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Arrests prompt CCSD to study policies on contact between teachers, students. Essay Introduction Paragraph Forest Academy! Tuesday, April 5, 2016 | 2 a.m. Should teachers be able to text and message their students online through Facebook and writing a good essay conclusion of the Pacific, Twitter? It’s an issue that’s attracting attention at argumentative essay introduction paragraph Forest Academy the Clark County School District as more teachers are arrested on allegations of my essay Sherborne International being sexually involved with students. The connection couldn’t be clearer. Essay Introduction Paragraph Lake Forest! A 2015 investigation by The Sunday found that a vast majority of recent teacher sex abuse cases — around 80 percent — involved some type of private communication between the student and the teacher. And out of the five teachers arrested since that investigation was published, four were found to have communicated privately with students without the knowledge of their parents. Experts say private contact with students often encourages and magnifies “grooming” behavior, where would-be abusers lower a student’s resistance through constant “friendly” communication. For Money Sherborne! Charles Young, a 29-year-old teacher’s assistant at Sedway Middle School, reportedly messaged the student for weeks over Lake Forest, Facebook and a good essay conclusion University of the, sent nude photos over chat, according to the police. Young was arrested for lewdness last August after he reportedly admitted to police that he lured the boy to his apartment for argumentative essay Lake, sex.

Jillian LaFave, a 25-year-old English teacher at Valley High School, was arrested in writing (INTO) January on allegations that she had kissed a special ed student. Police said they later found LaFave and the student had sent over argumentative paragraph Forest, 13,000 texts to each other in just three months. Harney Middle School teacher Robyn-Lea Gentile, 23, reportedly exchanged 800 text messages with a high school student before she was arrested in early March on allegations that she had kissed him several times. Then, just last Friday, Legacy High School teacher Frank Bayer was arrested on essay writing meaning SKODA AUTO, allegations that he had sex multiple times with a student in argumentative paragraph his classroom and write International, the back of his van. Bayer reportedly told police they had exchanged hundreds of messages over Facebook and paragraph, engaged in cybersex. When the police questioned the girl, she reportedly told them the chats also included innocent conversations about school and homework assignments. In response to the rise of what essay St. Louis University (INTO) these cases and the media coverage they inevitably bring, CCSD is looking at essay paragraph Lake Academy ways to writing a good essay Pacific, provide students and teachers a safer way to essay paragraph Lake Academy, communicate, though they haven’t offered specifics. CCSD is writing a good conclusion University Pacific, exploring multiple technology platforms and applications that allow students and teachers to communicate in a setting that protects both the students and staff members from argumentative introduction Forest inappropriate and private messaging while still allowing a means for communicating critical information pertinent to academic achievement,” district spokeswoman Michelle Booth said in a statement. The district is also looking at what other school districts have done to address the issue.

Meanwhile, officials in the teachers union say they are open to changes to conduct policy. Teacher conduct rules currently negotiated by writing a good essay conclusion of the the district and union hold that “the personal life of a teacher is not an appropriate concern of the district.” Another regulation states that activities that may be construed as … abusive, offensive, and/or sexually explicit communications are not acceptable and have no place in the District,” though that applies only during school hours or using district devices. Argumentative Essay! “We would support a policy that made that kind of behavior and activity prohibited,” said John Vellardita, CCEA executive director. “And we would tell educators that’s off limits.” Advocates and The University, experts on teacher sex abuse cases say there’s no reason why teachers should have a secret channel of communication with students without their parent’s knowledge. “Our kids are at risk without proper policies setting no-tolerance boundaries,” said Terri Miller, president of SESAME, an argumentative introduction Lake Forest Academy advocacy group dedicated to holding school districts accountable for abuse. Miller, a mother of four who uncovered systemic sexual abuse by a teacher at Pahrump Valley High School in 1994, said CCSD already operated its own networks, namely InfiniteCampus and ParentLink, designed for teachers to essay writing meaning SKODA AUTO, communicate with students and their families. “There is absolutely no reason for teachers to have personal communication with students,” she said. “They need to make it very clear that any use of paragraph Forest Academy personal technology to communicate with a student will result in severe consequences.” Dozens of schools around the country have established social media policies, but they’ve yielded mixed results. Essay University! A 2011 law in Missouri preventing teachers from chatting students online was repealed the same year after it received pushback from paragraph Lake Forest Academy teachers and the American Civil LIberties Union due to concerns it infringed on First Amendment rights. Some argue that barring teachers from interacting with students online is an overreaction that threatens their ability to mentor and AUTO, support, often seen as some of the core functions of a teacher. Instead, critics of social media rules suggest educating teachers about how to use them properly, not ban them altogether. We understand the challenges when teachers use social media for class lessons as well as the means to communicate with students about last minute changes to after school practices or other activities as well as serving in mentorship roles,” Booth said in introduction paragraph a statement. The district didn’t offer a timeline on when it would release a plan to a persuasive article Sheridan College, address the issue.

Check this out for a full explanation of our conversion to the LiveFyre commenting system and essay introduction paragraph Lake Forest Academy, instructions on how to sign up for writing essay conclusion Pacific, an account. Argumentative Introduction! Tips: Staying safe and having fun in Vegas. Hockey: Golden Knights step up for support. The Chelsea | 8 p.m. to 11:59 p.m. Terry Fator: The Voice of Entertainment.

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Self Reliance and Other Essays Summary and argumentative essay paragraph Lake Academy Analysis of Nature. Ralph Waldo Emerson first published Nature in 1836. What To Write About Essay St. Louis University (INTO)! The essay served as one of the founding documents of the Transcendental Club, whose members would come to include future Transcendentalist luminaries like Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, and Bronson Alcott. The Club convened its first meeting a week after the publication of Nature , led by argumentative paragraph Academy Emerson. The critical reception of his seminal work has shifted over time.

Nature was once dismissed as a gospel of selfishness, naive optimism, and narrow parochialism. However, scholars, with the benefit of hindsight, now understand his work as not only the harbinger of Transcendentalism, but also a modern rethinking of Stoicism, Plato, and Kant. In this essay, Emerson outlines his initial ideas about the fundamental relationship of humanity with nature, which he would develop further in later essays. Writing AUTO! His conception of this relationship was revolutionary for its time when many thought of essay paragraph humanity as separate from and above the rest of the natural world, and of nature as the mere reflection of human will/manipulation, a means for human ends. Introduction and notes of Westminster Nature.

Our age is retrospective, Emerson begins. It builds on the sepulchers of the fathers. It writes biographies, histories, and criticism. While earlier generations beheld God and nature face to face, the present merely sees the world through the essay Lake Forest, eyes of the past. Troubled by this trend, Emerson asks, Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to meaning SKODA AUTO University the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and not of tradition, and a religion by revelation to us, and not the history of theirs? After all, the argumentative paragraph Academy, sun shines to-day also. There is more wool and flax in persuasive Nankai University (INTO) the fields. Paragraph Lake Forest! There are new lands, new men, new thoughts.

Let us demand our own works and laws and worship. In this way, Emerson opens his essay with a sweeping dismissal of a persuasive article Sheridan College those tools of insight based on the past, and argumentative introduction Lake Forest a demand to writing understand the world - that is, God and nature (two sides of the same coin for paragraph Lake Forest Academy, him) - instead through our own personal, direct relationship to and revelations about the writing meaning, world. The rest of the introduction is spent outlining what such an argumentative introduction Lake Forest Academy understanding would entail and require - its methods, aims, and definitions. As the title of his essay suggests, he grounds his approach to persuasive Nankai (INTO) understanding the world in Nature, which along with the Soul, composes the universe. Argumentative Essay Forest Academy! By Nature, Emerson includes everything that is not me (i.e., separate from the Soul), both nature [as conventionally understood, i.e., those essences unchanged by humans, like a tree or a river] and art [those essences mixed with the will of humans, like a house or a canal], all other men and my own body. Like the Stoics, Emerson believed that in nature could be found the source of moral principles and well being. However, in the present age, he argues, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing.

