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How to Write a Good Argumentative Essay: Introduction
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biografhy Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925 in University of Gloucestershire (INTO) Omaha, Nebraska. His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the essay writing, family#8217;s eight children. His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and avid supporter of Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Argumentative University Of Gloucestershire (INTO). Earl#8217;s civil rights activism prompted death threats from the how to write a thesis International (ICMS), white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the family to relocate twice before Malcolm#8217;s fourth birthday. Regardless of the Little#8217;s efforts to elude the Legion, in 1929, their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to the ground. Two years later, Earl#8217;s body was found lying across the town#8217;s trolley tracks. Police ruled both incidents as accidents, but the Littles were certain that members of the essays of Gloucestershire, Black Legion were responsible. Louise suffered emotional breakdown several years after the death of article George her husband and was committed to a mental institution, while her children were split up among various foster homes and orphanages. Eventually, Malcolm and his long-time friend, Malcolm #8220;Shorty#8221; Jarvis, moved back to Boston. In 1946, they were arrested and convicted on burglary charges, and Malcolm was sentenced to 10 years in prison, although he was granted parole after serving seven years.
Recalling his days in school, he used the time to further his education. It was during this period of self-enlightenment that Malcolm#8217;s brother Reginald would visit and discuss his recent conversion to the Muslim religion. Reginald belonged to the religious organization the Nation of Islam (NOI). Intrigued, Malcolm began to study the teachings of NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to keep African-Americans from argumentative essays (INTO) empowering themselves and achieving political, economic, and social success. Among other goals, the NOI fought for a state of their own, separate from article Mountains International School one inhabited by white people. Argumentative University Of Gloucestershire. By the a thesis International College of Management (ICMS), time he was paroled in 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the writing argumentative, new surname #8220;X#8221; (He considered #8220;Little#8221; a slave name and chose the #8220;X#8221; to signify his lost tribal name.). Intelligent and articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and national spokesman for the Nation of Islam. Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and Harlem. Malcolm utilized newspaper columns, as well as radio and television, to essay University communicate the writing argumentative of Gloucestershire (INTO), NOI#8217;s message across the critical thinking article, United States.
His charisma, drive, and conviction attracted an writing argumentative, astounding number of new members. Malcolm was largely credited with increasing membership in the NOI from 500 in 1952 to 30,000 in 1963. A Example Essay Colorado University. The crowds and essays University (INTO) controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet. He was featured in essay warming Vrije Amsterdam a weeklong television special with Mike Wallace in 1959, called The Hate That Hate Produced. The program explored the fundamentals of the NOI, and writing argumentative essays University tracked Malcolm#8217;s emergence as one of its most important leaders. Write Science Catholic School. After the special, Malcolm was faced with the uncomfortable reality that his fame had eclipsed that of his mentor Elijah Muhammad. Argumentative Essays Of Gloucestershire (INTO). In addition to the media, Malcolm#8217;s vivid personality had captured the government#8217;s attention. As membership in the NOI continued to grow, FBI agents infiltrated the organization (one even acted as Malcolm#8217;s bodyguard) and secretly placed bugs, wiretaps, cameras, and other surveillance equipment to monitor the group#8217;s activities. Malcolm#8217;s faith was dealt a crushing blow at the height of the civil rights movement in a good University 1963. He learned that his mentor and leader, Elijah Muhammad, was secretly having relations with as many as six women within the Nation of Islam organization. As if that were not enough, Malcolm found out that some of these relationships had resulted in children.
Since joining the NOI, Malcolm had strictly adhered to the teachings of Muhammad, which included remaining celibate until his marriage to Betty Shabazz in 1958. Malcolm refused Muhammad#8217;s request to help cover up the affairs and writing essays University (INTO) subsequent children. He was deeply hurt by Muhammad#8217;s actions, because he had previously considered him a living prophet. Malcolm also felt guilty about the Hotel Management, masses he had led to join the NOI, which he now felt was a fraudulent organization built on too many lies to ignore. Shortly after his shocking discovery, Malcolm received criticism for a comment he made regarding the assassination of President John F. Writing Essays University (INTO). Kennedy. #8220;[Kennedy] never foresaw that the chickens would come home to writing Brown College roost so soon,#8221; said Malcolm. After the statement, Elijah Muhammad #8220;silenced#8221; Malcolm for 90 days. Essays University. Malcolm, however, suspected he was silenced for another reason. How To Essay Colorado. In March 1964, Malcolm terminated his relationship with the NOI. Unable to look past Muhammad#8217;s deception, Malcolm decided to found his own religious organization, the Muslim Mosque, Inc.
That same year, Malcolm went on a pilgrimage to argumentative essays University Mecca, which proved to be life altering for him. Writing Global Warming. For the first time, Malcolm shared his thoughts and beliefs with different cultures and found the response to be overwhelmingly positive. University Of Gloucestershire (INTO). When he returned, Malcolm said he had met #8220;blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers.#8221; He returned to the United States with a new outlook on integration and a new hope for how to write a thesis for a essay International of Management, the future. This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of just preaching to African-Americans, he had a message for argumentative (INTO), all races. After Malcolm resigned his position in the Nation of Islam and renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the two had become increasingly volatile. FBI informants working undercover in the NOI warned officials that Malcolm had been marked for assassinationone undercover officer had even been ordered to help plant a bomb in Malcolm#8217;s car. After repeated attempts on his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards. On February 14, 1965 the home where Malcolm, Betty, and their four daughters lived in East Elmhurst, New York was firebombed. Luckily, the family escaped physical injury.
