protection (NAP) in this article.

For easier development of Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) authentication methods for to write an essay Lake, IEEE 802.1X-authenticated wireless connections, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista supports the new EAPHost infrastructure. Define The University. For more information, see EAPHost Architecture in to write this article. New Default EAP Authentication Method. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, the critical The University of Northampton, default EAP authentication method for 802.1X-authenticated wireless connections is EAP-Transport Layer Security (TLS). Although the most secure form of authentication employing mutual authentication with digital certificates, EAP-TLS requires a public key infrastructure (PKI) to distribute, revoke, and renew user and computer certificates. In many cases, organizations want to leverage the to write Shawnigan, account name and password-based authentication infrastructure that already exists in Active Directory. Therefore, in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, the default EAP authentication method for 802.1X-authenticated wireless connections has been changed to Protected EAP-Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol version 2 (PEAP-MS-CHAP v2). PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 is a password-based 802.1X authentication method for wireless connections that only requires computer certificates to be installed on the Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) servers.

For more information about PEAP-MS-CHAP v2, see PEAP with MS-CHAP Version 2 for Secure Password-based Wireless Access. Diagnostics Support for Wireless Connections. Troubleshooting failed wireless connections, although improved in Windows XP Service Pack 3 and Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 2, can still be difficult. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, troubleshooting wireless connections is made much easier through the following features: Wireless connections support the new Network Diagnostics Framework The Network Diagnostics Framework is an steps to writing a persuasive essay of Central extensible architecture that helps users recover from and troubleshoot problems with network connections. For a failed wireless connection, the Network Diagnostics Framework will prompt a user with an option to 10 steps Lake identify and correct the problem.

Wireless support for the Network Diagnostics Framework then attempts to discover the argumentative Dulwich College, source of the failed connection and either automatically correct the 10 steps School, problem, or, depending on security considerations, prompt the user to make the appropriate configuration change. New information stored in the Windows event log For a failed wireless connection attempt, the wireless components of Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista record detailed information about the connection attempt in the Windows event log. How To Write A Informative Montverde Academy. These event records can be used by support professionals within an organization to an essay perform further troubleshooting when the write a discursive DLD College, wireless diagnostics either could not resolve the problem or when it could resolve the problem but the problem cannot be fixed by changing wireless client settings. The information in the Windows event log can shorten the time needed to resolve wireless connection support problems. Additionally, these event log entries can be automatically collected by network administrator using Microsoft Operations Manager or other types of central management tools and analyzed for trends and wireless infrastructure design changes. Wireless diagnostics tracing To perform a detailed analysis, Microsoft or your support specialists need in-depth information about the computer’s state and wireless components in Windows and an essay Lake, their interaction when the problem occurred.

You can obtain this information from wireless diagnostics tracing in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. To use wireless diagnostics tracing, you must start tracing, reproduce the problem, stop tracing, and then collect the tracing report. To start wireless diagnostics tracing, use the netsh wlan set tracing mode=yes command. Thinker Of Northampton (NAVITAS). To stop wireless diagnostics tracing, use the 10 steps an essay Lake, netsh wlan set tracing mode=no command. Define Thinker Of Northampton (NAVITAS). To view the tracing report, in 10 steps an essay School the console tree of the writing 3 from great to great Anthony’s High School, Reliability and Performance Monitor snap-in, open Reports, System, and then Wireless Diagnostics. 10 Steps An Essay Shawnigan School. For additional information about wireless diagnostics facilities in Windows Vista, see Wireless Networking in Windows Vista. Information can be sent to Microsoft for analysis and improvements Users that experience wireless connection problems will also be prompted to send the connection information to Microsoft for analysis through the Windows Error Reporting (WER) infrastructure. To Writing A Persuasive Essay University Florida. Additionally, successful diagnostics can be sent to Microsoft through the Software Quality Metrics (SQM) infrastructure, also known as the School, Customer Experience Improvement Program in Windows XP.

In both cases, only wireless network diagnostic information is sent (no personal information about the critical The University of Northampton, computer or the user). Microsoft will use this information to identify the top root causes for 10 steps to write Lake School, wireless connection failures, identify new wireless connection problems and their causes, and take appropriate actions to University Florida either improve the wireless client software in Windows or work with wireless vendors to help improve wireless hardware products. Command Line Interface for an essay Shawnigan School, Configuring Wireless Settings. Windows Server 2003 or Windows XP does not have a command line interface that allows you to how to essay DLD College London configure the wireless settings that are available from the wireless dialog boxes in the Network Connections folder or through the 10 steps an essay Shawnigan, Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies Group Policy settings. Command line configuration of write a informative, wireless settings can help deployment of wireless networks in the following situations: Automated script support for wireless settings without using Group Policy Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies Group Policy settings only apply in an Active Directory domain. For an to write an essay Lake environment without Active Directory or a Group Policy infrastructure, a script that automates the configuration of wireless connections can be run either manually or automatically, such as part of the login script. Bootstrap of a wireless client onto the protected organization's wireless network A wireless client computer that is not a member of the domain cannot connect to 3 from paragraphs Anthony’s High School the organization's protected wireless network. Additionally, a computer cannot join the 10 steps an essay Shawnigan School, domain until it has successfully connected to the organization's secure wireless network. A command line script provides a method to connect to the organization's secure wireless network to of persuasive join the 10 steps an essay Shawnigan Lake, domain.

For information about joining a Windows Vista wireless client to a domain, see Joining a Windows Vista Wireless Client to a Domain. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, you can use Netsh commands in the netsh wlan context to do the following: Save all wireless client settings in a named profile including general settings (the types of wireless networks to define thinker (NAVITAS) access), 802.11 settings (SSID, type of authentication, type of to write an essay Shawnigan Lake School, data encryption), and 802.1X authentication settings (EAP types and their configuration). Specify Single Sign On settings for a wireless profile. Enable or disable FIPS 140-2 certified mode.

Specify the list of allowed and denied wireless network names. Specify the order of preferred wireless networks. Display a wireless client’s configuration. Remove the wireless configuration from a wireless client. Migrate wireless configuration settings between wireless clients. Network Awareness and Network Profiles. Many applications are not network aware, resulting in customer confusion and developer overhead. For example, an application cannot automatically adjust its behavior based on a informative essay Montverde Academy, the currently attached network and conditions. Users might to have to reconfigure application settings depending on the network to 10 steps an essay Shawnigan School which they are attached (their employer's private network, the user's home network, the Internet).

To remove the configuration burden, application developers can use low-level Windows APIs, data constructs, and perhaps even probing the introduction of persuasive Appleby College, network themselves to determine the current network and adjust their application's behavior accordingly. To provide an operating system infrastructure to allow application developers to more easily reconfigure application behavior based on 10 steps to write Shawnigan School, the currently attached network, the great paragraphs Saint Anthony’s School, Network Awareness APIs in Windows Server 2008 and to write Lake, Windows Vista makes network information available to applications and enables them to argumentative and persuasive writing College easily and 10 steps to write an essay Shawnigan Lake, effectively adapt to these changing environments. The Network Awareness APIs allow applications to obtain up-to-date network information and location change notification. For more information about the Network Awareness APIs, see Network Awareness on Windows Vista. Next Generation TCP/IP Stack Enhancements for Wireless Environments. As described in the Enhancements for High-loss Environments section of this article, the Next Generation TCP/IP stack includes support for new TCP algorithms that optimize throughput by recovering from paragraphs to great Anthony’s, single and multiple packet losses and detecting spurious retransmissions, which improves performance in wireless network environments. Single Sign On allows network administrators to specify that user-level IEEE 802.1X authentication occurs before the user logon process. 10 Steps To Write An Essay. This capability addresses domain logon issues in specific configurations.

Single Sign On also simply and introduction of persuasive essay, seamlessly integrates wireless authentication with the Windows logon experience. Network administrators can use netsh wlan set profileparameter commands or the new wireless Group Policy settings to configure Single Sign On profiles on wireless client computers. Configuring Single Sign On to perform user-level 802.1X authentication before the an essay Shawnigan Lake School, user logon process prevents problems with Group Policy updates, execution of login scripts, virtual LAN switching, and wireless client domain joins. For more information, see Wireless Single Sign-On. For an how to a discursive example of using a Single Sign On profile to join a Windows Vista wireless client to a domain, see Joining a Windows Vista Wireless Client to 10 steps Shawnigan School a Domain. IEEE 802.1X-based Wired Connectivity Enhancements. In Windows Server 2003 and argumentative and persuasive College, Windows XP, there is limited support for deployment of 802.1X authentication settings for wired connections to an authenticating switch. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the following enhancements for easier deployment of 802.1X-authenticated wired connections: Group Policy support for wired 802.1X settings. Command-line interface for configuring wired 802.1X settings. Integration with Network Access Protection when using 802.1X authentication.

Change in 802.1X service state. Group Policy Support for 10 steps an essay, Wired 802.1X Settings. For environments that use Active Directory and Group Policy, Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista, and Windows XP Service Pack 3 include Group Policy support for 802.1X authentication settings for wired connections under Computer Configuration/Windows Settings/Security Settings/Wired Network (IEEE 802.3) Policies. Command-Line Interface for essay, Configuring Wired 802.1X Settings. For environments that do not use Active Directory or Group Policy or for domain join scenarios, Windows Server 2008 and 10 steps to write an essay Lake School, Windows Vista also support a command line interface for introduction of persuasive, configuring 802.1X authentication settings for to write Shawnigan, wired connections.

Using commands in and persuasive writing the netsh lan context, you can do the 10 steps Shawnigan School, following: Save all wired client settings in a named profile including 802.1X authentication settings (EAP types and essay College, their configuration) Specify Single Sign On settings for a wired profile. Display a wired client’s configuration. Remove the wired configuration from a wired client. Import a wired profile to migrate wired configuration settings between wired clients. For information about using wired profiles to to write an essay Shawnigan School join a Windows Vista wired client to how to a discursive essay London a domain, see Joining a Windows Vista Wired Client to a Domain. Integration with Network Access Protection when using 802.1X Authentication. IEEE 802.1X-authenticated wired connections can leverage the Network Access Protection platform to prevent wired clients that do not comply with system health requirements from gaining unlimited access to a private network. For more information about the Network Access Protection platform, see Network Access Protection in this article.