For seeing/understanding nature entails not only asking what nature is or how it operates, but also to College what end is nature? To pursue such an understanding of nature - an inquiry he believes allied to science, all of which aims to find a theory of nature - he does not appeal to other authorities on the subject, past or present, but rather his own experience to craft a theory he believes self-evident and self-validating. While this may not seem scientific in terms of argumentative essay paragraph Lake Academy objectivity, he argues, Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena. His success in crafting such a theory arguably derives from his ability to immerse his readers in his own experiences, as with the passage, Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration.

I am glad to the brink of writing meaning AUTO fear. Another famous passage describes his experience as a transparent eyeball, a conduit for God as he stands in argumentative paragraph Lake nature: Here [in the woods] I feel that nothing can befall me in life, - no disgrace, no calamity (leaving me my eyes), which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground, - my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space, - all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eyeball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or parcel of God. In the next sections, Emerson outlines in detail and in a good essay University ascending order of importance the components of the relationship of humanity and nature: the common uses/aspects of nature (see Commodity, Beauty, and argumentative Forest Academy Language), our lived experience vis-a-vis nature (see Discipline), and the manifestation of the universal/divine (what he calls, Reason) in nature (i.e., Transcendentalism; see Idealism, Spirit, and what in college St. Louis (INTO) Prospects). The most obvious and tangible aspect of the relationship between humanity and nature is the introduction Lake Forest, practical usefulness of nature as a source of raw material and energy.

Emerson observes that all parts of nature - as material, process, and result - work toward the benefit of humanity: “The wind sows the seed; the write Sherborne, sun evaporates the sea; the wind blows the essay introduction Forest, vapor to the field; the ice, on the other side of the planet, condenses rain on this; the rain feeds the plant; the plant feeds the essay meaning, animal; and thus the endless circulations of the argumentative essay introduction paragraph Forest Academy, divine charity nourish man.” He further illustrates this process in his admiration of a tide-mill, which, on what to write in college essay St. Louis University, the seashore, makes the tides drive the wheels and grind corn, and which thus engages the argumentative essay introduction paragraph Lake Forest Academy, assistance of the moon like a hired hand, to grind, and wind, and pump, and saw, and split stone, and Sheridan roll iron. However, Emerson argues the use of nature as commodity is the lowest of essay paragraph Lake Academy benefits, and quickly moves on for money Sherborne International, to less material gifts and aspects. In this section, Emerson describes the ways in which nature provides humanity with its ideas and standards of beauty. “The standard beauty is the entire circuit of natural forms the totality of argumentative essay paragraph Lake Academy nature.” Emerson asserts this is because such is the constitution of notes of Westminster things, or such the plastic power of the human eye, that the primary forms, as the sky, the mountain, the tree, the animal, give us a delight in and for themselves,” as evidenced by the creations of artists (e.g., poets, painters, sculptors, musicians, architects). In other words, it is a given based on the relationship of humanity with the natural world: The world thus exists to the soul to satisfy the desire of beauty.” Ultimately, no reason can be asked or give why the soul seeks beauty, which includes 1) physical beauty, 2) moral beauty (or virtue), and 3) intellectual beauty (or truth). As beauty is grounded in argumentative introduction Lake Academy nature, so is language.

Emerson asserts, Nature is the vehicle of thought, and offers three main components to this observation. First, words are signs of natural facts. Based on write my essay for money Sherborne, etymology, Emerson illustrates how not only words like apple are rooted in nature (i.e., the visible, concrete, and tangible aspects of the external world), but also most abstractions. For example, supercilious is from the Latin super cilia , which means raising the eyebrow. Another example, not mentioned by Emerson, is consider, which comes from the Latin con siderare , meaning to study the introduction paragraph, stars. Next, Emerson says, “Particular natural facts are symbols of particular spiritual facts,” which emphasizes the what to write in college essay University (INTO), use of nature to express our ideas. Every appearance in nature corresponds to some state of the mind, and that state of the mind can only be described by presenting that natural appearance as its picture. Argumentative Introduction Lake Academy! As enraged man is a lion, a cunning man is a fox, a firm man is a rock, a learned man is a torch. What To Write Essay St. Louis! A lamb is innocence; a snake is subtle spite; flowers express to us the delicate affections.

Light and darkness are our familiar expression for knowledge and ignorance; and heat for essay introduction Lake Forest, love. Emerson asserts that if you go back in history, language becomes more image-based, and in the earliest stages it is all poetry based on natural symbols. In modern times, Emerson argues, our language has become corrupted by secondary desires - the desires for money, pleasure, power, and praise - rather than the simple and fundamental desire to writing a good conclusion University of the Pacific communicate our thoughts without loss (i.e., with the images and symbols of nature). As such, our language has ceased to create new images based on visible nature, the old words have become perverted and abstracted, and the obviousness of his point is difficult to see. As he will later say in The Poet, language is now fossil poetry, filled with dead metaphors and words cut away from their roots. Finally, Emerson argues, Nature is the symbol of spirit, an assertion grounded in Platonist idealism.

Basically, the reason why people, especially writers, can successfully use nature in their language (e.g., as image, trope, noun, verb) is not simply because of the essay introduction, meaning they confer upon nature, but rather because nature itself is a language. Have mountains, and waves, and skies, no significance but what we consciously give them when we employ them as emblems of our thoughts? The world is emblematic. Parts of what to write (INTO) speech are metaphors, because the whole of nature is a metaphor of the introduction paragraph Lake, human mind. That is, nature is an expression of the laws and The University of Westminster ideas (i.e., the metaphysics) that underpin the visible world. By tapping into essay introduction Academy the language of nature, humans are able to in turn express the laws and ideas of the world. Emerson suggests this is why popular proverbs of different nations usually consist of a natural fact, like a rolling stone gathers no moss, a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush, and the last ounce broke the camel's back. In this section, Emerson describes how our lived experience vis-a-vis nature is a discipline, or rather, a multifaceted education for understanding intellectual truths (Understanding) and writing meaning moral truths (Reason). In regard to intellectual truths, Emerson observes that every aspect of our everyday engagement with the world (e.g., space, time, food, climate, animals) and matter (e.g., its solidity, inertia, form, divisibility) teaches us lessons that form our common sense about the world (e.g., about difference, likeness, order, particularity, generality). Furthermore, each encounter teaches us about power, about the ability for humans to essay introduction paragraph Academy shape nature according to their will.

Nature is thoroughly mediate. It is a good of the Pacific, made to serve. Argumentative Essay Academy! It receives the dominion of man as meekly as the notes of Westminster, ass on which the Savior rode. It offers all its kingdoms to man as the raw material that he may mold into argumentative Academy what is useful. In regard to moral truths, our engagements with nature teaches us about the premonitions of Reason - by which Emerson means the universal soul, his Transcendentalist conception of God - and thus shape our conscience. Therefore is nature glorious with form, color, and what to write in college essay St. Louis University motion; that every globe in the remotest heaven, every chemical change from the rudest crystal up to argumentative essay paragraph Lake Forest Academy the laws of life, every change of vegetation from the first principle of growth in the eye of a leaf, to the tropical forest and antediluvian coal-mine, every animal function from the sponge up to Hercules, shall hint or thunder to man the laws of right and wrong, and echo the about in college essay St. Louis (INTO), Ten Commandments. This entails that despite the infinite variety of natural processes and forms, they all embody a version of the moral law of the universe, which illustrates the unity of essay Academy Nature - its unity in variety. The river, as it flows, resembles the air that flows over meaning AUTO it; the air resembles the light that traverses it with more subtle currents; the light resembles the heat that rides with it through Space. Creatures are only a modification of one another; the likeness between them is more than the difference, and their radical law is one and essay introduction Forest Academy the same. A rule of one art, or a law of one organization, holds true throughout nature. So intimate is this Unity, that, it is easily seen, it lies under the undermost garment of Nature, and betrays its source in Universal Spirit.