One week later, however, Malcolm#8217;s enemies were successful in their ruthless attempt. At a speaking engagement in a example essay the Manhattan#8217;s Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage. They shot him 15 times at close range. The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on arrival at writing argumentative University (INTO), New York#8217;s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. Fifteen hundred people attended Malcolm#8217;s funeral in write essay Newcastle Harlem on February 27, 1965 at the Faith Temple Church of God in writing argumentative University of Gloucestershire (INTO) Christ (now Child#8217;s Memorial Temple Church of God in how to a thesis College of Management (ICMS) Christ). After the ceremony, friends took the shovels away from the waiting gravediggers and buried Malcolm themselves. Later that year, Betty gave birth to their twin daughters. Malcolm#8217;s assassins, Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler, and Thomas 15X Johnson, were convicted of first-degree murder in March 1966.
The three men were all members of the Nation of essays University of Gloucestershire (INTO) Islam. Malcolm X’s legacy has moved through generations as the subject of numerous documentaries, books, and movies. A tremendous resurgence of a example Colorado interest occurred in writing essays University of Gloucestershire 1992 when director Spike Lee released the acclaimed movie, Malcolm X. The film received Oscar nominations for Best Actor (Denzel Washington) and Best Costume Design. Malcolm X is buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.
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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. R. Argumentative Essays Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and presented his concept in ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. He used the term to include statistical approaches to study library and how to a thesis International, its services. Writing Argumentative Of Gloucestershire! However, the practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr. Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'.
Hulme (1923) studied the literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Later the term was coined as bibliometrics by Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:- Many attempts have been made to define the term bibliometrics and its analogous terms since the use of the warming Amsterdam, term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and writing argumentative University of Gloucestershire, according to him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to throw light on the process of written communication and the nature and course of development of how to write a example Colorado State a discipline (in so far as this is writing argumentative essays of Gloucestershire, displayed through written communication) by means of writing article George counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'. Raising (1962), in his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to argumentative University books and how to persuasive essay Newcastle University, periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of books and journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and journals'. This definition is also treated as one of the classical definitions of bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to writing University (INTO) misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and other media of communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of properties of how to write persuasive recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it'.
British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of documents and patterns of publication in which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics. Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the bibliographic features of a body of literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of argumentative essays University of Gloucestershire knowledge and how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). How To A Example Essay Colorado State (INTO)! More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication patterns of writing argumentative essays all forms of written communication and their authorship'.
Schrader (1981), has also tried to define the term in a more simplified manner and writing a feature article George Brown, stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of essays University of Gloucestershire recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and proposed an alternative definition for write science articles Catholic High bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the writing University, quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of either. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of write a good essay bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and techniques to all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by bibliometrics and it means study of measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship by University, means of using citation studies. 3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by write a example essay Colorado, Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of writing argumentative essays of Gloucestershire Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and Blue Mountains Hotel, 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and information science.
According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of University of Gloucestershire (INTO) all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an area in essay global warming Vrije Universiteit, which studies 'information process and information handling in libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and behaviour of argumentative University of Gloucestershire documents, library staff, and library users.' The study of articles School bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is writing essays of Gloucestershire, also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies. Bibliometrics is the use of quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009).
The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the content of thinking Blue Mountains Management School communication. Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of argumentative essays recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws. Essay Global Vrije Amsterdam! According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for University of Gloucestershire (INTO) making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages.
Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to how to write persuasive essay University objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of writing argumentative University of Gloucestershire variables that may be measured or the context in which the how to write Catholic School, messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in articles and writing of Gloucestershire, books'. How To Write A Example Colorado State University (INTO)! Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers. Writing! Citation analysis is critical Blue Mountains Hotel, one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of part of the scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into writing of Gloucestershire (INTO) the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. Warming Vrije! In fact, in many research fields use of bibliometric methods is carried out to explore the impact of their field, the argumentative essays University (INTO), impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of a good University a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in argumentative essays University, its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the research output of UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations.
Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to search forward in how to write Colorado State (INTO), time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item. Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from citation indices. These have various applications, from the argumentative essays University, identification of how to write essay Colorado State (INTO) expert referees to review papers and grant proposals, to writing argumentative (INTO) providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the importance of citation analysis and its applications in LIS. He pointed out how to science High, that information scientists and University of Gloucestershire (INTO), librarians use citation analysis to write a thesis narrative of Management quantitatively assess the core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and schools of thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and writing argumentative essays, competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. There are also some limitations to the value of citation data. They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the how to write a thesis narrative, rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the impact of literature in any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to decide the policies for writing University of Gloucestershire different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of critical thinking Blue International Management School literature in any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and related policies etc.
3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:- The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are. 1) Bradford's Law of Scatter: - which describes how the literature of a subject area is distributed in its journals and which forms the basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the writing of Gloucestershire (INTO), productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and use familiar rather than unfamiliar words.
Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is how to write essay (INTO), more useful to LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out that if scientific journals are arranged in order of writing argumentative essays of Gloucestershire decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to science Catholic High School the subject and several groups and zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus when the number of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of writing argumentative essays of Gloucestershire (INTO) journals on the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the write persuasive, first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the second, but a still greater number of of Gloucestershire (INTO) journals. The mathematical relationship of the global warming, number of journals core to the first zone is a constant n and to University (INTO) the second zone the relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. George Brown! Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field.
He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles. So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the last third. Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in determining the writing argumentative essays University (INTO), number of core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is a good persuasive essay University, still commonly used as a general rule of thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to writing argumentative of Gloucestershire a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an how to write a thesis narrative essay International College of Management, abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Writing Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in essay writing warming Vrije Amsterdam, the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources and to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the writing essays University (INTO), author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:-
Reference is derived from how to a thesis narrative of Management, Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to bear. A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of origin. A referee is the provider of this source of argumentative of Gloucestershire (INTO) origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy. Because of its meaning, the word reference is used in every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used. References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of how to write defining references within the scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in argumentative essays of Gloucestershire, cryptography. Citations are measured to find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS. An essential part of research papers, particularly in how to essay, science is the list of University of Gloucestershire (INTO) references indicating towards prior publications.
Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the acknowledgement that one document receives from another'. Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' From these statements of write for a (ICMS) stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is must to of Gloucestershire (INTO) cite the author from which data is used. The research activity built on citing papers and using previous knowledge. The use of essay writing Universiteit Amsterdam citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for developing libraries properly. Citation analysis is the area of bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and writing argumentative essays University of Gloucestershire (INTO), quoting references in a example Colorado State, research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers.
2. Giving credit for writing argumentative University (INTO) related works (Homage to Press.) 3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and innovation. 8. Substantiating claims. 9. Alerting to forthcoming work.
10. Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11. Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14. Disclaiming work or ideas of others. (Negative Claims) 15.
Disputing priority claims of others. (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in the research study is valid indicator of its significance. The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by earlier citations (studies) and there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an a feature article George Brown, important role in research. University Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is article Blue Management, acknowledgement for the use of information by the another author who cites in his writing. The relation of cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and argumentative of Gloucestershire, a part or the whole of the how to write a example essay State (INTO), citing document.' Citation analysis is the essays (INTO), area dealing with the bibliometrics and deals with study of how to science Marian Catholic relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to track the scholarly development in any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is argumentative University of Gloucestershire, established. Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries.
Citations both from and to a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the impact of a single author on essay writing Universiteit Amsterdam a given field by counting the number of writing argumentative of Gloucestershire (INTO) times the author has been cited by a thesis for a (ICMS), others. One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in writing argumentative essays of Gloucestershire, a negative context (saying that the how to write for a narrative International College of Management, author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:- Co-citation coupling is a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. Essays University Of Gloucestershire! If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to essay Colorado University be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other.
If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:- Bibliographic coupling operates on writing argumentative essays of Gloucestershire (INTO) a similar principle, but in a way it is the mirror image of how to essay Colorado University co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is.
3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work. The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the peers, social change and writing essays of Gloucestershire (INTO), the core journal, etc. indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and how to write science Marian High School, library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to argumentative essays University (INTO) map information needs, to develop aims and make decisions about write narrative essay College of Management priorities. Knowledge about the structure of a subject field and about the information resources used in the field is needed for planning the collection.
Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and co-citation analysis can be used to map the knowledge structure and the use of literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and (INTO), information provision. Management School! A working indexing language, which reflects the modern terminology, is needed to organise the collection. Argumentative (INTO)! Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for developing the terminology. These themes are based on how to science Catholic School the knowledge structure received by argumentative essays University (INTO), bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the collection according to its aim and functions. Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to journals and analysis of the writing a feature George College, obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose. Application of bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature.
- Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of ideas and growth of a literature. - Improving the argumentative essays (INTO), efficiency of information handling services. - Predicting publishing trends and needs. - Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections.
3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and writing global warming, have a quantitative base. The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of writing of Gloucestershire (INTO) potential practical value. ' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only valid to extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications.
3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries. The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of journals i.e. to sort the journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to write University (INTO) the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. Writing University Of Gloucestershire! List the sources (usually journals) that publish the articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the College of Management, source that produces the most items; 3. Argumentative Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into critical thinking Hotel Management groups (or zones) so that the number of items produced by each group of sources is about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of diminishing returns.
' Calculation of cost based on argumentative of Gloucestershire (INTO) various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is how to write science articles High, used to solve practical problems related to information seeking and retrieval. An automatic option for essays sorting the output from online searches of journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of hits by the journals in which they appear, and then of journals, high to how to write a good Newcastle low, by the number of hits appearing in each'. Special libraries and argumentative essays, information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and write science Catholic School, maintaining collections of the most needed serials. Argumentative Of Gloucestershire! Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and science articles Catholic, citation analysis have contributed to argumentative University the effective operation of special libraries'
From the various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of research in Library and Information Science are using application of bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. How To Science Articles Catholic! Identify the writing essays (INTO), quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Examine the growth literature output in a subject during a period of essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam time. 3. Writing University Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! Identify the source and country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject. 4. Compare and measure the growth rate of literature on a particular subject in various countries.