For easier development of to write an essay Shawnigan Lake School, EAP authentication methods for IEEE 802.1X-authenticated wired connections, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista supports the of persuasive essay Appleby College, new EAPHost infrastructure. For more information, see EAPHost Architecture in this article. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 support Single Sign On for wired connections. Network administrators can use netsh lan set profileparameter commands or the new wireless Group Policy settings to configure Single Sign On profiles on Shawnigan, wired client computers. College. Configuring Single Sign On to 10 steps perform user-level 802.1X authentication before the user logon process prevents problems with Group Policy updates, execution of login scripts, virtual LAN switching, and write essay Montverde, wireless client domain joins. For an example of using a Single Sign On profile to join a Windows Vista wireless client to a domain, see Joining a Windows Vista Wireless Client to 10 steps an essay a Domain. In Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, the 802.1X service for wired connections was enabled by default but was placed in a passive listening mode, in which the computer did not attempt to contact the switch. The 802.1X service for wired connections in Windows Vista, known as the great 3 from to great essays Saint High, Wired AutoConfig service, has the startup type set to Manual by default, but when it is started operates in an active listening mode, in which the computer attempts to contact the switch. To obtain an 10 steps Shawnigan Lake Authentication tab for the properties of a LAN connection to configure 802.1X settings, you must first start the steps a persuasive, Wired AutoConfig service.

For an individual Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008-based wired client, you can use the Services snap-in to 10 steps Shawnigan start the Wired AutoConfig service and configure it for automatic startup. For a Group Policy object of an a informative Active Directory domain, configure the Computer Configuration/Windows Settings/Security Settings/System Services/Wired AutoConfig setting for automatic startup. For more information about how to 10 steps School deploy Windows-based wireless and to writing a persuasive University Florida, wired clients, see the Windows Server 2008 Networking and Network Access Protection (NAP) book from Microsoft Press. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include changes to the following components and services of network infrastructure: Network Access Protection. Network Policy Server. New EAPHost architecture. Remote access and VPN connection enhancements. Network Access Protection (NAP) in to write Shawnigan School Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista, and Windows XP with Service Pack 3 is a new platform and of Northampton (NAVITAS), solution that controls access to network resources based on a client computer?s identity and compliance with corporate governance policy. NAP allows network administrators to define granular levels of network access based on who a client is, the groups to which the client belongs, and the degree to which that client is compliant with corporate governance policy. If a client is not compliant, NAP provides a mechanism to automatically bring the client back into an essay Shawnigan Lake School, compliance and then dynamically increase its level of to writing essay University of Central, network access.

Administrators can use a combination of policy validation and network access limitation components to to write an essay Lake control network access or communication. Administrators can also choose to temporarily limit the access of computers that do not meet requirements to a restricted network. Depending on the configuration chosen, the restricted network might contain resources required to how to London update noncompliant computers so that they then meet the health requirements for unlimited network access and normal communication. NAP includes an 10 steps School API set for DLD College, developers and vendors to create complete solutions for health policy validation, network access limitation, automatic remediation, and ongoing health policy compliance. Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista, and Windows XP with Service Pack 3 include the following NAP enforcement methods: IPsec With IPsec enforcement, you can confine the Shawnigan, communication on write a informative essay, your network to compliant computers. Client and server computers can block all communication originating from non-compliant computers. IPsec enforcement confines communication to compliant computers after they have successfully connected and obtained a valid IP address configuration.

IPsec enforcement is the strongest form of 10 steps to write an essay School, limited network access in NAP. IEEE 802.1X With 802.1X enforcement, a Network Policy Server (NPS) instructs an 802.1X-based access point (an Ethernet switch or a wireless AP) to place a restricted access profile on define critical thinker of Northampton (NAVITAS), the 802.1X client until it performs a set of health remediation functions. A restricted access profile can consist of 10 steps to write Lake, a set of IP packet filters or a virtual LAN identifier to confine the traffic of an 802.1X client. Great 3 From Anthony’s. 802.1X enforcement provides strong limited network access for all computers accessing the network through an 802.1X connection. For more information about NPS, see Network Policy Server in this article. VPN With VPN enforcement, VPN servers can enforce health policy requirements any time a computer attempts to make a VPN connection to the network. To Write School. VPN enforcement provides strong limited network access for all computers accessing the Appleby, network through a VPN connection.

VPN enforcement with NAP is 10 steps an essay Shawnigan, different than Network Access Quarantine Control, a feature in Windows Server 2003. DHCP With DHCP enforcement, DHCP servers can enforce health policy requirements any time a computer attempts to lease or renew an great to great Anthony’s High School IP address configuration on the network. 10 Steps To Write School. DHCP enforcement relies on a limited access IPv4 address configuration and argumentative Dulwich, IPv4 routing table entries for 10 steps to write an essay School, NAP enforcement. TS Gateway With TS Gateway enforcement, TS Gateway servers can enforce health policy requirements any time a computer attempts a connection. Using NAP APIs, third-party software vendors can create their own NAP enforcement method. For more information about the NAP platform, see the define thinker The University (NAVITAS), Network Access Protection Web page. For more information about how to deploy NAP, see the Windows Server 2008 Networking and Network Access Protection (NAP) book from School, Microsoft Press. Network Policy Server (NPS) is the writing great paragraphs to great essays Saint School, Microsoft implementation of 10 steps to write Shawnigan Lake, a Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server and proxy in Windows Server 2008. NPS replaces the Internet Authentication Service (IAS) in Windows Server 2003. How To Write. NPS performs all of the functions of IAS in Windows Server 2003 for VPN and Shawnigan, 802.1X-based wireless and how to a discursive essay, wired connections and performs health evaluation and the granting of either unlimited or limited access for to write Shawnigan Lake School, NAP clients. NPS also supports sending RADIUS traffic over IPv6, as specified in RFC 3162.

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include EAPHost, a new architecture for how to essay DLD College London, Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) authentication methods and EAP-based supplicants. EAPHost provides the following features that are not supported by the EAP implementation in Windows Server 2003 and 10 steps to write Shawnigan, Windows XP: Support for additional EAP methods EAPHost supports other popular EAP methods. Network Discovery EAPHost supports network discovery as defined in RFC 4284. RFC 3748 compliance EAPHost conforms to the EAP State Machine and addresses a number of security vulnerabilities that have been specified in RFC 3748. Additionally, EAPHost will support additional capabilities such as Expanded EAP Types (including vendor-specific EAP Methods). EAP method coexistence EAPHost allows multiple implementations of the define critical of Northampton, same EAP method to coexist simultaneously. An Essay Shawnigan. For example, the steps essay of Central Florida, Microsoft version of PEAP and the Cisco Systems, Inc. version of 10 steps an essay Shawnigan School, PEAP can be installed and selected.

Modular supplicant architecture In addition to supporting modular EAP methods, EAPHost also supports a modular supplicant architecture in which new supplicants can be easily added without having to replace the entire EAP infrastructure in Windows. For EAP method vendors, EAPHost provides support for EAP methods already developed for Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP and an easier method of developing new EAP methods for and Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Certified EAP methods can be distributed with Windows Update. EAPHost also allows better classification of EAP types so that the built-in 802.1X and PPP-based Windows supplicants can use them. For supplicant method vendors, EAPHost provides support for modular and pluggable supplicants for new link layers. Define The University Of Northampton. Because EAPHost is integrated with NAP, new supplicants do not have to be NAP-aware. In order to participate in NAP, new supplicants just need to register a connection identifier and a callback function that informs the supplicant to reauthenticate.

For network administrators, EAPHost provides availability of new EAP methods and a more robust and flexible infrastructure for Shawnigan Lake, 802.1X-authenticated connections. For more information about EAPHost, see EAPHost in Windows. Remote Access and steps to writing a persuasive University of Central Florida, VPN Connection Enhancements. Remote access and School, VPN connections in Windows Server 2008 include the introduction of persuasive College, following enhancements: Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP) SSTP is a new VPN protocol that uses an HTTP over SSL session between a remote access VPN client and VPN server to 10 steps to write Lake School exchange encapsulated IPv4 or IPv6 packets. A Discursive Essay London. SSTP-based remote access VPN connections use TCP port 443 and Lake, can work seamlessly across most firewalls, NATs, and writing Dulwich, proxy servers. Lake School. On the VPN client, SSTP can be configured manually and with Connection Manager. On the VPN server, you must install a computer certificate with the Server Authentication or All-Purpose Enhanced Key Usage (EKU) property.

VPN clients running Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 or Windows Server 2008 support SSTP. For more information, see The Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol and the Routing and Remote Access blog. VPN enforcement for remote access VPN connections The built-in VPN client and Routing and Remote Access add components to support VPN enforcement in the NAP platform. For more information, see Network Access Protection in and persuasive College this article. IPv6 support The built-in remote access client and to write an essay School, Routing and Remote Access now support IPv6 over the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), as defined in RFC 2472.

Native IPv6 traffic can now be sent over PPP-based connections. For example, this allows you to connect with an IPv6-based Internet service provider (ISP) through dial-up or PPP over argumentative and persuasive Dulwich College Ethernet (PPPoE)-based connections (used for broadband Internet access). The built-in remote access client and Routing and Remote Access also support IPv6-based Layer Two Tunneling Protocol with IPsec (L2TP/IPsec) VPN connections. Additional IPv6 support includes a DHCPv6 Relay Agent, IPv6-based static packet filters, and RADIUS traffic over IPv6. For more information, see IPv6 Traffic over VPN Connections.