Finally, Emerson asserts the amount of moral influence each encounter has on an individual depends on essay SKODA AUTO, the amount of truth it illustrates to the individual, which cannot be easily quantified. Who can guess how much firmness the sea-beaten rock has taught the argumentative essay Academy, fisherman? How much tranquility has been reflected to man from the azure sky, over whose unspotted deeps the winds forevermore drive flocks of notes on essay writing stormy clouds, and leave no wrinkle or stain? In the preceding sections, Emerson focuses on the uses and benefits of nature. In Idealism and Spirit, he shifts to questions of what nature is. Argumentative Lake Forest! Such questions are based on his Idealism, and thus do not mean what is nature composed of, but rather, is there a higher reality or law behind nature, and does visible nature really exist? In part, his new line of questions is one of epistemology - how do we know what we know?

He first offers the claim of the radical Idealist, who believes reality is fundamentally constructed by the mind: In my utter impotence to test the authenticity of the essay, report of my senses, to know whether the impressions they make on me correspond with outlying objects, what difference does it make, whether Orion is up there in heaven, or some god paints the image in the firmament of the soul. However, he also denies the extreme conclusion that reality, and thus nature, does not exist independent of the mind: Any distrust of the permanence of laws [e.g., gravity] would paralyze the faculties of man. He settles the issue by showing how various aspects of culture - including 1) motion (which affirms the internal reality of the observer due to the feeling of the sublime that arises from the difference felt between the observer/human and the spectacle/nature, as when seeing the shore from a moving ship), 2) poetry (which affirms the reality of the soul by the way in essay introduction Academy which poets conform nature to their thoughts and makes them the words of the Reason or the soul), 3) philosophy (which like poetry, affirms the reality of the soul by the way in which philosophers animate nature with their thoughts and makes them the words of Reason, except in this case for Truth rather than Beauty), 4) intellectual science (which generates insight based on abstract ideas and thus the spirit), and 5) religion and ethics (which degrades nature and suggests its dependence on the spirit) - convince us of the reality of the what to write essay, external world, of argumentative essay paragraph nature and spirit, and thus tend to writing a good of the Pacific imbue us with a moderate form of idealism: It is the uniform effect of culture on the human mind, not to shake our faith in essay introduction paragraph Lake Forest Academy the stability of particular phenomena, as of what to write about University (INTO) heat, water, and azote; but to lead us to regard nature as a phenomenon, not a substance; to essay introduction Lake attribute necessary existence to spirit; to for money Sherborne esteem nature as an accident and effect.

As a qualification to the discussion of Idealism in the previous section, Emerson asserts that Idealism is ultimately an paragraph Lake introductory hypothesis (like carpentry and persuasive writing paragraph Nankai University chemistry) about nature. If it only denies the existence of matter, or external reality, as with extreme Idealism, then it of argumentative essay introduction Lake Academy no use to him, for it does not satisfy the demands of the conclusion University of the, spirit. Argumentative Introduction Paragraph Academy! In other words, Idealism is useful to think with insofar as it informs us of the distinction between the soul and the world/nature. By recognizing this distinction, and the existence of each, we can then understand their relation to one another - that is, how spirit (the Supreme Being, the a good essay conclusion of the, Universal Soul) acts through us, as the life of the tree puts forth new branches and argumentative paragraph Lake Forest leaves through the pores of the what to write about in college (INTO), old, and thus is not subject to the human will, as with the rest of the world/nature. In this last section, Emerson argues it is argumentative essay paragraph Lake Forest, better approach the world as a naturalist than as a student of empirical science. Compared to what St. Louis the precision and experiments of the scientist, the naturalist employs self-discovery and humility, and thus continues to learn about his relation to the world, and essay introduction paragraph Forest remains open to the secrets of nature. The naturalist will pay attention to the truth and to the real problems to be solved: It is not so pertinent to man to a persuasive know all the individuals of the animal kingdom, as it is to Lake Forest Academy know whence and whereto is writing SKODA AUTO, this tyrannizing unity in his constitution, which evermore separates and classifies things, endeavoring to reduce the most diverse to one form. Emerson uses this comparison as a metaphor for a more general criticism of the present approach humanity takes toward nature based on pure understanding (that is, of the intellect) without Reason (that is, with spiritual insight).

However, there are occasional examples of how humanity might act with both: Such examples are, the traditions of miracles in the earliest antiquity of all nations; the history of Jesus Christ; the achievements of a principle, as in religious and political revolutions, and in introduction Forest the abolition of the write Sherborne, slave-trade; the argumentative essay introduction Forest, miracles of enthusiasm, as those reported of to write St. Louis University (INTO) Swedenborg, Hohenlohe, and the Shakers; many obscure and yet contested facts, now arranged under the essay introduction paragraph Lake Forest Academy, name of Animal Magnetism; prayer; eloquence; self-healing; and the wisdom of children. Until humanity begins to act with both understanding/intellect and reason/spirituality towards nature, to repair its relationship with nature and article the world, humanity remains disunited with itself and the world lacks unity. To correct this trend, Emerson argues people need to argumentative introduction Forest acquire a new, educated way of seeing the world, by which he means the Transcendentalist approach he has laid out in the previous sections. So we shall come to look at the world with new eyes. International! It shall answer the endless inquiry of the intellect (“What is truth?), as well as that of the argumentative Lake Forest, affections (“What is good?”), by yielding itself passive to the educated Will. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/self-reliance-and-other-essays/study-guide/summary-nature in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Self Reliance and Other Essays Self Reliance and a persuasive article Other Essays Summary Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Self-Reliance Nature The Over-Soul Circles The Poet Experience The Divinity School Address The Dial Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A E-Text Mini-Store Ralph Emerson Biography. Self Reliance and argumentative introduction Lake Academy Other Essays Questions and Answers. The Question and essay Answer section for Self Reliance and Other Essays is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.

This speaks to a few themes. Argumentative Paragraph Academy! I think that generally it speaks to man finding his own individuality and identity. The passage indicates that life is write my essay for money, about being satisfied with one's plot of land and making the best of it rather than coveting other. What do you mean by dwlf? Study Guide for Self Reliance and Other Essays. Self Reliance and Other Essays study guide contains a biography of Ralph Emerson, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Essays for Self Reliance and Other Essays. Self Reliance and Other Essays essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by essay Forest students and provide critical analysis of writing of Westminster Self Reliance and Other Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson.

E-Text of Self Reliance and Other Essays. Self Reliance and Other Essays E-Text contains the full text of Self Reliance and Other Essays.

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Stand Up Comedy and argumentative Lake Forest, the Essay, aka Louis C.K. Write My Essay For Money Sherborne! Meet Michel de Montaigne. SO I HAVE this story for argumentative introduction paragraph my stand-up act about a guy killing some dogs. I had a buddy who wanted to cut me into a drug heist, a dangerous one, in which we’d be breaking into my essay for money Sherborne International, a meth dealer’s house, killing the dogs that guard his stash, gaining meth and money. It’s a real story about a real kid that I was friends with because I peed in a Gatorade bottle to help him pass a drug test so I could impress this girl.

But with this guy, nothing is easy: his mother finds my urine and pours it down the sink, which makes no sense because there’s a toilet in the room. At 14, I’m not even really certain drug dealers exist, let alone that my friend is one of them, so when he asks me if he should cut me in and get me a gun, I say, “Yeah, uh-huh, get me a gun.” The next day he comes into school with a picture of himself holding a Desert Eagle semiautomatic, sporting it with his head mid-gangster nod. “When did you say this was?” I ask. “Saturday? Oh, Saturday we have dinner with my grandma, I can’t kill meth dogs on Saturday.” He’s crushed, but he begrudgingly accepts that dinner with grandma is introduction just too important for meth.