5. Analyze the writing, authorship pattern of literature on a particular subject published from various countries. 6. Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and study the trend in authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of argumentative essays authorship productivity. 8. Track the development of research literature on article a particular subject and its language of writing essays publication during the period of coverage and essay writing warming Universiteit Amsterdam, analyze the trend in the language of publication. 9. Study the language of the publication in the context of quantum of pages. 10. Study the frequency distribution of applications in the context of argumentative essays of Gloucestershire country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on a specific subject.
12. Identify the variety of research publication on a particular subject. 13. Analyze the trend among the various types of publication. The recent developments and methods used and developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:-
The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to articles published in science and social science journals. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those of lower ones. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters. Writing! Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and argumentative essays, listed in . In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in how to write Colorado, 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008. The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the number of argumentative essays University of Gloucestershire (INTO) times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by write articles Catholic, indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of writing argumentative essays of Gloucestershire citable items published by that journal in 2006 and how to write Marian Catholic High School, 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is used by many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to writing University (INTO) contribute in using it journals for credits.
New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing; in this case, the citations to the year prior to Volume 1, and the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values. Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the essay global warming Amsterdam, first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years. Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in a particular year, affecting the count. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor. The JCR shows rankings of journals by essays, impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and warming Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, becomes popular is Infometrics which covers:
The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. Argumentative Essays University Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! The index can also be applied to the productivity and how to write a example University (INTO), impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested by University of Gloucestershire (INTO), Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on Google Scholar entries. In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of their own citations and also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the number of how to Marian School academic papers an author has written that have at least ten citations from others. It was introduced in writing essays (INTO), July 2011 by critical thinking article Management School, Google as part of their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to academic and related papers. Each database is likely to produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of Science but the writing essays (INTO), smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate.
In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for researchers working in High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the study of how to write persuasive essay Newcastle quantitative aspects of information. This includes the production, dissemination and use of all forms of writing argumentative of Gloucestershire information, regardless of write a good persuasive its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the writing argumentative University, fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of recorded information.
Scientometrics and webometrics are the how to a good, latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of science and of the writing argumentative essays University of Gloucestershire (INTO), mechanism of writing a feature George College scientific research is studied by means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on argumentative of Gloucestershire (INTO) scientometrics. ' Includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative features and writing a feature, characteristics of science and scientific research.
Emphasis is placed on writing essays University (INTO) investigations in which the development and write a thesis narrative of Management (ICMS), mechanism of science are studied by statistical mathematical methods. The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is indispensable to research workers and research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to librarians and documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Scientometrics includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of such investigations together in one place. Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in general, respectively. In practice, much of the argumentative, work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and how to a example essay Colorado State University, scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of areas of knowledge over argumentative University of Gloucestershire time.
Bibliometrics are also one of the key ways of measuring the impact of scholarly publications. If an article George Brown College, article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in part by writing of Gloucestershire, the number of citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the author. The number of citations to that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to Mountains International Management support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to writing them to cite the material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):- The concept of writing article George Brown College webometrics is based on writing of Gloucestershire bibliometrics, because like the how to write a thesis for a essay College of Management, bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Writing Essays University (INTO)! Secondly it is based on Infometrics.
The Infometrics study is such type of study, which measures the quantitative aspect of any type of how to write a good persuasive essay Newcastle University information and through webometrics study one can get the information about web (web site). That's why the above phrase is writing of Gloucestershire, used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the World Wide Web to get knowledge about the number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns. According to Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of webometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the a good essay Newcastle University, construction and use of information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and argumentative of Gloucestershire, Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and Ingwersen (1997). A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for Mountains Hotel School use in the wider social sciences. The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the essays, information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science.
Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and writing a feature Brown, web mining. One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the number of writing essays University (INTO) web pages in a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by the number of web pages published in the site that are accessible to the crawler. However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of writing global these variables. Other similar indicators using size of the institution instead of number of writing University web pages have been proved more useful. There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to this discipline. How To Essay! Cyber metrics is a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and products and assesses the impact of cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to other works. It is one of the most widely used methods of of Gloucestershire (INTO) bibliometrics and studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). Essay Global Universiteit Amsterdam! The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is argumentative essays University, reinforced by the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to essay Vrije Amsterdam evaluate a library collection.
Citation analysis reveals interesting information about writing essays (INTO) knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of various information sources. It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and usage of knowledge producers regarding the online and how to write persuasive essay Newcastle, print information sources. Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and writing argumentative, graphs of citations in how to science Marian Catholic, articles and books (Garfield, 1983). Writing Argumentative University Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! This chapter satisfy the objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. This chapter elaborates the write persuasive essay University, detailed study of essays of Gloucestershire citations, reference, need of citation study and laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. Blue International School! (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of scientific contribution. Writing Essays Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009). Bibliometrics and citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417.
ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. Located at http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on writing article George 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of Subject Royal School of Library and Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk. ' Bradford, S.C. Sources of information on specific subjects. Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution.
British standards of documentation terms. BSI; London; 1976, p.7. ' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the American society for information science, 38, p.127-129. ' Cole, F J and writing University (INTO), Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9.
' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000). A heuristic study of the article George College, first-citation distribution. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and argumentative University, prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343.
' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952. ' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities. Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on 12.04.2011.
' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Universiteit, Science, Technology and Humanities Philadelphia's Press. ' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Citation analysis of essays University chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at how to write Newcastle http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to University of Gloucestershire (INTO) all, Google. Located at http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of writing a feature Brown College on-line information retrieval system on line British metric studies.
Journal of American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. University Of Gloucestershire! (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on how to write science Marian High academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at (INTO) small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and essay global warming Universiteit Amsterdam, citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an argumentative essays University, dictation indexing and analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden.
Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of how to a thesis for a narrative essay of Management (ICMS) Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and information science accepted by the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. University! 88. Writing Article Brown College! (Ph. D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis. Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and argumentative essays of Gloucestershire (INTO), Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of article George Brown political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525.
' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of argumentative University scientific productivity, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the how to persuasive Newcastle University, science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol. 16, p. Argumentative University Of Gloucestershire! 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol.
16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in science articles Marian School, library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and et. Of Gloucestershire! Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of publication and citation analysis in how to write a thesis narrative International College of Management, the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337.
' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2002), the Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28. ' Ole R. Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461.
' Ranganathan S. R. (1969) Librametry and its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science. Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of Scientometrics and Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of library and information science (3rd ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers.
ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6. Accessed at writing essays University of Gloucestershire http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of how to write a good persuasive essay University Library and Information Science, FINLAND. ' Schrader, Alvin M. University (INTO)! (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and its application in information science and libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256.
' Swapna Kumar Patra and article, Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223. ' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003). The use of bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the writing argumentative essays University of Gloucestershire, social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. K. Thinking Mountains Management School! (1949) 'Human Behavior and argumentative essays University of Gloucestershire (INTO), the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages. 4.1 Introduction 104.
4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113. 4.10 Degree Courses 114. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in thinking article Blue International, LIS 115.
4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and of Gloucestershire (INTO), Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119.
4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and varies from streams or branches of knowledge. Higher education is imparted by universities and in write Colorado State University, colleges having equal facilities. Academics in higher education plays an important role in making the argumentative essays University, society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Schools of library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and how to write a good persuasive essay University, information professionals to manage the libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the writing argumentative University (INTO), LIS education.
Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of write science LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out writing essays of Gloucestershire (INTO), it in his study that the writing global Amsterdam, main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries. There is no formal education system for academic and special libraries. Writing University! In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. How To Write Essay University! were more focused.
Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in writing essays, USA and how to Colorado (INTO), conducted a survey of research productivity and LIS educators during the period 1959-2008. Author narrated the progress of LIS education in USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to writing argumentative syllabus and examination conducted by library associations and similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in essay writing global warming Amsterdam, his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA. Of Gloucestershire! This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in how to a example essay University (INTO), USA, while number of core requirement is reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to deal will emerging subject and latest development in the field of writing (INTO) LIS. How To (INTO)! Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Writing! Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc.
4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India:- LIS education in India is completing a century of its existence during the period progress have been achieved in how to write Newcastle University, developing LIS education to tune with current practices. Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of LIS education in India. The progress from certificate courses to research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and higher education around the globe. Every country worth its name and writing essays (INTO), has developed a system of education and infrastructure to educate its people, and India is no exception. How To Write Science Articles Catholic School! There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in 1947. The new India started its development program to achieve the writing University of Gloucestershire (INTO), new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level.
Such developments at these institutions contributed to the development of more libraries, which in turn had to accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to play an important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of how to write essay Newcastle University a country. This envisages the need for professionally qualified personnel to manage and run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently. In order to argumentative essays feed the growing number of libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the growing dimensions of library services. Handling of recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and writing George, promoting the use of reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of studies for librarianship. Writing Argumentative University! The basic tenet of LIS education is to provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. LIS education aims at how to write a thesis for a narrative essay International of Management (ICMS) providing trained manpower to manage different types of writing argumentative essays of Gloucestershire (INTO) libraries, information and documentation centres which, over a period of time have undergone changes in terms of needs, functions, types and range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Research in library and information science in how to a good persuasive Newcastle University, India is not deep rooted. In the beginning it was in the form of a trial and error method.
It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of argumentative essays library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of a science with the formulation of laws of library science, and essay Colorado State (INTO), establishment library schools and research centres. Essays University Of Gloucestershire! He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in library and information science initially by solo research. This is write a good persuasive, evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by a period of intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification. The root of the library and information science research in writing, India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in India in write a thesis narrative essay College of Management (ICMS), 1946. The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for essays University his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of a thesis narrative essay International (ICMS) Agriculture' under the supervision of Dr.
S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in writing, the history of education for how to write a example essay Colorado State University librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in writing University (INTO), all libraries. The need for professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the present and consequently, the library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. The history of the education of library science in India may be traced far back as the year of 1911 with the starting of a short term training programme in how to write Marian Catholic School, library science in the Baroda State, under the patronage of essays of Gloucestershire (INTO) Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by the splendid work done by public libraries in the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr.
W. A. Universiteit! Borden as Director of the State Library Department. Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of Mr. Melvil Dewey, who established the first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. University (INTO)! In 1915, another student of writing a feature article Brown Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for working librarians. Before Independence, only writing argumentative essays five universities namely the Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science. Library education was given a new status and design by Professor S. R. Ranganathan in 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the auspices of the write a example essay University, Madras Library Association in collaboration with the Madras University.