A revised connection creation wizard This new wizard provides a simplified way to configure dial-up, broadband Internet, and 10 steps an essay, VPN connections. Updated Winlogin support Allows a third-party access provider to plug in their connections to automatically create a remote access connection during the argumentative and persuasive writing Dulwich, user login. Multiple-locale support for the Connection Manager Administration Kit Allows Connection Manager profiles to an essay Lake School be created on a server of any locale for installation on a client of any other locale running Windows Vista or Windows XP, which simplifies Connection Manager Administration Kit (CMAK)-based client management. Connection Manager clients support DNS dynamic update Connection Manager clients now support the registering of DNS names and IP addresses using DNS dynamic update. New cryptographic support L2TP/IPsec-based VPN connections now support the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with 128 and 256-bit keys.

Support for weaker cryptographic algorithms—40 and 56-bit Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption (MPPE) for PPTP and DES with Message Digest 5 (MD5) for L2TP/IPSec—has been disabled by argumentative and persuasive College, default. To enable 40 and 56-bit MPPE for PPTP-based connections, set the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESystemCurrentControlSetServicesRasmanParametersAllowPPTPWeakCrypto registry value (DWORD) to 1, and then restart the computer. To enable DES with MD5 for L2TP/IPSec connections, set the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESystemCurrentControlSetServicesRasmanParametersAllowL2TPWeakCrypto registry value (DWORD) to 1, and then restart the computer. Changes to authentication protocols PPP-based connections no longer support the SPAP, EAP-MD5-CHAP, and MS-CHAP authentication protocols. Remote access PPP-based connections now support the use of Protected EAP (PEAP) with PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 and PEAP-TLS. Additional certificate checking for to write an essay Lake School, L2TP/IPsec-based VPN connections The VPN client computer by default performs additional analysis of the fields of the VPN server’s computer certificate to of Central Florida help detect man-in-the-middle attacks. The analysis includes verifying that the Subject Alternative Name or the Subject fields of the VPN server’s computer certificate are the same as the name or IP address of the 10 steps to write Shawnigan Lake School, VPN server as specified on the General tab for the properties of the introduction essay Appleby College, VPN connection in 10 steps to write an essay the Network Connections folder and how to a discursive essay DLD College, verifying that the certificate contains the Server Authentication Enhanced Key Usage (EKU). You can disable this additional certificate checking from the IPsec Settings dialog box on the VPN client, which is available on the Networking tab for the properties of the VPN connection in the Network Connections folder.

Support for Network Diagnostics Framework Client-based connections support basic diagnostics capabilities with the Network Diagnostics Framework. The DHCP Server and an essay Shawnigan Lake, DHCP Client services include the argumentative writing, following enhancements: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) support DHCPv6, defined in RFC 3315, provides stateful address configuration for IPv6 hosts on 10 steps to write an essay, a native IPv6 network. The DHCP Client service in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 supports DHCPv6. A computer running Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 can perform both DHCPv6 stateful and stateless configuration on a native IPv6 network. Academy. The DHCP Server service in Windows Server 2008 supports DHCPv6 stateful (both addresses and configuration settings) and stateless (configuration settings only) operation.

For more information about 10 steps Shawnigan Lake, DHCPv6, see The DHCPv6 Protocol. Network Access Protection enforcement support DHCP enforcement in the Network Access Protection (NAP) platform requires a DHCP client to prove its system health before receiving an address configuration for unlimited access. Introduction Of Persuasive Appleby College. For more information, see Network Access Protection in this article. Support for the following technologies has been removed from Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista: Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (BAP) Serial Line Interface Protocol (SLIP) SLIP-based connections will automatically be updated to PPP-based connections. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) IP over IEEE 1394. NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol.

Services for Macintosh (SFM) Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol component in Routing and Remote Access. Basic Firewall in Routing and Remote Access (replaced with Windows Firewall) Static IP filter APIs for Routing and Remote Access (replaced with Windows Filtering Platform APIs) The SPAP, EAP-MD5-CHAP, and 10 steps School, MS-CHAP (also known as MS-CHAP v1) authentication protocols for PPP-based connections.

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include many enhancements to improve connectivity, performance, and ease of configuration for protocols and core networking components; improve security, ease of use, and deployment for wireless and argumentative writing Dulwich, 802.1X-authenticated wired connections; and improve protection for private networks by 10 steps to write an essay School, requiring connecting computers to be compliant with system health policies. See the following resources for additional information:

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THE CELTIC, GLASGOW IRISH #038; THE GREAT WAR. THE CELTIC, Glasgow Irish and the Great War series by historian Ian McCallum covers the social and political history of the Glasgow Irish community from their arrival in Scotland over the course of the nineteenth century on to write an essay Lake School up to the end of the Great War in 1919. The Great War experiences of the Glasgow Irish and Scots Roman Catholic community between 1914 and 1919 are highlighted and examined in detail. The major British and Irish political, social, military and footballing events over the course of the war are covered. All the subjects are examined through the prism of the Celtic Football and Athletic Club and the team’s sporting performances over the five football seasons of the Great War. McCallum’s first book in the series, The Gathering Storms, sets the scene. He paints a picture of the origins and life experiences of the a discursive, Glasgow Irish community in School, their adopted homeland over a period of 100 years. How To Write Essay DLD College? Labelled “Glasgow Irish”, the title was at the time a colloquialism for an Irish Roman Catholic or their descendants.

It was a term of derision, hatred and contempt given them by the wider Glasgow community, from whom they had been effectively ostracised, set apart socially because of their race, religion and their perceived social neediness. Central to the social history of the Glasgow Irish from the last decade of the an essay Shawnigan Lake School, nineteenth century is the community’s relationship with the Celtic Football and Athletic Club. Founded, built and supported by the Glasgow Irish, by the eve of the Great War, the writing great School, Celtic Football Club, a Scottish team based in Glasgow, playing football in Scotland and comprising mostly Scottish players, was still regarded by most people, certainly in west central Scotland, as an Irish team. The reason for 10 steps Lake School this was simply because over the course of twenty-five years the thinker (NAVITAS), Celtic Club itself had emerged as a definition of Roman Catholic Irishness and was the 10 steps an essay, single greatest ethno-cultural focus for its Irish and a persuasive of Central Florida, Glasgow Irish supporters. By 1914, the Glasgow Irish community had coalesced into a cohesive, in Lake, many ways autonomous, society of define of Northampton (NAVITAS) around 200,000 souls, which mirrored in almost every aspect the wider Glasgow community. The marginalisation of the Glasgow Irish, allied to the constant topping up of the community with new immigrant “Irish” blood ensured that the community retained enormously strong cultural, political and emotional bonds to to write School the auld country. The political, financial and emotional support given by the Glasgow Irish to John Redmond and great writing 3 from great essays Anthony’s, the Irish Parliamentary Party as they attempted to introduce Home Rule and land reform in Ireland is portrayed. The book sets into context the social conditions in which generations of the Glasgow Irish lived their lives, which in an essay, turn largely shaped their political opinions and their attitudes and introduction of persuasive essay Appleby College, interaction with the wider Glasgow community as the clouds of war – both in Ireland and Europe – gathered overhead. The Glasgow Irish on the eve of war was a community in transition toiling with overlapping identities – ethnic, religious and political. Lake School? Just how Scottish or British did third- or sometimes even fourth-generation Glasgow Irish feel and how much loyalty did the Scots-born Glasgow Irish feel they owed to their new homeland?

How were they supposed to respond to the British nation’s call to arms having suffered decades of bigotry, derision, racism and a discursive London, marginalisation? On a very personal level, the Shawnigan, dilemma for the Glasgow Irish was just how much loyalty they felt they owed to their local community, to their neighbours and workmates. Exactly how marginalised and under siege did they as a community feel? Was it enough to stand on the sidelines of the war? For the first eighteen months of the Great War, enlistment was entirely voluntary and a matter for an individual’s personal choice. Just how much moral pressure did the Glasgow Irish feel as they watched their neighbours march off to defend the community, including their wives and children? With cultural ties to Ireland still immensely strong, what of the old maxim: “England’s difficulty is Ireland’s opportunity!” Over the course of the Great War, the Irish and by how to a informative Montverde Academy, association the Glasgow Irish came under close scrutiny regarding their loyalty and commitment to to write Shawnigan School Great Britain and to the British war effort.

Conditioned for over forty years by Church and political leaders to strive for of persuasive essay respectability, advancement and inclusion into the wider society, the Great War would provide an opportunity for the Glasgow Irish to demonstrate their commitment to their host society by contributing their share of the blood sacrifice. The question was would they take it? Just Exactly Who are “The People”? Here McCallum describes the history of the Glasgow Irish Roman Catholic community from its arrival in west central Scotland over the course of the nineteenth century. The arrival of the starving Irish during the Great Famine and Glasgow’s reaction to the flood of desperate humanity are highlighted. Socially marginalised because of their religion, race and social neediness, the Glasgow Irish community, led by to write Shawnigan School, the Roman Catholic Church, embarked on writing Dulwich a forty-year campaign of social respectability in an attempt to find acceptance by the wider Glasgow community. In the nineteenth and 10 steps Lake School, early twentieth centuries race hierarchy and social class were an integral and absolutely fundamental part of British social and political thinking.

The chapter looks at the importance of race and social class in defining the wider Glasgow community’s attitude to the Glasgow Irish. The chapter also examines the largely ignored Protestant Glasgow Irish and their relationship with the wider Glasgow community. The Early Celtic Club and Politics. McCallum explains the a informative essay Montverde, organisation, development and very sociable aspects of Scottish football over the early years of its existence. It looks at the formation of the Celtic and the political, social and 10 steps to write Shawnigan School, religious ethos established at the club by the founding fathers. Within a year of the formation of Celtic, the club membership was split over the manner in which the club was developing. The rift caused some disgruntled members to break away and form Glasgow Hibernian FC.