I come in on Monday, and he’s sitting at a desk waiting for me. As I approach, he looks up with the emptiest expression, shakes his head, and says, “I killed those dogs, man.” Then he pulls out his wallet and persuasive writing paragraph University, shows me at least ten grand. On stage, this joke works, and argumentative essay introduction paragraph Lake, I often wonder why. How’s it put together so audiences follow along and laugh, rather than sit there wondering how a suburban kid like me could have almost wasted a meth dealer’s dog with an illegal handgun? Part of to write in college essay St. Louis (INTO) it is the shock, especially at the end. Essay Paragraph Lake Forest Academy! A look up, a shake of the head, and then, “I killed those dogs, man.” The end always gets one of the biggest laughs, because, all along, the audience thinks the kid is essay meaning SKODA University full of argumentative essay paragraph Lake shit. The reversal and the harsh reality shock them. A Persuasive Sheridan! Another part is my persona. I’m a 20-year-old kid who goes onstage in a style best described as “Harry Potter on Christmas.” My awkwardness, my hopeless lack of argumentative Forest control, and what essay, my blindness to the terrifying reality around me are central to the joke. Like Woody Allen, Louis C.K., and Margaret Cho, I self-deprecate, and that lets the audience laugh.

But the real reason this joke matters to me, and hopefully my audience, is the world that it constructs and argumentative essay introduction paragraph Lake Forest Academy, the characters who inhabit it. In that world, my audience accompanies me and watches the notes of Westminster events unfold from an over-the-shoulder camera attached to 14-year-old Taylor; they plug into his brain. Argumentative Introduction! They see his opinion of what about essay University his friend sour and they see him awaken to a rough, adult world. And yet it’s not just about me. The kid who kills the introduction paragraph dogs needs the most attention.

We need to understand him without sympathizing with him. His actions are horrifying, so the voice I give him is hard and a good essay of the, forcibly careless. This is argumentative essay introduction Forest Academy a person that I boil down to persuasive writing paragraph University (INTO), four lines, and I have to reveal something true through him. In this case, I’m using him to show that the argumentative introduction paragraph Forest Academy world is far more serious than we think, especially in youth, and that the to write about St. Louis (INTO) dark side in argumentative essay introduction paragraph Forest, people goes deeper than drug tests and write my essay, crushes. He’s the argumentative essay Forest Academy senselessness from what about in college essay St. Louis University, which we’re often only essay introduction paragraph Forest a step removed. Good stand-up is world creation. The comic creates a setting with characters, points of view, all with the aim of an enjoyable or enlightening experience. Writing SKODA University! Ideally, both. When I watch a set, I might catch the world of someone crafting his Grimace/Mayor McCheese fan-fiction/pornography (this is a real and introduction Academy, hilariously disgusting example). Comics create infinite worlds, yet all too often, I enter a less interesting world where the persuasive paragraph (INTO) comic draws (or more likely traces) the lines with which we are all too familiar: lines between blacks and whites, gays and straights, men and women. Introduction Lake Forest Academy! Unfortunately, such reductive and commonplace comedy has a glaring ancestor.

So here’s the problem with my world-creation theory: scholars have determined pretty conclusively just where stand-up comedy comes from, and that place is the minstrel show. My Essay International! I’d love to blame this on stuffy old professors who don’t get jokes unless tenure is the essay introduction subject matter, but all one needs to do is turn on Sheridan College Comedy Central’s featured comics to find the remains of the minstrel show broadcast nightly. Onstage, we have an actor/comic who plays the essay introduction Lake Academy fool for our laughs, who appeals to the lowest variety of humor he or she (but often he) can tap into. In minstrel shows, the target is the poor, dumb African-American that inspires the Jim Crow caricature. Write! Stand-up is broader, but no less cruel. Hackiness is not just laughing at an unpopular person or group. White men telling stories about how terrible they are (their sexual impotence, poor morality and general stupidity) is also a staple of the stage. This takes us no closer to complexity than a minstrel show, but at least these comics don’t bring minority groups into their crippling, self-deprecating narcissism. Argumentative Essay Introduction Paragraph Lake Academy! Still, the a persuasive Sheridan College “look at this dumbass over here” mentality of the minstrel show is ever-present and always lazy.

Here at Ohio University, where I’m a senior studying English and president of the argumentative Academy student stand-up organization, I see brilliant and not-so-brilliant comedy. Recently, I was invited to the Latino Comedy Jam on campus and asked if I wanted to notes writing, see the comic Manny Maldonado. Argumentative Lake Forest! I was given this YouTube link. Even scarier is what minority comics are asked to persuasive University (INTO), do onstage in order to be “mainstream.” Raul Perez, a scholar on stand-up, reveals in this study discussed by TIME that people of other races are encouraged to throw out their old material for argumentative essay Forest racial jokes. “The lower on the racial hierarchy, the less elaborate the strategies.” For instance, a Latino student in a stand-up workshop Perez enrolled in was advised “If you’re going to get racist, let’s go all the way.” Yikes. It also puts Maldonado’s comedy in perspective: this is what minority comics are advised to do throughout the industry. This social dynamic, where the disenfranchised are advised to writing conclusion of the Pacific, accept and play up their stereotypes, is a cornerstone of the minstrel show. Poor whites, often disenfranchised themselves, were the ones yucking it up through the argumentative introduction Lake Forest persecution of others. Comics like Maldonado and those in Perez’s class are pushed to find the “easy laugh,” which is to write about essay often thought to lie in stereotypical premises, like airplane food and Academy, race. Just to keep everyone laughing.

And audiences like Maldonado’s laugh, making it unclear whether these comics are the writing a good conclusion University Pacific cause or symptom of an ugly, unsolved problem with stand-up. But that’s not the whole story. There are comics who resist what networks and advertisers want. Argumentative Essay Introduction Forest Academy! The earliest and perhaps most revered figure in American political stand-up is George Carlin. International! Carlin’s antics led to a Supreme Court case that allowed the introduction paragraph FCC to censor based on writing a good essay conclusion of the “indecency” as well as obscenity. Very few people, let alone comics, can say they singlehandedly brought about a new era of public censorship. Carlin’s bits on religion, homosexuals, human rights, and the famous Seven Dirty Words are just a few of his famous explorations. Between him, Lenny Bruce, and Richard Pryor, the ‘60s and introduction paragraph Lake Forest Academy, ‘70s provided an explosion of raw expression on stage.

These three are the most fascinating comics instrumental in gaining respect for stand-up as art, but I will focus on Carlin to illustrate the lineage over generations. Each would go on to influence virtually every comedian who followed, from Jerry Seinfeld to Bill Hicks. In style, Carlin stands far closer to famed essayists than any other comic. Historical essayists such as Washington Irving and Richard Steele as well as contemporary essayists such as bell hooks, Marilynne Robinson and Ta-Nehisi Coates write about race, gender, class, sexuality, politics and in college St. Louis University, every other issue in the world around them. Take this brutal excerpt from “Fear Of A Black President” by Coates in The Atlantic : “ White folks, whatever their talk of freedom and liberty, would not allow a black president. They could not tolerate Emmett’s boyish gaze. Dr. King turned the other cheek, and they blew it off.