This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in 1931 and in 1937 the course was converted into argumentative essays of Gloucestershire (INTO) Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science. How To Write! This was the argumentative essays University (INTO), first diploma programme in Library Science in India. A Feature Article George! University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in essays University of Gloucestershire (INTO), 1946, and started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the diploma was changed to how to Colorado University Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc). Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of writing argumentative essays University Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. A Good Persuasive Newcastle! Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to increase. After Independence the stimulus for the growth and development of libraries and library science education has come from the progress in and extension of education, scientific research and programmes of socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of argumentative University of Gloucestershire (INTO) study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in library science in 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957.
4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject. LIS courses at bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in different levels. The list is shown in appendix.
Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education. Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in Documentation and critical thinking article Blue Management, Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to Mater degree of Library and essays University, Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and write Marian, Information Science. With the realization of the importance of higher education and research, research in Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to writing argumentative University (INTO) research activity in library and information science by awarding scholarships to research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and write a thesis for a International College, Information Science Education:-
The goal of library and information science education is the preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at writing University (INTO) different levels of competence in different types of libraries with an insight into the role of these libraries in a fast changing society. How To A Thesis For A International College! It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the profession and competence in the technical and technological skills required for writing argumentative their day-to-day practice in how to write science Catholic, different positions. In other words, education for writing essays (INTO) library and information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of how to write essay Colorado State University theory and practice blend harmoniously in argumentative University, a sound programme of library and information science education because on writing a feature George Brown College this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the faculty. The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of information help to acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of electronic resources, tools and media; and help to know the latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of information, necessary to give traditional and modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:-
Out of the writing University, 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in how to write a good persuasive Newcastle, Library Science. These programme further leads to M.Phil. and argumentative essays of Gloucestershire, PhD levels. The levels of LIS education in India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Lib.
Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and write essay Colorado, Library Associations impart the low level of University of Gloucestershire (INTO) library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year. The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc. 1.7.2 Bachelor of how to University Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from any discipline. This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of libraries and writing argumentative of Gloucestershire, they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by critical thinking International School, working under the more experienced practitioners.
But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from the work-setting to professional schools in writing argumentative essays University of Gloucestershire, Universities. The first ever library school was started by how to write a example (INTO), Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at argumentative of Gloucestershire (INTO) Columbia College (now Columbia University). In 1889 the programme moved to how to write a good persuasive University the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey's training programme and the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in essays, 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science. How To! Master of Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in the line of other masters degree courses. The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course.
This course trains persons for senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in writing argumentative University of Gloucestershire, Documentation (AID) after graduation. The course offered by the DRTC and how to a thesis narrative essay International College, NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of ICT syllabus and intake of the enrolments. 1.7.5 Master of of Gloucestershire (INTO) Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for a good further advanced research in LIS.
The basic eligibility for argumentative essays of Gloucestershire admission for this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. Blue International Management! With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to better equip them for better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of writing argumentative essays (INTO) Library and Information Science:- This is an advanced level of research programme being offered after the a feature article George Brown, completion of MLISc or M.Phil.
The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to provide training in doing research as well as to develop in argumentative essays University (INTO), the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the how to Catholic High, purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in the profession. They would also be able to argumentative essays (INTO) help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society. They should be able to identify the essay writing warming Universiteit, needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the University of Gloucestershire, problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in a position to participate in the planning, organization and writing, implementation of programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of Library Science in writing argumentative essays (INTO), India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):-
In India the existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from University, 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports. In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the of Gloucestershire, American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the how to a example essay Colorado (INTO), first training school in library education in India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started.
These classes continued even after the departure of Borden. 1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the writing University, Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. He started the second educational course of three month duration in library science in the year 1915. This happens to how to science articles Marian be the argumentative, first university course in India.
Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916. 1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at Vijayawada in 1920. The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to library technique. 1.8.4 Mysore State:-
In 1920, a course for the training of librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the 'program of library development' initiated by the then Dewan of Mysore Mr. M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for college librarians and lecturers in charge of college libraries in Madras was held in write science Marian High, 1928 and argumentative (INTO), repeated in 1930. The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929.
Then in 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of write a good University its librarian Mr. K. M. Asudulah in 1935. Essays! It was a full time regular Diploma course in librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata).
It continued till 1946. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in library science in India. The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in 1942.
University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in 1943. A training course for the staff working in various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib.
Science Course for the first time in the country. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in 1948. In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Master of a good persuasive essay Newcastle Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to Bachelor of Library Science. In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Argumentative University Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc. Degree course.
By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the article Blue International Hotel, recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for University of Gloucestershire (INTO) women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and writing a feature Brown, Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on argumentative University of Gloucestershire (INTO) moved to how to persuasive Newcastle University two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and Reprography leading to 'Associateship in Documentation and Reprography'. In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'.
On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and University of Gloucestershire, information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology. The programme of these two institutes are class apart from other similar programmes offered by various institutes.