The story of the new Glasgow Irish football club, which threatened the very existence of Celtic FC, is told. The Celtic club came into being at a time when it was common for organisations outwith the world of politics to great paragraphs Saint Anthony’s hold and express political views. The influence of John Ferguson and his Home Government branch of the Irish National League on the leadership at the Celtic is an essay Shawnigan highlighted. Also examined is the club’s relationship with and support for Michael Davitt and his Irish Land League. While the of Northampton (NAVITAS), causes of Irish Nationalism, Home Rule and land reform lay at the heart of the club, the founding fathers also flirted with Scottish nationalism and socialism. Two of the most politically minded of Celtic’s founding fathers and 10 steps Shawnigan, three Glasgow Irish socialists associated with the club are presented. This is the story of the creation of the Celtic Football and Athletic Club from a slightly different angle than the norm. In addition to the best-known half dozen individuals associated with the great paragraphs to great Saint Anthony’s, founding of the club, another dozen less well-known individuals are introduced.

All have detailed biographies describing their backgrounds and political and religious affiliations, the to write an essay, part they played in the foundation and how to a discursive essay, early history of the club and 10 steps, their positions and attitudes in the social club versus limited liability dispute. How To Essay Montverde? The largely ignored or unrecognised contribution and influences of to write Shawnigan Lake School Scots Roman Catholic founding fathers are highlighted. At a time when football was morphing from an amateur game into a very lucrative arm of the entertainment industry, Celtic club members formed into two opposing factions: the traditionalists, determined that the club remain a community-based asset, and the modernisers, who wished to see the how to write essay London, club converted into a limited liability company. The two factions fought for over six years to gain control of the club. The long-running struggle for the soul of the Celtic club is examined in detail, as are the an essay Shawnigan, consequences for charity, the how to write a discursive DLD College London, club’s original raison d’etre . The social, industrial and military situation in Europe, Ireland and on mainland Britain is outlined. In Europe, Germany had emerged as the 10 steps School, most powerful industrial and military nation on how to a discursive essay DLD College London the Continent. Its belligerent Kaiser was determined that Germany should have an empire and would attempt to 10 steps Shawnigan use war to how to achieve his aim. Fear of German power saw the other nations tied into mutual protection treaties and alliances. Far from preventing war, the treaties would eventually drag them all over Shawnigan School, the precipice, like prisoners manacled at the ankles. In Ireland the Home Rule debate had taken the island to introduction essay Appleby the brink of civil war as both Unionists and Nationalists armed their followers. The Home Rule Bill had passed through the British parliament, but the Unionists refused to take part in any devolved Irish government.

Amazingly, in the spring of 1914, five armies existed in Ireland; only a spark was needed to cause the explosion. In Glasgow, both Ulster Volunteer Force and Irish Volunteer battalions were formed. They attended military training and practised shooting and in the summer of 1914 they were parading in the streets. Far from being the Edwardian utopia that most Great War historians tend to depict, Britain and Ireland were going through massive social unrest. As the capitalist and 10 steps to write Shawnigan School, landowning elites fought to preserve their privileged positions, the seething masses of the working class boiled with indignation at the massive differentials in wealth and lifestyles. Between 1910 and 1914, the working class in Britain and Ireland launched successive waves of mass strikes of unprecedented breadth and ferocity against all the key sectors of introduction essay Appleby capital, strikes that blew apart all the carefully promoted myths about the to write School, passivity of the British working class and of the stability of comfortable middle-class England. How To Essay? Even school children went on strike. In Glasgow they marched through the 10 steps Lake School, streets demanding the end to corporal punishment and the cessation of homework. By the write Montverde Academy, summer of 1914, millions of workdays had already been lost to industrial action and the government was preparing for another autumn of discontent. McCallum covers the social attitudes and political allegiances of the Glasgow Irish and the Celtic founding fathers, and later the club’s directors, in relation to the Home Rule for Ireland and Irish Land Reform.

Central to their political support was their long-term commitment to constitutional Irish nationalism, which from the beginning of the twentieth century meant Mr John Redmond and the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP). He looks at to write an essay Shawnigan Lake the depth of their unconditional support for the IPP and includes a biography of John Redmond and an overview of the other contemporary Irish political organisations like Sinn Fein, the Irish Republican Brotherhood and James Connolly’s socialist party. The political situation in Ireland on the eve of the Great War, from the Nationalist and Unionist perspectives, and how to write a informative Montverde, the formation of the Nationalist and Unionist militias in Ireland and in Glasgow are explained. He concludes by describing the gunrunning episodes in which the Unionists landed weapons at Larne and the Nationalists at 10 steps Lake Howth. The chapter concludes with the Bachelor’s Walk incident when three civilians were shot dead by the British Army. Ian McCallum sets out the political, diplomatic and strategic positions of the main European nations leading up to the declaration of war. Insights into the social, industrial and military characteristics for each of the steps essay University, major nations are provided. The complex series of treaties and 10 steps an essay Shawnigan Lake School, agreements designed to prevent war in Europe is explained, as are the reasons why they failed. The military systems and writing paragraphs to great Saint Anthony’s, strengths of the 10 steps to write an essay Lake School, various armed forces are listed, and their strengths and weaknesses highlighted.

A detailed breakdown of the argumentative, organisation of the British Army of 1914 is provided. In some detail, the complex and often paradoxical subject of Irishmen serving in the British Army is examined. There is an 10 steps to write an essay outline of the history of Irishmen serving in the British Army. The chapter examines the push and great writing 3 from paragraphs High School, pull factors that saw tens of thousands of 10 steps an essay Shawnigan young Irish and Glasgow Irish working-class men voluntarily enlist. Their reasons and options for enlistment are contrasted with those of the middle- and upper-class officers who led them. The social structure, attitudes and power of the men who made up the British officer class are examined.

The chapter also explains the a informative Academy, complexities of the British Army’s unique regimental system. 10 Steps Shawnigan Lake School? It was a system that instilled an institutionalised loyalty, which bound soldiers to their units and to each other and which crossed nationalities, politics and religious affiliation. Regimental and caste loyalty proved the biggest threat to any Irish soldier’s Nationalist sentiment. The subjects of religion and steps to writing a persuasive of Central, sectarianism in the British Army are also looked at. Celtic FC on the Eve of War. By the time of its 25th birthday celebrations in season 1913/14, the Celtic Football and Athletic Club had succeeded beyond the wildest dreams of its founding fathers and faithful supporters. 10 Steps? The Celtic was arguably the most powerful and wealthiest football club, certainly in Scotland, if not the whole of Great Britain. The chapter provides some insight into great to great Saint High, the personality and character of 10 steps to write an essay School Celtic’s legendary manager Willie Maley. The son of a professional British soldier, his character and personality are examined from a different perspective than is normally given, instead looking at the influence that his military upbringing had in the development of his domineering character and towering personality. It also underlines his and define critical The University of Northampton, the entire Maley family’s ongoing affection for the British Army and its regiments.

Allied to Willie Maley’s close association with the military, some light is shed on School what is often hinted at in Celtic histories, but never examined, the very close relationship that once existed between the Celtic club and the British Army. Finally, there is a detailed insight into the Celtic club on the eve of war, including, a summary of their very successful 1913/14 season, a report of define critical of Northampton their 1914 European tour, followed by pen pictures of the directors and the Celtic squad including reserves. Here McCallum describes the an essay Lake, diplomatic situation in argumentative and persuasive Dulwich, Britain, Ireland and Europe in the late summer of 1914 as the belligerent nations toppled into the abyss. The reactions of the people of 10 steps to write an essay Shawnigan Britain, Ireland and write essay, Glasgow, including the to write Lake School, Glasgow Irish are highlighted. Detailed extracts from Glasgow’s newspapers, including reports and editorials from the Glasgow Catholic Observer, are provided.

The effects on how to write a discursive DLD College London the players and directors and the Celtic club itself are shown. To Write Shawnigan Lake? A number of individuals that figure prominently in the following books are introduced. Although it may come as an uncomfortable fact to some of the contemporary Glasgow Irish, almost every modern Celtic supporter who can claim a historic connection to the Glasgow Irish community will almost certainly have had an ancestor or close family relation who, like millions of other young men, was sucked into steps a persuasive essay University of Central Florida, the maelstrom that was the Great War. For political, religious and financial reasons, this period in 10 steps an essay Lake, the history of Celtic FC and the Glasgow Irish community has long been ignored or at Appleby College best skimmed over by Celtic historians. Ian McCallum’s books are an attempt to to write Shawnigan Lake School explain and emphasise the massive and completely voluntary contribution made by Celtic FC and the Glasgow Irish community to the British war effort. The Celtic, Glasgow Irish and the Great War is highly recommended, is available to order direct from the author on Amazon HERE and is available at Celtic stores and at Waterstones in and around Glasgow. CQN’s Father’s Day offer is still available and selling like hot cakes! Order Charlie Gallagher’s new book and get the The Winds of Change for how to FREE! Click HERE or on the image below to order. All orders are dispatched asap.

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Intro: I have a lot of people asking me this question every time they finished asking me what nationality I am. What is Hmong? That triggers me! Sometimes it is 10 steps to write an essay Lake School heard for writing 3 from great to great essays Anthony’s School me to answer them because I don’t know the real answer to it and I would just say “we are Asian, we don’t have a country and we are not Mongolian.” This. Words: 599 - Pages: 3. SPEECH TEXT INTRODUCTION The existence of Internet has obviously given us huge impacts in many aspects including in Education. 10 Steps To Write School! Today’s students are all lucky since they are all born in steps essay Florida high-technology era with numerous of gadgets and 10 steps to write Shawnigan Lake School, things to a discursive, ease their lives. It is undeniable that Internet has helped us in many ways consistently with the 10 steps School, modernised people in this modernisation ages. However, is the education today relies on Internet merely? Is today’s students are too lazy that they. Words: 970 - Pages: 4. your main points? 0 1 2 3 4 5 2. Writing! Did you bring your speech to a satisfactory close or end abruptly?

0 1 2 3 4 5 3. Did your conclusion reinforce your persuasive appeals? 0 1 2 3 4 5 DELIVERY/PREPARATION: 20 POINTS 1. Did you use vocal variety or did you sound monotone? 0 1 2 3 4 5 2. Was your rate and volume effective? 0 1 2 3 4 5 3. Did you use effective gestures and body movement without displaying distractive behaviors? 0 1 2 3 4 5 4. Did you maintain.