White folks shot Lincoln over ‘nigger equality’…beat Freedom Riders over argumentative bus seats [and] slaughtered Medgar in a persuasive article Sheridan, his driveway like a dog.” Tonally, it reads like a Carlin bit: blunt, angry, and full of perspective. Throughout this piece, Coates shocks the reader with his views, disturbing them with harsh language and brilliantly articulated anger. It feels out of place, then, when Coates follows up this point in his essay with a stand-up joke from Chappelle’s Show : “The comedian Dave Chappelle joked that the first black president would need a ‘Vice President Santiago’—because the only thing that would ensure his life in essay introduction paragraph Forest, the White House was a Hispanic president-­in-waiting. A black president signing a bill into writing The University of Westminster, law might as well sign his own death certificate.” Stand-up comics question social norms with the same ferocity and argumentative paragraph, freedom as the best essayists. In Britain, comics reacting to Thatcher-led England brought on an alternative comedy movement that swept quickly into the mainstream. In Africa, upcoming stand-up comics in Ghana and South Africa assert a cultural identity through thoughtful and angry stand-up, including alternative comic Mel Miller who was beaten by government officials in South Africa after an “indecent” show. Stand-up, like the essay, has become a venue to writing meaning University, discuss taboos. In his essay Upon Some Uses Of Virgil, Montaigne wondered why sexual intercourse was unable to be discussed in polite conversation: “But let us come to my subject: what has the argumentative introduction Forest act of generation, so natural, so necessary, and so just, done to men, to Sheridan College, be a thing not to be spoken of argumentative introduction Lake Forest without blushing, and to Sheridan, be excluded from all serious and moderate discourse? We boldly pronounce kill, rob, betray, and that we dare only to do betwixt the teeth.” Five hundred years later, poking fun at sexual repression is one of the central themes in American stand-up comedy.

Carlin, Lenny Bruce, Richard Pryor and introduction paragraph, others brought that essayistic tradition of skepticism to stand-up, aggressively questioning popular truth in persuasive writing Nankai University, hopes of starting a new conversation. One difficult part equating stand-up with the essay is that the form itself is so nebulous. I’ve come across many definitions, but what an essay needs has no consensus. Perhaps the best aim of an essay that I’ve ever heard is Philip Lopate’s: to “interrogate your ignorance.” This process of interrogation, a collecting of scattered thoughts and facts on a topic in an effort to glean understanding, plays out on the page to help the argumentative paragraph Academy audience or reader find meaning. Certainly, that definition fits Carlin, but there are always more ways to interrogate ignorance. An important piece of stand-up’s history aligns less with the political essay and what to write about St. Louis University, more with the argumentative essay introduction Forest Academy personal essay, with no better example than Louis C.K. Louis C.K. and Montaigne, perhaps more in common than we thought. Let’s compare a Louis C.K. joke to the work of the father of the persuasive writing paragraph Nankai personal essay, Michel de Montaigne.

His most famous quotation asks: “What do I know?” In the Renaissance, Montaigne invented a written pursuit of knowledge, a genre he called an essay meaning “to try” or “to attempt.” He made the case that writers should organize what they know, putting together all of their thoughts on one topic and asking questions in an attempt at argumentative essay Forest Academy, discovery. Four hundred years later, Louis C.K. follows suit: “Will the Earth always go around the what to write University (INTO) Sun?” An alert on your scholarly narrator’s bias: Louis C.K. is my most favorite comic in the history of ever. He takes on introduction Lake Forest Academy a different role from the minstrel show, if one exactly as vulgar. Rather than identifying which fool needs mocking, he sets himself up to be the fool that is studied. A Persuasive! This is also Montaigne’s move: examining himself and argumentative introduction paragraph Lake, creating a complex character. He is the ignorant man that will be interrogated publicly and onstage. Just as Montaigne did, master craftsmen like Louis C.K. lead us into their world, guiding us through ideas toward a discovery that, because we know this is a performance, they’ve already discovered.

This discovery provides laughter through the punch of knowledge. And Louis’s self is heavily involved, even when his story is for money not focused through his personal character. Argumentative Academy! Fans like me love Louis because we feel like we know him. Everything makes sense because we trust him and because, through the essay meaning AUTO University journey, he leads the viewer to his conclusions. Like the story I tell Conan [O’Brien] about the guy sitting next to me on the airplane when the argumentative introduction Forest Academy Internet shuts down suddenly, and he says, “This is bullshit,” and I go, “How can you be angry? People owe you something that existed a minute ago?” There wasn’t anybody next to me on the plane, that was me. People don’t talk to what essay University (INTO), me on airplanes. [Laughs] Anytime you see a bit where some stranger does something to me, it’s me.

Those characters spouting absurdities, such as “I don’t want to take off my shoes” in an airport or “I hate Verizon” are the Lake Academy voices in Louis’s head. Writing A Good Essay Conclusion! They are his creations. Argumentative Paragraph Academy! And, wouldn’t you know it, essayists use this classic technique: famed essayists Richard Steele and on essay, Joseph Addison were creating characters for their social worldviews in early 18 th century Britain in their publication The Spectator . Beyond the argumentative essay introduction paragraph Forest Academy lead character, Mr. Spectator, other fictional characters stand for paragraph Nankai various values. Sir Roger de Coverley, a famous fictional example from the publication, stood for the need for chivalry in society in argumentative, the same way that Louis C.K. discusses how much society takes technology for granted through his own author avatars. Obviously, essayists are more committed to the truth than comics, but both are committed to the essential human experience, one that can be shared universally. What To Write In College Essay St. Louis (INTO)! We might call it Truth with a capital T. The stand-up world was shaken last year when Tig Notaro, a relatively underground comic known only to stand-up nerds, took the stage on the night of a showcase show in argumentative essay introduction Lake, L.A. to no cameras and little fanfare. She revealed that she had been diagnosed just that week with breast cancer. In a beautiful monologue full of write my essay International wry wit, Tig takes her listener (the “you,” ever-present in stand-up and the essay) through the last year of her life, stopping to discuss her mother’s death, her breakup, her career, and the news that still has her in a state of shock. At the behest of many famous comics from that night, she released the audio in a 30-minute block entitled “ Live” (as in to live or die).

Tig doesn’t know in the set whether she will be onstage for much longer with treatment around the corner. Her cancer has since gone into argumentative essay introduction paragraph Lake Academy, remission, but the deeply personal details of Tig’s life leaves that original, shocked audience hovering between tears and laughter. Tig starts by acknowledging her applause with, “Good! Hello! I have cancer, how are you?!” The punchlines are there-“They found a lump. Notes The University! I was like, ‘no, that’s my boob’”-but Tig also has to essay paragraph Lake, acknowledge a few audience members who start to weep, likely from their own proximity to cancer. She says to one upset audience member, “It’s going to be okay!…It might not be okay. But you’ll be okay!” to huge laughs. Writing A Good Conclusion Of The! Louis C.K., present for argumentative Forest Academy the set, called it the greatest stand-up set of all time. Meaning SKODA AUTO! I argue that it transcends stand-up: Live is a modern American essay, chronicling one person’s attempt at understanding the scope and senselessness of personal tragedy. Tig is argumentative Lake Forest Academy far from alone in essayistic stand-up.

Innovators like John Mulaney tell stories with amazing characters. Hannibal Buress elevates observational comedy into mini-essays on the mundane. Mike Birbiglia, in essay writing meaning AUTO University, place of argumentative paragraph traditional jokes, gives hour-long monologues of writing Nankai (INTO) enhanced stories. I have seen my comic friends at Ohio University discuss deeply traumatic experiences with racism, rape culture, disease, fear, bullying and death. Argumentative Paragraph Forest! I have tried to live up to these examples: I try to lead my audience down a trail that I have blazed, even if we don’t travel far or if that trail has been blazed before by my essay International, more competent artists. To keep an audience with my exploration of senseless violence that surrounds us all, I use shock and meth dogs. 2 Responses to Stand Up Comedy and argumentative essay Lake Academy, the Essay, aka Louis C.K. Writing A Good Essay University Of The! Meet Michel de Montaigne. This is an exceptional and noble article.

Your ideas make my world nicer. Please never stop performing or discoursing upon essay introduction paragraph Academy stand-up. (Unless you die, but, if you can help it, don’t.)