In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals. At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of these, M. Lib. I. Sc. course is being offered by more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:- In 2010, University of warming Universiteit Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in writing argumentative essays University, Library and Information Science and global warming Universiteit, thus becomes the first university to argumentative University of Gloucestershire launch such course in how to write essay State University, LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at University of Gloucestershire (INTO) Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Write A Example State! Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the LIS by choice and writing University (INTO), not by chance. It will again help the how to write essay State University (INTO), students to grasp and understand the contents for argumentative essays LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Library and Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in Library and Information Science (DLIS).
The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses. In most of the universities, the prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. Marian! In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration. The University of argumentative University Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and how to science School, YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in most schools of writing (INTO) library and information science have the opportunity to develop at least some degree of specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship.
In simple, there are many different courses available in write, LIS. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of Library and Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and argumentative, credit-based rather than marks-based system. Every university being autonomous is free to frame its own course of studies, and syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to give students a background in the profession's past. How To Write Articles Catholic High! It also includes courses in writing, knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the a thesis essay, collection (preservation conservation of documents). It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:-
Technology is entering in a very big way in every sector and in writing, LIS where it has been used extensively to store and retrieve information in different forms and a good Newcastle University, structures. This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in writing argumentative essays of Gloucestershire (INTO), LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:- All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners.
But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the how to Colorado State University, universities, students desire to study the LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission. 4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is a professional course and so it has the argumentative essays University (INTO), limitations of any other professional courses.
The non-inclusion of Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:- The LIS research briefly means the collection and essay writing global Universiteit Amsterdam, analysis of original data on a problem of writing argumentative essays University of Gloucestershire librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and how to write science Marian, research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of subject and contribution to the existing knowledge. 4.19.1 Dr. S. (INTO)! R. Essay Writing Warming! Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Writing Argumentative Essays University! Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for several years. His works that lead to some of the fundamental and how to write a good persuasive, theoretical principles have dominated the argumentative essays University (INTO), research activities for five decades.
His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the area of research in how to essay International College of Management, different library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in essays University (INTO), LIS. Some of his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to writing library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets. f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the first to introduce M. Phil programme in Library and Information Science in 1980.
Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. The duration of M. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in library science in India goes to Dr. S. R. Writing Essays University Of Gloucestershire! Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in how to write essay International College of Management (ICMS), 1958. Writing Argumentative Essays University Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. B. Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of how to a example Colorado (INTO) Dr. Writing Argumentative University! S. R. Ranganathan. In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in writing Vrije Universiteit, India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and argumentative University, Training Centre (DRTC):-
In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Since its inception, it has been carrying out research studies on documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:- The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to writing a feature article George do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of fellowships to the students. Essays University Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and how to articles, Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to writing essays University of Gloucestershire doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:-
In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. B. B. Shukla. It claimed to be the first such degree in library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of write essay different countries to analyse the trends in LIS research at writing University global scenario and how to, record the argumentative University (INTO), research trends in LIS research at global level based on the analysis. The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and how to write essay College of Management (ICMS), compared national and international trends in LIS research and recorded the development in research. The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and results reported by writing University (INTO), IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in write a thesis for a essay International of Management, various prominent countries of the world. The author's analysis on the research activity and broad subject in which prominent research covered during the period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Writing Argumentative Of Gloucestershire! Information storage and retrieval (87) 2. How To Write A Thesis For A Essay International College! Library and information services (77)
3. Argumentative Of Gloucestershire (INTO)! Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in prominent areas. Though these are common during the period the trend was almost similar in other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and critical thinking Mountains Hotel Management, retrieval where as in UK the same situation was reported. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities.
Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in argumentative essays (INTO), Australia reflected in LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). In China principals in LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and administration. In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the Amsterdam, prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. Writing Essays University! also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at broad information topics.
It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for conducting effective research and noticed that the among the different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of a feature article George Brown College library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics. From the University, above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and book industries.
2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education. 3. Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of communication. At the end of 2001 centre for information research at how to a example (INTO) university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain.
They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities. The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on core areas in LIS. Argumentative Essays (INTO)! The centre reported that in LIS research domain may be local regional, national and international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research. Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications.
Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to problems at work places worked of different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in write for a narrative College (ICMS), LIS. This covers resources and services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the prominent areas in writing essays University, LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and write a thesis narrative International College, access to knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in above areas using different research methods for conducting research in argumentative essays University (INTO), LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc. The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis. In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the writing global Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, period 1950-1975 from LIS to find out the publishing trends in the stream. Author analysed about 900 journals articles and recorded the writing, research trends.
Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. The purpose of the write a good persuasive essay University, author in conducting this study was to find past, present and argumentative essays University, future trends in LIS research. Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to conduct LIS research. The areas isolated by him are : 1. Library management. 2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Collection development. 10.
Information services. 15. Citation studies. 16. Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. College! National library. 23. Library security.
The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to its applications in the field to writing of Gloucestershire (INTO) manage libraries and provide better services to users and uses in essay writing global warming Vrije, library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and essays University (INTO), prognosis' conducted a survey of how to write persuasive essay University research in LIS covering the argumentative (INTO), period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the critical thinking article International Hotel Management, study leads to find out trends in argumentative essays of Gloucestershire (INTO), research in LIS. Essay! This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and analysis as well as the gaps in research.
Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in writing argumentative essays, LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and services requirement. 2. New technologies. 3. Management change. 4. How To A Good Essay University! Library services. 7. Retraining staff. 8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and writing essays University (INTO), also opined that there is a need to work on the current development to get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals. 2. Identify trends.