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case study on asthma Department of Pediatrics, University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of 10 steps to write an essay School, Medicine. Chapter VIII.2. Asthma. Return to Table of Contents. A three year old comes in of persuasive essay, with a complaint of coughing for 2 weeks.

Coughing is present every night. He has also had a mild fever, but his temperature has not been measured at home. 10 Steps An Essay Lake School? His parents have been using a decongestant/antihistamine syrup and albuterol syrup which were left over from a sibling. Initially the cough improved but it worsened over the next 2 days. He is noted to have morning sneezing and nasal congestion. There are colds going around the pre-school. He has had similar episodes in the past, but this episode is worse. He has no known allergies to thinker (NAVITAS) foods or medications. His past history is notable for eczema and School, dry skin since infancy. Argumentative Dulwich? He is otherwise healthy and he is fully immunized.

His family history is notable for a brother who has asthma. In his home environment, there are no smokers or pets. Exam: VS T 38.1, P 100, RR 24, BP 85/65, oxygen saturation 99% in room air. To Write An Essay Lake School? He is alert and cooperative in minimal distress if any. His eyes are clear, nasal mucosa is boggy with clear discharge, and his pharynx has moderate lymphoid hypertrophy. He has multiple small lymph nodes palpable in his upper neck. Write? His chest has an increased AP diameter and it is to write Shawnigan tympanitic (hyperresonant) to percussion.

Rhonchi and occasional wheezes are heard on auscultation, but there are no retractions. Heart is in a regular rhythm and no murmurs are heard. His skin is dry, but not flaky, inflamed or thickened. He is initially felt to have moderately persistent asthma and possible asthmatic bronchitis. He is and persuasive writing initially treated with nebulized albuterol and 10 steps an essay Shawnigan Lake School, nebulized corticosteroids for bronchospasm and bronchial inflammation. He is also treated with an antihistamine at night to reduce his morning allergy symptoms. In follow-up, his cough does not improve and he is how to write a informative essay Montverde still having fever (T 38.2C, 101.0F). A chest X-ray is obtained, but no radiographic evidence of pneumonia is present. 10 Steps To Write? His cough persists, but only with exercise and drinking cold juice.

His chest now sounds clear in the office. After one week of no night cough, his nebulized albuterol+corticosteroid is reduced to 2 times a day. His exercise induced cough gradually resolves. His nebulized corticosteroid is replaced with nebulized cromolyn twice a day and oral montelukast (a leukotriene inhibitor) is added. Introduction Appleby College? He enrolls in a soccer league and plays with minimal coughing. 10 Steps An Essay Shawnigan School? His routine nebulized albuterol+cromolyn is stopped and is used only pre-exercise to prevent exercise induced bronchospasm. A Persuasive Essay Florida? No cough is an essay Lake School observed at night or with exercise. He is continued on nightly antihistamines, pre-exercise albuterol+cromolyn nebs, and define thinker The University of Northampton, once daily montelukast. He is given an asthma treatment plan which gives his parents clear instructions on which medications to start based on his symptoms and to write Shawnigan School, severity. Asthma is by far, the most frequent respiratory diagnosis for children admitted to how to a discursive essay DLD College London hospitals.

It causes 5000 deaths annually in the United States despite the 10 steps to write an essay Shawnigan Lake School availability of excellent medications. Historically, asthma was characterized as a psychological illness, a surgical illness treated by removal of the carotid body, an environmental illness aggravated by air pollution, and an allergic illness or infectious illness. An allergy role in asthma, was legitimized by the discovery of IgE in introduction of persuasive, 1965. Since then, inflammation has been identified as the primary pathologic process in 10 steps an essay, chronic asthma. Because of the variety of asthma triggers, such as exercise, exposure to smoke, weather changes, and allergies, asthma is now considered to be a syndrome consisting of bronchospasm, airway hyperirritability, and inflammation. The popular term ROAD (reversible obstructed airways disease) or RAD (reversible airway disease) is and persuasive writing Dulwich not entirely accurate since this is only part of the disease process and reversibility may not always be evident. This is because obstruction of the airways may be secondary to mucous plugging or inflammatory changes decreasing the caliber of the airways, in which case, beta-2 bronchodilators are ineffective. Currently the NIH Guidelines (1) have served as a standard for diagnosing and treating asthma.

NIH guidelines provide: 1) An objective means of measuring asthma via the peak flow meter. 2) A way of objectively categorizing severity classes of patients based on symptoms and/or peak flow measurements. 3) A comprehensive pharmacologic plan primarily designed to treat inflammation, inclusive of 10 steps to write School, provisions for acute and maintenance care, for each severity level. 4) For the identification and removal of (or control of great 3 from great essays School, exposure to) known triggers. 5) The direction for to write Lake, forming a partnership with the physician who uses education as a primary basis of this relationship. The realization that IgE existed and could be found in and persuasive writing Dulwich College, allergic individuals propelled the field of allergy and understanding of 10 steps an essay Shawnigan School, asthma into a renaissance of elucidating the actual pathophysiology of allergic diseases. Asthma is now understood to be a chronic inflammatory disease condition with periodic exacerbations. This is in contrast to viewing asthma as a purely bronchospastic condition. An acute asthma exacerbation is a biphasic process.

Understanding the inflammatory process of asthma came about when it was observed that 4 to of persuasive essay Appleby 8 hours following allergen exposure, wheezing would occur that was not responsive (or less responsive) to beta agonists but it was ablated by cromolyn and an essay Shawnigan Lake, corticosteroids. However, beta agonists could easily neutralize the immediate reaction, occurring within minutes of the great 3 from great essays allergen exposure. This created a picture of a biphasic reaction to allergen (or infection) induced wheezing. The first phase was described as the immediate (bronchospastic) phase and the second phase as the late phase inflammatory response. In the early phase of allergic inflammation, preformed mediators such as histamine and rapidly formed mediators such as leukotrienes are released and cause bronchospasm. Other mediators signal the late phase inflammatory cells.

These cells (e.g., eosinophils) recruit other cells such as epithelial cells to participate in the resultant inflammatory damage of the airways and subepithelial structures. These events eventually result in extensive restructuring of the normal histology of the airways. This damage is not restored by beta-2 bronchodilators. An Essay Shawnigan? An important immunologic occurrence is the activation of the Th2 helper cell, which is pivotal in the progression of the allergic immunologic process. The other helper designated Th1 cell does not enhance the allergic inflammatory process. Asthma, whatever the severity, is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways.

The characteristic features of asthmatic inflammation are: mast cell activation, inflammatory cell infiltration, eosinophils, macrophages, neutrophils (particularly in sudden-onset, fatal exacerbations), lymphocytes (TH2-like cells), edema, denudation and disruption of the bronchiolar epithelium, collagen deposition beneath the basement membrane (this is an irreversible process), goblet cell hyperplasia, mucous hypersecretion, and smooth muscle thickening. The primary clinical components of asthma include: bronchospasm, inflammation, airway hyper-reactivity, increased mucous production, and end expiratory hyperinflation (air trapping). There are many presentations of asthma. Asthma is present 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. It may not be in an easily identified form (i.e., there may be no obvious symptoms present). The most recognizable form is the acute episode in which the steps to writing a persuasive essay University of Central Florida patient presents with acute shortness of breath. Depending on 10 steps an essay Shawnigan Lake, the underlying degree of writing Dulwich, inflammatory damage of the airways, the episode may have been festering with persistent cough and occasional bouts of shortness of breath for 10 steps School, weeks. Failure to attend to these soft signs of asthma in transition may lead to an acute case of status asthmaticus. Hence, paying attention to signs of silent asthma (asthma not in an acute phase), can prevent costly and life threatening consequences. Asthma may appear solely as an event associated with work or exercise.

Most asthma in childhood occurs as a result of encounters with respiratory viruses. If the asthmatic is already unstable because of a poor maintenance regimen of the existing chronic asthma, the critical thinker The University acute phase will begin simultaneously with the first signs of a cold. 10 Steps To Write Shawnigan School? If the asthma is managed well, then the essay of Central cough and wheezing may occur several days after cold symptoms. Hence, early recognition of asthma in transition is a major point of cooperation involving the physician and patient. An asthma management plan should include a maintenance plan and provisions for acute onset wheezing. An Essay? Asthma in great writing 3 from Anthony’s High, its most manageable state, is outpatient asthma, as opposed to hospital status asthmaticus. For most medical professionals, the first and everlasting impression of asthma is in hospital status asthmaticus. By far, the more common situation is asthma outside the to write an essay Shawnigan School hospital, in its non-acute form. Therefore, it is of persuasive College highly desirable that medical professionals familiarize themselves with the other faces of asthma to facilitate diagnosis and treatment.

The type of medication used to treat asthma reflects the mechanism of airway obstruction: bronchospasm versus inflammation. This is an extremely simplified version of what really goes on and new pieces of the intricate mechanism are being uncovered. However from a pragmatic standpoint, the logic for to write an essay Shawnigan Lake School, appropriate use of individual medications for asthma can be understood by writing 3 from great essays Saint Anthony’s School recalling the biphasic reaction. Based on this brief description of the mechanism of asthma, it is now possible to create an asthma treatment program. Genetics aside, elimination of triggers and aggravators of asthma such as allergens, cigarette smoke, and environmental and 10 steps an essay Shawnigan, industrial pollutants, can prevent acute exacerbations of asthma and serve as the define thinker first line of defense. 10 Steps Shawnigan Lake? Conditions such as weather changes and respiratory infections fall outside of the readily controllable factors. Approach to Asthma. . . . . Write Essay DLD College London? . 1. Diagnose asthma and to write an essay Lake, classify severity. Identify aggravating and triggering conditions. . . . Introduction Of Persuasive? . . 2. Prepare an initial treatment plan to stabilize the acute condition. Instruct patient and parents on signs and symptoms which help to monitor the effectiveness of treatment.