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Study About Transverse Cracks In The Continuous Casting Of Steel Billets. IN LAXCON STEEL LTD a scrap metal are melted in argumentative essay introduction paragraph Lake high temperature furnace, a temperature near about 1500'c to 1600'c.After this melted metal bring out to Continuous Casting Machine through ladder ,then this mould of metal poured into my essay, tundish car machine. Paragraph! There are stages in machine like approl, intermediate section, withdrawal, auto cutter machine. But quality problems such as Cracks, Rhomboidity, Porosity, Lapping, seems Crack, Piping, Centre Looseness, Ovality, Blow holes, Pin holes and Breakouts are often observed in continuously cast steel billets. These defects create a problem in metal which is cast.

On the one hand fundamental knowledge about heat transfer, solidification and mechanical behavior of steel was applied to identify the origin of a quality problem in the process. We finally study about Cracks and effect of cracks and also find solution to reduce Transverse Cracks. TABLE OF CONTENT. LIST OF TABLE xvi. LIST OF FIGURES xviii. LIST OF SYMBOLS xxvii.

1. Essay Writing Meaning AUTO! Company introduction 1. 1.1 Company Introduction 1. 1.2 Product list 1. 2. literature Review 7. 2.1 Previous studies on the microstructure of steel 7. 2.2 Previous work on detecting the defects 10. 2.3 Previous research on the cooling 11. 2.4 A review on previous numerical modeling on cooling cast steel 13. 3. Problem Summary 15.

3.1 Introduction 15. 3.2 Defects in paragraph Forest detail 15. 3.3 Objective of project 16. 4. Nankai University (INTO)! Steel Grade 17. 5. Methodology to determine transverse crack 18. 5.1 Testing facilities and quality control in laxcon steel ltd. 18. 5.2 Methodology to determine the origin of defects 19. 5.3 Metallographic observations 19.

5.4 Defect analyzed 20. 5.4.1 Transverse Cracks 20. 5.4.2 Appearance in Billet 20. 5.4.3 Causes and Solutions 21. 6. Essay Introduction Paragraph Lake Academy! Strategies for writing University dealing with Transverse Cracks. 22. 7. Techniques for Crack Minimization 23. 7.1. Control of Composition 23. 7.1.1 Relevance of hot ductility to transverse cracking 23. 7.1.2 Composition Effects 24.

7.2 Mould Heat Transfer 25. 7.2.1 Mold Powder Composition and Properties 26. 7.2.2 Mathematical Treatment of argumentative introduction paragraph Steel Solidification in the Mould 26. 7.2.3 Results and Discussion 30. 7.2.4 Conclusions 32.

7.3 Mould oscillation 33. 7.4 Secondary cooling 34. 7.4.1 ANSYS analysis for secondary cooling water cooling effect in continuous casting of steel billets. 35. 7.4.1.1 Mathematical model 36. 7.4.1.2 Thermal stress model 39.

7.4.1.3 Calculation region and finite element discretization 40. 7.4.1.4 Calculation and results analysis. 41. 7.4.1.5 Verification and analysis of heat transfer model. Notes The University Of Westminster! 42. 7.4.1.6 Discussion on thermal stress 45. 7.4.1.7 Summary 46.

8. Result and Discussion 47. 9. Conclusion 49. 10. Future Enhancement 50. Mechanical properties of steel''''''''''''''''''''''.17.

Different techniques for the study of the argumentative Lake, defects and the information. ''''''20. Mold powder composition and properties'''''''''''''''''..26. Parameters used in the calculations and their variation values'''''''''. 27. Main process parameters of CCM'..''''''''''''''''''. 36. Verification of writing meaning AUTO surface temperature of argumentative essay introduction paragraph Forest Academy billet for all covered situation''''''. 43. LIST OF DIAGRAM.

Temperature profile of the write for money, key point ( all covered ). ''''''''''''''42. Temperature profile of the key point ( 90% covered ). ''''''''''''. 42. Temperature profile of the key point ( 80% covered )'''''''''''''..43. Comparison of argumentative Academy temperature profile in the 3 situation''''''''''''''44. LIST OF FIGURES. Square and hexagonal bright bars. Notes Writing Of Westminster! ''''''''''''''''''''.

2. Continuous casting of steel billets. ''''''''''''''''''''..5. Transverse crack in steel billet''''''''''''''''''''''15. Transverse cracks on observed by paragraph Lake Academy magnifying glass'''''''''''''..20. Transverse cracks on observed after etching with HCL''''''''''''21. Temperature calculation grid in the vertical symmetrical half section of the steel casting copper mould. Write For Money! '''''''''''''''''''''''''''.

27. Calculated solid steel thickness along the essay paragraph Lake Forest Academy, mould walls at mould thermal conductivities: (a) = 50, (b) = 150, (c) = 250, (d) =350 (W/m-K). ''''''''''''''31. Calculated solid steel thickness along the a good essay conclusion University Pacific, mould walls at argumentative essay Lake steel thermal conductivities: (a) = 25, (b) = 30, (c) = 35, (d) = 40 (W/m-K). ''''''''''''''''..32. the finite element meshes and key point of the calculation region. '''''''..40. Scheme of the secondary cooling water covering all the surface of bloom''''..41. scheme of the secondary cooling water covering part of the surface of bloom'''41. the stress field at the exit of FSSCZ '''''''''''''''''''45. the stress field at essay SKODA AUTO University the exit of FSSCZ'''''''''''''''''''.46. CHAPTER 1 COMPANY INTRODUCTION.

1.1. COMPANY INTRODUCTION. LAXCON STEELS LTD. Ever since its foray into paragraph, the steel trade in 1978,Gopal Group has established itself as name to reckon with, in the the steel.over the years, through meticulous quality control and outstanding customer care, it has built a reputation for quality, reliability and on essay writing The University of Westminster, integrity. What started off as a small steel plat with a capacity of argumentative essay introduction paragraph Forest 2400 MT/year, Gopal Group has now grown into an organization with manufacturing facility at multiple locations with a combined production capacity of a good of the Pacific 120000 MT/year, strong value of family run enterprise backed by an assembly of industry's most talented professionals has given the introduction paragraph Lake Forest, group its current forms stature. Laxcon Steels LTD. is a very well-known player in the global market in the stainless steel industry.Thanks to its strategic planning, ultra-modern facilities and exceptional team. The Group companies work hand in hand to produce the finest stainless steel products, with a focus to fit each client's requirements.Company offer superior quality bright bars in a variety of grades, sizes, tolerances and Precision Quality. 1.2 PRODUCT LIST. Size range -5mm ' 10mm. Length- 3 to essay meaning University 6.5 meters.

Cold drawn, centerless ground, peeled and polished, smooth turned bars. Precision quality shaft bars. Figure 2: Precision quality shaft bars. Size range -6mm ' 75mm. Length- 3 to 6 meters. Heat treatment- Soft annealing, solution annealing, quenched and tempered. Square and hexagonal bright bars. Figure 3: Square and hexagonal bright bars. Size range -16mm ' 45mm. Length- 3 to 6 meters. Heat treatment- soft annealed, solution annealed, oil and water tempered.

Size- 25*25, 30*30, 40*40, 50*50, 60*60, 65*65. Length- upto 6 meters. Hot rolled, annealed pickled, shot blasted. Forged and turned round bars. Figure 5: Forged and turned round bars.

Length- 3 to 6 meters. Heat treatment- soft annealed, solution annealed, oil and water tempered. Hot rolled round bars. Figure 6: Hot rolled round bars. Size range- 16mm ' 120mm. Length- up to 8 meters. Hot rolled surface. Continuous casting of argumentative essay introduction paragraph Lake Academy steel billets.

100*100, 120*120, 200*200, 220*220, 280*280, 300*300. Length- up to The University of Westminster 8 meters. Suitable for rerolling, forging and ring rolling. Square, fluted, round. Spot ground, free of introduction paragraph Lake Forest surface cracks.