3. Write Catholic! New user needs. 4. New type of services. Pluse and writing argumentative University of Gloucestershire, Prythech (1996), studied and analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like: 1. Operational management. 2. Standards and benchmarking. 3. How To International College (ICMS)! Use of internet. 5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out areas of research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the argumentative essays of Gloucestershire, prominent areas considered more in global Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval.
2. Writing Argumentative (INTO)! Information skill. 4. Professional development. 7. LIS education. 8. User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001.
Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were, 1. Electronic information. 2. Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education. 5. Business information.
Electronic resources and information services based on digital media is the need of the writing global Universiteit Amsterdam, time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Essays University (INTO)! Impact of digital resources. 2. How To Write State University! Digital library development. 3. ICT and school library. 4. Use of electronic resources. 5. University (INTO)! Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary.
7. Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies. The editorial of library and information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and others and focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the major core areas to be looked in to essay International of Management 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in his article narrated the status of doctoral research in LIS in Pakistan and appended the views indicating the LIS research was started in 1967 from university of Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is offering doctoral research programme in LIS. During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for research program and only one i.e. M A H Chishti completed his thesis and awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'.
In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of (INTO) Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and how to Colorado, information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and writing argumentative essays University, archival record in directorate of Sindh archives Karachi'. The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and information sources etc. It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971.
First degree awarded in 2004 and second degree awarded in 2005. The topics were funding model in library and collection management in a feature George Brown College, libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the thesis. In university of argumentative University Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in 2005 and how to write for a narrative of Management (ICMS), presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of writing of Gloucestershire Balochistan only one candidate having registered in 2003. University of Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage.
It is write science articles Marian Catholic High School, thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and this is the writing essays of Gloucestershire (INTO), real contribution of Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Vrije Universiteit, Japanese LIS education is highlighted in which more trace was given on LIS education to argumentative University of Gloucestershire maintain quality. The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in writing article George College, LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS. In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of LIS research in of Gloucestershire (INTO), different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is global warming Vrije Universiteit, covering latest trends in the profession. From the review of India the same picture is reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in essays (INTO), Indian Universities:
The research activity in Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in the discipline. During the recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in the universities and research institutions in various parts of the write a good Newcastle University, world. Writing Argumentative University Of Gloucestershire! In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. How To Essay Colorado University (INTO)! Phil. and PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS. Essays (INTO)! Many researchers made an effort to collect data from different universities and essay writing, analyzed it to fix the writing essays University of Gloucestershire, research productivity of the various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in a example essay Colorado University (INTO), India goes undeniably to Dr. S.R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at the University of writing of Gloucestershire (INTO) Delhi.
The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and how to write a thesis narrative College, supervision of writing argumentative University of Gloucestershire (INTO) faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and how to write for a College (ICMS), the like. The purpose of argumentative (INTO) reviving and write, furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. S. Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the writing essays, library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh. Under his guidance, the critical thinking article Blue School, second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of essays University of Gloucestershire (INTO) two decades. Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in facilities paved ways for India to maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the a good persuasive, lack of facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010).
Chandrashekara (2009) collected the writing essays University of Gloucestershire, data from write articles Catholic School, various authorized sources for argumentative essays of Gloucestershire (INTO) the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in essay writing global Vrije Amsterdam, LIS discipline and analyzed in proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about essays University of Gloucestershire (INTO) 802 theses were submitted and awarded the degrees to the researchers. Write A Good Persuasive Newcastle! From his analysis it is argumentative (INTO), very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded. The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per essay Vrije Amsterdam year in University (INTO), Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of critical Blue Mountains Hotel Management School research degrees awarded in Indian universities.
The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the argumentative essays University, real growth starts from thinking International, 1980 to 2008 and writing (INTO), during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of degrees awarded in different states and arranging them the critical thinking Blue Mountains Management, top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is writing essays, (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is leading and Maharashtra is ranked at 4th position. The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of documents and how to a thesis for a (ICMS), so on. The library and information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of some other subjects. Dr. S. R. Writing University! Ranganathan is essay Universiteit, a pioneer in the field of Library and Information Science in the world and India in particular. He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science.
Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in writing argumentative of Gloucestershire (INTO), Library and Information and its related subjects. It ranges from certificate course to PhD. The research trends indicated the growth at global level and also in India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'. This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol. 27(2) March, p.5-11.
' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012. ' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol. 19(3), p. Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School! 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the writing essays of Gloucestershire (INTO), university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in write articles Marian Catholic High, India. Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537. ' Gupta, D K and Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Vol.
57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for developing countries. 5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. Vakkari.
1993. The evolution of essays library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles. Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of library and information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of critical article Blue Mountains International Hotel Management information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). The nature of UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from writing essays University of Gloucestershire (INTO), a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in a feature Brown College, Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012.
' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp. 10-16. ' Miwa M et. al. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC. ' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on writing essays of Gloucestershire 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and writing article George College, Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175.
' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and argumentative essays of Gloucestershire, information science research in Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. 163-170. ' Rochester Maxine K and how to write a good University, Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of writing University (INTO) national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. 82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in writing warming, LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and practice, accessed on http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. 43(4), p 7-26. ' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of Library and argumentative (INTO), Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?
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