If practical, treat other aggravating and co-morbid conditions concurrently. . . . . . 10 Steps To Write Shawnigan Lake School? 3. And Persuasive? When asthma is stable, proceed to a maintenance plan to allow healing of the damaged airways. This may take weeks to months. Prepare an asthma action plan for up-regulation of medications for 10 steps to write an essay Lake, unexpected exacerbations. . . . . . How To Montverde? 4. To Write Lake School? When there are no signs of breakthrough cough or wheezing, indicating that the great 3 from great to great essays Saint Anthony’s High School airway hyper-reactivity has subsided and is controlled, switch to a long term maintenance plan. This might be PRN use of bronchodilators, or pre-exercise use of preventive medications, or pulsing of medications for to write School, cold symptoms in short bursts. . Argumentative And Persuasive College? . 10 Steps To Write Shawnigan Lake School? . . Academy? . 5. Monitor asthma with periodic evaluations and reminder messages of avoidance and check on patients' inhalation technique of medication administration. Inflammation in asthma contributes to: airway hyperresponsiveness, airflow limitation, respiratory symptoms, coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, rapid breathing, chest tightness, persistent symptoms, and an essay Shawnigan Lake School, pathologic damage, even when symptoms are not present. It is often thought that periodic control of acute symptoms is sufficient, but this is suboptimal. Utilization of chronic anti-inflammatory agents result in better long term outcomes for all but the mildest asthmatics.

Co-morbid conditions such as allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, eczema, and gastroesophageal reflux have profound influence on asthma. Of Persuasive? Their presence makes asthma extremely difficult to control. 10 Steps To Write An Essay? The main goal is to keep the patient functional and free of introduction essay Appleby College, side effects from medications. With this approach, asthmatics have been able to participate in a normal life style. Asthma is more than an acute process. A large part of treating asthma successfully is to be able to recognize asthma in its early stages and to formulate an appropriate treatment plan before the asthma advances to a critical stage. School? It is simple to diagnose asthma when the write a informative essay Montverde patient is wheezing, displaying intercostal retractions and turning pale or blue. Great clinical skill is required to make a diagnosis of asthma when sub-clinical and/or non-acute asthma is present. A careful detailed history and physical exam are crucial to this end. Asthma is not the acute episode of wheezing as popularly described in lay journals and magazines, but a chronic condition of the airways of the lungs which exhibits recurrent bronchospasm. To Write Lake School? These chronic symptoms may present itself as cough with exercise, cough with colds, cough with laughter, or cough at night.

A peak flow meter can consistently record airflow readings compared against normal values for sex and age. Signs of silent asthma (when no wheezing is heard) include: persistent cough at night, cough with exercise, cough with laughter, cough when consuming cold foods or drinks, prolonged cough following or accompanying a cold, feeling of great writing great paragraphs essays, tight chest or difficulty breathing. The peak flow measurement and FEV1 (forced expiratory volume over to write an essay Shawnigan one second) are effort dependent measures. Full pulmonary function testing is desirable; however, the University Florida equipment is 10 steps an essay Shawnigan Lake expensive compared to an inexpensive peak flow meter. The ultimate objective measurement for asthma is by great writing paragraphs to great body plethysmography (body box), which can measure the end expiratory residual lung volume as well as resistance to airflow. For those patients unable to perform peak flow measurements, clinical history is all you may have to base your conclusions. This includes a major group of to write an essay Shawnigan, younger asthmatics from infancy to 4 or 5 years old. Many children in this age group are unable to reliably perform peak flow measurements. Often, patients will have no symptoms when brought to your examining room. The identification of the role of allergic diseases in asthma relies heavily on patient history.

Physicians trained to respond to record what they feel, see, and and persuasive, hear may have a problem forming conclusions based on to write School, history alone. Define Critical Of Northampton? Soft signs indicating that asthma is out of control include: frequent overt wheezing episodes, increasing frequency of using rescue medications (i.e., acute use of albuterol), a previously stable asthmatic now having signs of silent asthma, reduction or termination of activities, patient who had exposure to known trigger, persistent cough following bronchitis or pneumonia. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines, list as one of several key objectives, forming a partnership with the patient to facilitate treatment of asthma. To Write An Essay Shawnigan Lake School? Good communication and availability to answer questions and concerns are basic to the partnership. Part of your efforts as the treating physician should be focused on getting the patient to respond in a logical manner to cope with changes in his/her clinical state. Define Critical The University? This is 10 steps to write Lake based on the patient understanding the principles of: triggers and aggravators, bronchodilation, inflammation, airway hyper-reactivity and healing. Patients must also understand mucous mobilization and great 3 from great to great Saint School, signs and symptoms of asthma out of control which may lead to an acute asthma attack.

For example, should the peak flow fall or cough increase, the 10 steps an essay Lake patient is instructed to upgrade their medications according to a prearranged plan. As the acuteness of the situation resolves, the patient is advised to downgrade their medications back to their maintenance program. Should there be an unanticipated episode of wheezing, immediate activation of the 3 from paragraphs to great Anthony’s action plan and consultation with the physician for additional treatment schemes is the next step. 10 Steps? This up and down regulation of medications can be done without a physician visit. Phone calls, informing the physician's office of these maneuvers, are all that is normally required.

Obviously, recurrent wheezing episodes, even if reversed easily might indicate the presence of an argumentative College unstable condition requiring an adjustment in the basic asthma management plan. Hence, the physician should be apprised of to write Lake, these changing conditions regularly. All asthma management plans should have common goals. Asthma management plans depend on the severity of the asthmatic. Higher severity levels warrant greater use of corticosteroids and prophylactic medications such as leukotriene inhibitors and inhaled corticosteroids.

The NIH guidelines categorizes severity levels into steps as follows: Step 1 (mild intermittent): Day symptoms two days per week or less and night symptoms two nights per month or less. Chronic peak flow is 80% of expected or higher. Step 2 (mild persistent): Day symptoms greater than two times per week, but less than once per day or night symptoms greater than nights per how to DLD College, month. Chronic peak flow is still 80% of expected or higher. Step 3 (moderate persistent): Day symptoms occur daily or night symptoms occur more than once per week. Chronic peak flow is 60% to 10 steps to write Shawnigan Lake 80% of argumentative writing, expected value. Step 4 (severe persistent): Continual day symptoms or frequent night symptoms. Chronic peak flow is less than or equal to 10 steps Shawnigan Lake School 60% of expected value. The use of peak flow in the above classification is not required in children 5 years and under. And Persuasive Writing? Peak flow data is useful but not required for classification in 10 steps to write, older age groups, but most children in this age range are capable of define thinker, performing peak flows.

The major goal is to allow the child to express and achieve his or her maximum natural potential by not allowing the asthma to control him or her. This is a good way to view the end point in asthma management. Along the 10 steps Shawnigan Lake way, it is College crucial to cradle the 10 steps to write an essay Shawnigan Lake School impressionable self image so that the child does not have a negative view of himself or herself. Write DLD College London? The very impressionable years are from about 3 to 10 years of age, when children form their life-long mental image of themselves. Discussions involving asthma management should, therefore, be handled cautiously with this in mind. Asthma should be viewed as a chronic illness which may continue to 10 steps an essay Lake School adulthood. In 1896 Solis-Cohen published, The use of how to write a discursive essay, adrenal substances in the treatment of asthma (adrenalin or epinephrine is a fast and potent bronchodilator). An Essay Shawnigan Lake School? Epinephrine (most commonly administered subcutaneously, but it could be inhaled as well) was the first line of treatment for acute asthma from the 1950s through the 1970s and steps a persuasive essay University, early 1980s.

In 1924 ephedrine was isolated from Ma Huang (a Chinese root extract). For the next forty years, ephedrine would be the mainstay for asthma treatment in the USA. Ephedrine in combination with theophylline, as products called Marax and Tedral, were used extensively in 10 steps Shawnigan, the same period. Interestingly, the ancient Chinese boiled the ephedra root in to great Saint Anthony’s, strong tea for 10 steps Shawnigan Lake, their concoction to treat asthma. The tea contained theobromine, a methylxanthine.

Although methylxanthines such as theophylline are effective bronchodilators, they have been largely replaced by beta-2 agents (e.g., albuterol) which have a faster onset and less toxicity. Adding theophylline does not appear to how to a informative essay Academy acutely benefit most patients who are receiving high therapeutic doses of albuterol. Theophylline's main use is in long term chronic administration for more severe asthmatics. This change in therapeutic approach from methylxanthines to beta-2 agents did not further our understanding of the true pathophysiology of an essay, asthma, as bronchodilation was the only target of introduction of persuasive College, treatment. Bronchodilators can be administered via several inhaled routes: metered dose inhaler (MDI), dry powder inhaler (DPI), nebulizer (Neb, also known as aerosol, updraft and wet nebulizer), parenteral IV, parenteral subcutaneous injection (SC), and Lake School, orally (PO). In general, inhaled medications have a faster onset, greater potency and less side effects.

Bronchodilators Used in Asthma. A. Writing Dulwich College? Beta-2 Agonists: . 10 Steps Shawnigan Lake School? . . albuterol (Ventolin, Proventil, also called salbutamol outside the USA) - MDI, Neb, PO. . . . L-albuterol (Xopenex - active isomer only) - Neb. . . . terbutaline - MDI, Neb, PO, SC. . . . formoterol (Foradil - very long acting) - DPI. . . . salmeterol (Serevent - used for of persuasive essay Appleby, maintenance therapy) - DPI, MDI. . . . To Write? epinephrine (alpha and and persuasive Dulwich, beta) - MDI, Neb, SC. . . . ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) -MDI, Neb. . . . oxitropium bromide (Oxivent) - MDI.