CHAPTER 2 Literature review. This section provides a review on previous research work on the topics related to this research work to understand the extensive work done on the topics related to this research work. These literature reviews are partly with focus on the research studies on article, soundness and other anomalies generated during solidification whose effects determine the introduction Forest, critical cooling rate of hot solidified strands of to write essay steel. Argumentative Lake Forest! The other part of the review section reviews the for money Sherborne, publications on the topics which are used to achieve the argumentative essay Lake Academy, objective of this dissertation. Hence, the International, following sections presents literature review in studies on the microstructure defects and the source of the defects, monitoring of microstructure by the NDT method, effect of inclusion, on the microstructure, experimental study on cooling rate and numeral simulation and modeling methods on essay introduction paragraph Lake Forest, the study of phase transformation. 2.1 Previous studies on the microstructure of writing a good steel. R. Kiessling, J. Harza, D. Argumentative Introduction Paragraph Lake! Caffarrelli, S. Ramalingma. Studies on MnS inclusions have shown that they are responsible for chip fracture during machining by initiating cracks as a result of what to write about in college essay University (INTO) increasing stress in the machining shear zone [1,2].

D. B. Evteev, Berg Huettenmann. some research work shows these additive elements may also degrade steel quality. Sulfur content can increase the extent of cracking at high temperature [3]. The susceptibility of steel to overheating depends on alloying and argumentative essay paragraph Lake Academy, micro-additions [4]. C. J. Adams, H. Write! F. Hall, A Fuchs.

Segregation of essay introduction paragraph Lake sulfur and phosphorous from the liquid film at grain boundaries into the interdendritic region creates a low ductility and strength region and, consequently, forms cracks in a persuasive College the microstructure of introduction Forest Academy steel between the solidus and 2420 degrees Fahrenheit [5-7] K. Matsubara, H. Mori. The ratio of precipitation of essay writing meaning University MnS in argumentative paragraph Lake the matrix and precipitation of AlN along grain boundaries generates cracks in steel during solidification by forming different low ductility regions at different temperature ranges [8,9]. Formation cracks are inevitable during solidification and may increase in the cooling process of hot solid steel slabs to room temperature or any future heat treatment and machining of the writing The University, steel. Brimacomb J, Sorimachi K. Cracks and microcracks are more serious than other defects occurring during solidification. Brimacombe and Sorimachi have classified the origin of argumentative essay Lake Forest cracks systematically [10]. Grill, Brimacombe, Weinberg. Internal stresses during surface reheating create cracks because of zero ductility of steel at solidification temperature [11]. During solidification, internal and surface cracks degrade the steel quality.

Surface cracks may be caused by uneven heating, which introduces transverse and longitudinal facial cracks [12]. L. I. Motozenskii. Internal cracks formed during solidification can be classified into five groups of halfway and midway cracks, start or centerline cracks, diagonal cracks, bending cracks and pinch roll cracks. The work of Morozenskii et al. [13], shows that near solidification elongation to rupture in my essay for money International steel with carbon content of 0.17 to 0.2% is minimum. This sudden change can be caused by an unbalanced rate between radiation and convection cooling along secondary cooling zones or different boundary conditions such as below the argumentative essay introduction Academy, mold where the hot surface is cooled suddenly by water spray. At weak or non-ductile regions, resultant tensile stress of surface expansion generates cracks between the dendrites in the columnar zone perpendicular to the equiaxed zone tensile stress.

Likewise, centerline cracking is due to tensile stresses raised by a persuasive article abrupt change in essay Forest temperature of the centerline with completion of solidification because of bad machine conditions at the final solidification area or too low secondary water-cooling [13]. International Iron and Steel Institute; Committee on Technology; Brussels; 1986. Longitudinal cracks can be formed from stress at the meniscus during solidification by high mold wear and what about essay (INTO), poor mold surface as well as insufficient strand support below the mold, including caster or mold misalignment and thermal stresses due to non-uniform cooling [14]. Transverse cracks in steel may be generated by too large mold taper, poor oscillation conditions, a low surface temperature at argumentative Forest straightening and abrupt cast speed changes. Uneven cooling of the surface also causes local type star cracks [14]. G. van Drunen, J. K. Brimacombe, F Weinerg. Too high or too low cooling of slab's side surfaces as well as bad equipment conditions can introduce triple point cracks in the slab [15]. H. Mori, Tetsu to Hagane, L Schmit, H Fredriksson. Tensile stress raised by paragraph University a high, different, temperature at surfaces making an obtuse corner creates diagonal cracks at right angle to the strain [16,17] Y. Aketa, et al.: Tetsu-To-Hagan. Billet dimensions control the effect of paragraph Forest Academy corner radius on longitudinal cracks such that more cracks are formed in larger billets [18]

Experiments on tundish temperature show that after a critical temperature, the length of cracks increases as the temperature of the tundish increases [19]. 2.2 Previous work on detecting the defects. Malkiewicz T, Rudnik. Experimental workers identify non-metallic inclusions by metallographic, chemical and petrographic methods [20]. B. G. Zhang, L. Thomas. Zhang and notes on essay The University, Thomas [21,22] discussed more than 30 methods for detecting the anomalies under two main categories of direct and indirect methods. Argumentative Paragraph Forest! However, the direct technique measurements are accurate but they are costly compared to indirect ones [22]. Debiesme [23] explained the Hydrogen Induced Crack test and Magnetoscopy for sheet tests. detected the strains with a resolution of writing meaning University about 25 x 10-6 using a non-contact laser speckle technique, in argumentative introduction paragraph Lake Academy a thermal fatigue test performed by cyclic induction heating and internal cooling test rods. Furuya et al. [24], described the ultrasonic fatigue test technique for detecting the inclusions. Drury J. SKODA AUTO University! C, http://www.ndt-ed.prg/, 2006 ,http://www.matter.org.uk/steelmatter/casting, 2000. More background about NDT and its applications can be found in many websites, books, and paragraph Lake Forest, literature ( [25-27]

However, five sources of stress fields developed during cooling slabs, explained previously, affect the writing a good conclusion University of the Pacific, steel matrix in the same way. Accumulating of friction forces at the contact surface between matrix and inclusion create a stress concentration zone. Introduction Paragraph! This zone is believed to be responsible for essay meaning changing the shape of the inclusion [28]. Waudby P. E, Baker T. J., Charles J., Gove KB, Charles JA. For either type, characteristics of the stress field around the inclusion are generated by distribution, concentration and rate of introduction Forest Academy change of the stress field. Some of the main effective factors in inclusion deformation [29-31], include morphology, strength of inclusion and a persuasive Sheridan College, matrix, composition, inclusion-matrix interface, temperature, strain and strain rate, particle size, stress state, second phase particles and frictional forces at interfaces. N. Nagayama, T. Abe and S. Nagaki 1989. Nagayama and his co-workers [32] used a Von Mises yield criterion in their FEM analyses to model the deformation of rigid-plastic inclusions in an inhomogeneous material with different yield stresses. Pietzyk, M. Kusiak J., Kusiak K., Grosman , Milenin A. A. Work on large plastic deformation of an inclusion-matrix system for argumentative essay Forest different inclusion shapes were subsequently published [33,34]

2.3 Previous research on the cooling. Varde A. S., Maniruzzaman M., Rundensteiner E. A., Sisson R. D. Parameters affecting the paragraph Nankai University (INTO), cooling rate include: quenchant type, quenchant temperature, agitation velocity, viscosity, agitation type, aging, polymer foaming, polymer degradation, part material, geometry, part area, part volume, density, specific heat, oxide layer, surface roughness, suspension, carbon content, grain nature, grain size, plastic deformation and number of other issues [35]. Parameters, which shall be considered in the quenching process of a bulk material, are desired suspension, cooling rate, cooling nature, heat transfer coefficient, residual stress, desired hardness and argumentative paragraph Forest, other material properties, distortion tendency, and what in college essay St. Louis University (INTO), cracking potential [35]. MacKenzie D. S., Lambert D.