. 10 Steps An Essay? . Appleby? . Shawnigan School? aminophylline - PO, IV. . . . theophylline - PO, IV. Other drugs with bronchodilator effects include ketamine, calcium channel blockers (e.g., nifedipine), and diuretics, however these drugs are not used routinely in acute asthma. Based on the biphasic mechanism, an anti-inflammatory drug (i.e., corticosteroids) is necessary for the complete treatment of asthma. Corticosteroids (steroids for short) can be administered systemically (PO, IM, IV) or inhaled (MDI, nebulizer, etc.).

For asthma of write a discursive essay DLD College London, a chronic nature, such as allergic asthma to house dust, a daily regimen of a long acting bronchodilator coupled with a steroid by inhalation would be effective. Steroids take hours to become engaged in its active phase. Their action does not take place directly on the inflammatory tissue but by 10 steps to write an essay Shawnigan Lake modulating DNA production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Their effects are very broad and nonspecific. Steroids affect virtually every phase of the inflammatory process. They have an array of impressive and undesirable side-effects, which cause hesitation in their use by physicians as well as patients. As in the use of argumentative and persuasive, any medication or therapeutic agent, the employment of steroids is subject to weighing the desired effects against to write Shawnigan Lake School, the undesirable effects (benefit vs. risk).

If the argumentative writing College positive effects of using steroids have an overwhelming advantage over not using the drug, then it is justified to 10 steps to write Shawnigan School be used on of persuasive Appleby, a regular basis. This especially applies to children where growth suppression (in the 10 steps Lake order of steps Florida, 0.5 to 1.0 cm per year) is the major side effect of chronic inhaled corticosteroids. Catch-up growth occurs in most instances, if the child's condition improves to the point at which inhaled corticosteroids are no longer needed. 10 Steps An Essay Lake School? Many patients require more medications during the define critical of Northampton fall/winter/spring, and fewer medications during the summer. Occasional bursts of systemic corticosteroids have no significant long term side effects, but chronic or long term use of systemic steroids have major side effects (refer to the chapter on corticosteroids). Corticosteroids used in Asthma. . . . beclomethasone (Beclovent, Vanceril) - inhaled. . . . triamcinolone (Azmacort) - inhaled, IM.

. . . To Write An Essay Shawnigan? budesonide (Pulmicort) - inhaled. . . . fluticasone (Flovent) - inhaled. . . How To Write Academy? . flunisolide (AeroBid) - inhaled. . . . mometasone (Asmanex) - inhaled. . . . prednisolone (Pediapred, Prelone, Orapred) - PO. . . . methylprednisolone (Medrol, Solumedrol) - PO, IV. . . . dexamethasone (Decadron) - PO, IV.

In addition, one might consider adding a leukotriene inhibitor, also called leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA). These leukotriene inhibitors were developed to counteract the all important late phase inflammatory reaction caused by SRS-A (slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis), a compound which was eventually identified as leukotrienes. Their side effects are minimal. These are all given orally. Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA) *(Some sources spell the 10 steps Shawnigan Lake School suffix as leukast instead of lukast. Roche and Astra Zeneca spell it as lukast.) Cromolyn type drugs stabilize mast cells (inhibit mast cell degranulation). They have less potent anti-inflammatory properties, but they have minimal side effects. Cromolyn (Intal) is available via nebulizer and MDI. Nedocromil (Tilade) is available via MDI.

Goals of Asthma Treatment. . . . 1. Prevent chronic and troublesome symptoms (e.g., cough or breathlessness in how to a discursive essay DLD College London, the night, in the early morning, or after exertion). . . . 2. Maintain (near) normal pulmonary function. . . 10 Steps An Essay Lake School? . Florida? 3. 10 Steps? Maintain normal activity levels (including exercise and other physical activity). . . . 4. Prevent recurrent exacerbations of asthma and argumentative and persuasive Dulwich, minimize the need for emergency department visits or hospitalizations. . . . 5. Provide optimal pharmacotherapy with minimal or no adverse effects. . . . 6. Meet patients' and families' expectations of and satisfaction with asthma care. Specific asthma therapy measures to an essay achieve these goals are based on the NIH severity categories.

Step 1 (mild intermittent) requires no daily medications. ALL of the other categories (i.e., any category with the word persistent), requires a chronic controller anti-inflammatory medication. Step 2 (mild persistent) recommends a low dose inhaled corticosteroid. Alternatively, a cromolyn medication or a leukotriene receptor antagonist may be used. Theophylline is another option, but only in children older than 5 years. Step 3 (moderate persistent) recommends a low dose inhaled corticosteroid plus a long acting beta-2 agonist (salmeterol or formoterol).

Three other alternatives exist: 1) A medium dose inhaled corticosteroid. 2) A low dose inhaled corticosteroid plus an LTRA. 3) A low dose inhaled corticosteroid plus theophylline. Step 4 (severe persistent) recommends a high dose inhaled corticosteroid, plus a long acting beta-2 agonist. In addition to the above chronic (long-term) recommendations, acute exacerbations are treated with quick relief (or rescue) medications, which is most commonly prn albuterol and optional short bursts of systemic corticosteroids. Albuterol can be given: 1) Orally at 0.1 mg/kg per dose every 6 to 8 hours. 2) Via nebulizer 2.5 mg unit dose every 4-6 hours. 3) Via metered dose inhaler (MDI) 2-4 puffs every 4-6 hours (however, most studies suggest that 5 to 10 puffs is more equivalent to the 2.5 mg nebulizer treatment). Systemic corticosteroids are commonly administered as: 1) Oral prednisolone at 2 mg/kg/day given once daily or divided BID. 2) IV methylprednisolone 2 mg/kg, then 1 mg/kg every 6 hours.

Systemic corticosteroids are usually given for 4 to Montverde Academy 5 days and then discontinued if the patient improves. Systemic corticosteroids administered for longer than 7 days require a gradual taper of the medication. If the an essay Lake patient is on inhaled corticosteroids, these should be resumed once systemic corticosteroids are stopped or tapered. Some physicians continue inhaled corticosteroids during systemic corticosteroid bursts to avoid the confusion caused by great great paragraphs to great essays School modifying their chronic medications. All patients should have a written asthma management plan that describes their chronic medications and a plan for the initiation of a rescue plan based on their symptoms and peak flow (if age 5 years). More detailed plans can include recommendations to step up or step down their chronic medications as their chronic symptoms worsen or improve. If dyspnea still persists, despite rescue medications, then the asthma management plan should refer the an essay Shawnigan patient to of persuasive Appleby a source of immediate medical care (doctor's office during office hours, or emergency room after hours). Serial treatments with beta-2 agonists (usually albuterol or L-albuterol) with or without ipratropium are most commonly given. To Write School? Inhaled beta-2 agonists can be given continuously for severely ill patients, or serially based on severity. Systemic corticosteroids can be started.

Parenteral corticosteroids do not have an onset time advantage over oral corticosteroids; however, very ill children have a higher likelihood of vomiting oral prednisolone. Mild intermittent asthmatics can often be treated without corticosteroids. The decision to and persuasive Dulwich College start systemic corticosteroids is 10 steps to write an essay Shawnigan School based on their response to beta-2 agonists and their previous history which indicates their severity level. Those who do not respond well to beta-2 agonists should be started on of persuasive essay Appleby College, systemic corticosteroids because, poor response indicates the presence of significant bronchial inflammation Those who have required systemic corticosteroids in the past or who have other markers of an essay Shawnigan, more severe asthma should also be started on systemic corticosteroids. Characteristics of good asthma control in children include: no coughing, no shortness of breath or rapid breathing, no wheezing or chest tightness, no waking up at night because of asthma symptoms, normal activities including play, sports, and exercise, no episodes of 3 from essays Anthony’s, asthma that require a doctor visit, emergency room visit, or urgent care, no absences from school or activities, no missed time from work for the parent or caregiver, normal or near normal lung function, and a healthy self image (i.e., nothing can stop me attitude).

Unfortunately, the death rate from asthma is not yielding to the introduction of many excellent and 10 steps to write Lake School, powerful treatments. This condition remains a challenge to the medical care team at all levels from physicians, nurses, emergency technicians, and great writing 3 from great paragraphs to great essays Saint, respiratory therapists to psychiatrists and social workers. Family, school personnel, coaches, club leaders, and after hours activity supervisors, are all involved in delivering care to the asthmatic. Risk factors for to write an essay Lake School, death from asthma include: . . . Past history of sudden severe exacerbations. . . . Prior intubation for asthma. . . Writing Dulwich College? . 10 Steps Lake School? Prior admission to intensive care unit for essay, asthma. . . . Greater than 2 hospitalizations for asthma in the past 12 months. . 10 Steps? . . Of Central? Greater than 3 emergency room visits for asthma in past 12 months.

. . . Hospitalization or emergency care visit for asthma in the past month. . . . Use of 10 steps, more than 1 canister per month of inhaled short-acting beta 2 agonist. . . . Current chronic use of define, oral corticosteroids. . . . Difficulty perceiving airflow obstruction or its severity. . . . 10 Steps? Low socioeconomic status and urban residence. . . . Illicit (illegal) drug use. . . . Serious psychosocial problems. Acute signs of severe asthma and potential impending respiratory failure, warranting admission to an intensive care unit include: 1) Oxygen saturation less than 100% despite the administration of supplemental oxygen. 2) Persistent respiratory distress and poor aeration despite aggressive beta-2 agonists. 3) A pCO2 of 40 or greater on a blood gas. The treatment of great paragraphs Saint School, severe status asthmaticus bordering on an essay Lake School, respiratory failure is controversial.

It is reasonable to begin with high dose beta-2 agonists; such as a nebulizer treatment with concentrated albuterol, or continuous albuterol. In severe patients, aeration is poor, so inhaling albuterol by a discursive DLD College London itself is usually insufficient. Subcutaneous epinephrine or terbutaline can deliver additional beta-2 receptor stimulation systemically. Other therapeutic options include: inhaled isoproterenol, IV or inhaled magnesium, IV ketamine, inhaled heliox or anesthetic agents. Such patients should be treated aggressively from the onset to prevent respiratory failure. If the patient fails to 10 steps Shawnigan School improve and define critical The University, respiratory failure ensues, positive pressure ventilation should be directed at maintaining oxygenation above 90% saturation if possible.

Severe status asthmaticus results in 10 steps an essay Shawnigan Lake, air trapping, therefore ventilation (air exchange) is difficult (almost impossible). Although such patients have very high pCO2s because of air trapping and poor ventilation, the priority should focus on maintaining oxygenation. Attempting to normalize the pCO2 with aggressive positive pressure ventilation will increase the likelihood of a pneumothorax which will worsen the hypoxia. This strategy is known as permissive hypercapnia because hypercapnia is not as deadly as hypoxemia. Permissive hypercapnia is more likely to avoid a pneumothorax and thus, oxygenation is preserved, improving the essay DLD College overall outcome. While the NIH asthma treatment guidelines do not recommend chest X-rays (CXR), it should be noted that these are treatment guidelines for asthma. These are not guidelines for to write, pneumonia, tracheal anomalies, bronchial foreign bodies, etc.

Thus, the University of Central Florida CXR may be necessary in the process of to write an essay Lake School, evaluating some patients to be certain that the patient has asthma and essay Florida, NOT some other condition which can only be identified on CXR (i.e., to rule out other conditions). Environmental measures to reduce asthma severity focuses on elimination of household smoking and the reduction of exposure to dust mite and cockroach microantigens in the environment. Wrapping mattresses with plastic casings, conversion of carpeted floors to tile floors, replacing drapes with blinds, and selecting home furnishings which avoid antigen accumulation, may result in improvement. Allergy testing and subsequent immunotherapy to 10 steps Lake School desensitize a patient may be beneficial in some asthmatics. In summary, asthma is a condition of multiple factors. To Writing A Persuasive Essay? It can be looked upon as a syndrome of 10 steps to write, multiple but related elements. It is basically a chronic condition with biphasic components which both result in airflow obstruction by different means. Introduction Essay? The treatment should take into account the to write Lake School various triggering factors, occupation, age, psychosocial, and economic factors. 1. How can you best describe asthma? 2. Can you describe the various medications to treat asthma?

3. Can you describe the parameters that are used to classify severity of asthma? 4. Describe clinical findings signifying the severity of an acute asthma exacerbation. 5. Discuss the approach to an asthmatic in relationship to formulating an acute asthma treatment plan. Introduction Of Persuasive College? What questions do you ask, what physical findings do you look for, and what laboratory parameters are measured? 6. Formulate an 10 steps an essay Shawnigan Lake School asthma maintenance plan. 7. Writing 3 From Great School? Describe various triggering factors and mechanisms by which they might exert their action. 8. Describe the School immunologic chain of events that ultimately leads to bronchospasm and inflammation. 9. Write A Informative Montverde? Discuss the pros and cons of corticosteroid use in 10 steps to write an essay Shawnigan Lake, children and compare them with use in critical (NAVITAS), adults. 10. How would you convince parents of asthmatics to use medications when their children are not openly symptomatic?

1. National Institutes of Health. NAEPP Expert Panel Report: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of 10 steps to write Shawnigan School, Asthma-Update on Selected Topics 2002. 2. Busse WW, Lemamske RF. Advances in Immunology Asthma. New Engl J Med 2001;344(5):350-363. 3. Kay AB. Advances in Immunology Allergy and Allergic Diseases Part 1. New Engl J Med 2001;344(1): 30-37. 4. Kay AB. Advances in Immunology Allergy and Allergic Diseases Part 2. New Engl J Med 2001;344(2):109-114.

5. Marone G, Austen KF, Holgate ST, Kay BA, Lichtenstein LM (eds). Asthma and Allergic Diseases: Physiology, Immunopharmacology, and Treatment. 1998, San Diego: Academic Press. 6. Barnes PJ, Grunstein MM, Leff AR, Woolcock AJ (eds). Asthma. 1997, Philadelphia: Lippincott Raven.

7. Pearce N, Beasley R, Burgess C, Crane J. Asthma Epidemiology, Principles and Methods. Critical Thinker The University Of Northampton (NAVITAS)? 1998, New York: Oxford University Press. 8. Brenner, BE (ed). Emergency Asthma. 1999, New York: Marcel Dekker. 9. Murphy S, Kelly HW (eds). Pediatric Asthma.

1999, New York: Marcel Dekker. 10. Kotses H, Harver A (eds). Self Management of Asthma. 1998, New York: Marcel Dekker. 11. 10 Steps School? Szefler SL, Leung DYM (eds). Severe Asthma: Pathogenesis and Clinical Management. 2001, New York: Marcel Dekker. 12. Sheffer A (ed).

Fatal Asthma. Define Thinker The University? 1998, New York: Marcel Dekker. Answers to questions. 1. Asthma is best thought of as a chronic inflammatory condition consisting of to write Shawnigan School, obstruction of the airways of the lung caused by spasms of the smooth muscle surrounding the airways which, in some cases, can be easily reversed by beta adrenergic bronchodilators. In other cases, corticosteroids may be necessary to reverse the airway obstruction by reducing the inflammatory changes responsible for the airway narrowing. Essay Academy? These changes may be caused by a variety of different stimuli.

2. Medications are divided into to write an essay School groups directed towards relaxing bronchial smooth muscles (relievers) and reversing the inflammation (controllers). 3. This answer can be divided into College two parts. The first is used to describe the degree of severity of the Shawnigan School acute asthmatic episode. These would include rate and effort of respirations, ability to Dulwich move air through a peak flow meter or spirometer, and oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration in the arterial blood. The second parameter involves the sensitivity of the airways (i.e., the chronic severity classification described in the chapter).

Day symptoms, night coughing episodes, peak flow, coughing with exercise, prolonged coughing after upper respiratory infections, and coughing with drinking ice-cold beverages help to categorize the severity of asthma. 4. 10 Steps To Write Lake School? Wheezing may be heard but if the attack is very severe there may be no wheezing at all (due to poor air exchange). Aeration is a good indicator of acute severity. Evidence of respiratory distress (retractions, tachypnea) indicates increasing severity until respiratory failure occurs (at which point, the patient may tire and exhibit seemingly less respiratory distress). Hypoxemia is also indicative of severity. And Persuasive Dulwich? Peak flow is typically low for 10 steps to write Shawnigan, acute exacerbations. For mild cases, cough may be present at any phase of an asthmatic episode and may be the only sign that bronchospasm is a informative essay Montverde Academy occurring.

A peak flow meter reading before and after a challenge of inhaled bronchodilator may reveal an increase in School, the airflow indicating the presence of bronchospasm. 5. Always consider the triggering event in formulating the treatment plan. Avoidance of the trigger can be very cost effective. Dulwich College? Preventive use of medications can be very useful such as preemptive use of medication with first sign of a cold. Analysis of the symptom's response to initial treatment can guide you in up regulating or down regulating medications. Use of the peak flow meter can serve as an objective means of adjusting medications. If cough and wheezing occur often and there are signs/symptoms of chronic asthma, a maintenance plan of daily medication should be initiated.

Efforts should be made to approximate the degree of inflammation in the airways. This estimation can serve to guide you in the type and Lake, dosage of anti-inflammatory medications to use. A contingency plan of argumentative and persuasive, what medications to use during an acute episode can be helpful and may help to avoid an unnecessary emergency visit to 10 steps an essay Shawnigan Lake the hospital. 6. The asthma maintenance plans are dependent on the patient's severity class (step 1, 2, 3, or 4). For all persistent levels, a daily plan will usually involve a long-acting bronchodilator and corticosteroid, LTRA, cromolyn and/or theophylline two to three times a day. Regular monitoring with peak flow meter readings can help to determine if the treatment is 3 from to great Saint School helping to return the lungs to normal function. A rescue plan using short acting bronchodilators with optional systemic corticosteroids may be needed for breakthrough wheezing. 7. Allergen exposure is mediated through IgE with resultant immediate and late phase reactions.

A variety of Lake, mediators are released and cause a cascade of immunologic events culminating in tissue edema, increased mucous production, and sloughing of the epithelial layer of the inner lining of the airways. This affects the free and steps to writing a persuasive essay University of Central, easy movement of air to the alveoli, which affects air exchange and causes atelectasis as the smaller air ways are completely plugged by the thickened mucous. 8. Triggering mast cells cause release of mediators, which can cause immediate effects on 10 steps, the lung tissue and smooth muscles. Other mediators are formed and released later and serve primarily to to writing University attract inflammatory cells. Some of these late mediators help to 10 steps to write an essay Shawnigan Lake capture the incoming cells. Other mediators recruit epithelial cells and of Central Florida, transform then into participants of the to write School reaction causing them to release more mediators (biologic amplification). 9. The critical issue of steroids in children is that of linear growth. It is now well established that the use of define thinker The University of Northampton (NAVITAS), inhaled steroids has significantly less effect on growth than systemic corticosteroids. The length of steroid use (inhaled or systemic), may have some effect on growth but its effect is 10 steps Lake temporary and in many studies final growth of asthmatics is generally no different than in non asthmatics (i.e., catch up growth occurs if the corticosteroids can be stopped for a period of time long enough for this to occur).

Chronic inflammatory suppression (long term use of great 3 from great to great School, inhaled corticosteroids) improves the long term outcome of asthma (i.e., less severity in the future). 10. This is where your ability to practice medicine is tested. You need to educate and persuade the 10 steps an essay Lake parents that your recommendations are in the best interest of the child and that it is to writing essay of Central based on considering the risks against an essay School, the benefits. This is write a informative Montverde Academy ideally done without making the parents feel guilty or intimidated by the potential for to write an essay Shawnigan Lake, fatal outcomes. While our goal may be to maintain the patient's lifestyle and define critical The University of Northampton, lung function, patients may see their goal as getting off medications as soon as possible.

For persistent asthmatics, they should be convinced that this is a chronic disease and long term medications will be required. Long term use of medications is generally very safe and not addictive.