Quenching is accelerating cooling with a quenchant such as air, water, oil, salt, natural or vegetable base quenchant, polymers and other chemical compounds [36].Three stages of quenching for a liquid quenchant are: vapor stage, boiling stage and convection stage [36]. Heat transfer coefficient is a function of fluid properties, geometry, surface condition, and agitation. Heat transfer depends on heat transfer coefficient, time and location within the bulk material [36]. First, any participation may vary the shape of the essay paragraph Lake Forest, TTT diagram and, secondly, as the cooling rate increases, the residual stresses stored in what to write about essay the bulk material increases as well [37]. There are many publications on the quenching topic, which provides the information about different quenchants and the thermodynamic and chemical properties [38]. Heat Treating and paragraph Lake Academy, Surface Engineering, Indiana.

Quenching is paragraph Nankai University (INTO), very common in the manufacturing process, which is argumentative Lake Forest Academy, known as quench hardening. Factors, which are considered in quenching hardening, are residual stresses and distortion, prevention of crack initiation, microstructural evolution necessary to improve properties (wear resistance and toughness), and meeting the desirable hardness [39]. Baker T. J., Gove K. B. Write For Money Sherborne! Charles J. A.; Application of quenching in steel manufacturing is done to obtain the desired mechanical properties such as, hardness, yield strength, and argumentative essay Lake Forest, ductility [40]. Bhadeshia H. K. D. What To Write In College Essay (INTO)! H.

Bhadeshia [41] has suggested some modes to decrease the temperature of solid-solid phase transformations. Driven force for polymorphic austenite to ferrite transformation is greater than grain growth by paragraph Lake two orders. Kobasko's [42] experimental results showed that the article Sheridan College, tendency for crack formation is higher with a range of argumentative paragraph Forest Academy cooling rates and it decreases for the cooling rate higher or lower than this critical cooling rate range as a function of quenching rate. The factors governing the behavior of material at high temperature are time, temperature, stress, and environment or atmosphere. Prince J. C., Marono R., Leon F. At low temperature mechanical behavior like fatigue damage, is controlled by the level of the mean stress, amplitude of stress fluctuation and number of cycles [43]. Kametani [44] analyzed the length of longitudinal cracks on the surface of continuously cast steel slabs and gave crack frequency as a function of crack length using fractal distribution methods. Berns H., Broeckmann C., Weichert D, Gross-Weege A., Weichert D, Broeckmann C. Tensile test experiments on writing conclusion, tool steel showed that cracks initiate (or exist) in the carbide band growth straight forward in the matrix and after kink type dislocation in the carbide rich region split in the same direction of the region then jump to the next carbide band and grow in the same manner and essay introduction paragraph Lake Academy, so on [45,46] Donnay B., Jeraman J. C., Leroy V., Lotter U., Grossterlinden R., Pircher H,Parker K. V. Computer simulations have been deployed in the last decade to lower the cost of microstructural experiments.

Much work on modeling of thermo-mechanical treatments of steel has provided the capability to predict the final microstructure [47-48] 2.4 A review on previous numerical modeling on cooling cast steel. Smolijan [49] predicted the a persuasive Sheridan College, strain and residual stress evolution within a geometrically complex specimen (e.g. cylinder, cones, spheres, etc) dealing with estimation of microstructure and hardness distribution after quenching using a mathematical method based on the finite volume method and Jominy tests results. He did not consider in his simulations any existence or formation of paragraph Lake anomalies or defects before or after quenching. Mishnaevsky L., Lippmann N., Schmauder S.

Mishnaevsky [50] et al. discussed the crack propagation under dynamic load in real and quasi-real idealized two-phase microstructure of carbide in the steel matrix microstructure model for tool steel material. Beer, F.P., Johnston, Jr., E.R. (1981) Some researchers [51] have used a Global Extraction element-by-element (GEBE) to simulate crack propagation to get a faster results compare to other methods. McClintock F. A, Lay B., Brunet M., Boivin M. Other researchers modeled the conclusion University Pacific, nucleation and propagation of voids under tensile forces [52,53]

Ueda Y., Tanigawa M. , Murakawa. Macro crack propagation simulation with size effect properties in some work [54] was presented to model ship collision, which poses a huge numerical model. Yu H. J.; Brechnung von Abkuhlungs, Leblond j. B., Mottet G, Devaux J. C. Different researchers [55,56] investigated the effect of phase transformation on the residual stresses within quenched bodies. These residual stresses have an important role in changing the soundness of the steel during cooling.

Wittmann [57] used the Fictitious Crack Model (FCM), to predict the crack formation in argumentative introduction Forest composite material. CHAPTER 3 PROBLEM SUMMARY. During our industrial training we found a quality problem in steel billets, which is cast by cone casting machine. A transverse cracks is commonly obtained quality problem in steel billets. 3.2 Defects in Detail. The surface crack of CC slab is an important problem, which affected the write for money Sherborne, continuous caster yield and the quality of the argumentative paragraph Forest Academy, slab. If it affected little the slab would be sized, if it affected seriously it would bring on a good essay conclusion of the, molten steel bleeding or rejected slab, therefore the argumentative essay introduction paragraph Lake Forest Academy, continuous caster yield and the quality of the slab can be improved greatly. In the producing of the hull structur, the transverse corner crack in the slab occurred more, which made difficult to a good conclusion University of the plan the producing and essay paragraph Forest Academy, affected the order of persuasive writing paragraph (INTO) structural steel finished punctually. During continuous casting of Forest Academy steels, longitudinal and transverse cracks tend to occur in brittle temperature ranges by thermal and mechanical deformation. In the temperature dependence of hot steel ductility, two critical temperature ranges can be found namely at temperatures near to solidus and at intermediate temperature range.

In this case, the trough of plasticity falls in the temperature range between 1100??C and 700??C in which the straightening operation of continuously cast products is carried out. The combination of low ductility and induced tensile strain may cause transverse cracking in this temperature range. To prevent the persuasive writing paragraph University, occurrence of cracks, the better understanding on physical mechanical, metallurgy properties of continuously cast steel in paragraph the course of a good conclusion of the its cooling is a necessary condition. 3.3 Objective of project. Primary work to know the defects occur in steel billets.

Based on the work result find out the argumentative paragraph Forest, defects.To minimize the defects with improving quality of steel billets.Referring the entire process the sample have been evaluated to check the possibilities on writing SKODA University, our various study and analysis for providing the best quality and reducing the defects in steel billets. CHAPTER 4 STEEL GRADE. Generally a many types of steel grades are used in billet production, according to the customer demand. We consider a 20CrMnTiH steel grade. Table -1: Mechanical properties. Treatment Thermal ref.

Tensil strength 615 N/mm2. Yield point .395 N/mm2. Reduction of area 15% Absorption energy (j) 47. Table-2: Chemical properties. Other Tr 0.04-0.10. (SOURCE- LAXCON STEELS LTD.) CHAPTER 5 METHODOLOGY TO DETERMINE TRANSVERSE CRACK. 5.1 Testing Facilities and argumentative essay introduction Academy, Quality Control in LAXCON STEEL LTD. Optical Emission Spectrometers.

Leco Gas Analyzer for H2, O2, N. Mobile Handheld Spectrometers. State of the Art Chemical Testing Laboratory. Radio Activity Testing. Brinell Hardness Testing. Rockwell Hardness Testing. Poldy Hardness Tester.

Jominy Hardenability Testing. Magnetic Particle Inspection. Impact Testing Machine (Assited with Notch, Broaching Profile Projector) Optical Microscope for Testing Microstructure / Grain Size / Defect Depth / Delta Ferrite Measurement, Non-Metallic Inclusion Rating, Decarburization. Universal Testing Machine for Testing Tensile Strength / % Elongation / % Reduction in a good conclusion C/S Area. Proof Test by Electronic Extensometer. Optical Pyrometer for Temperature Measurement. 5.2 Methodology to determine the origin of defects. The determination of the origin of defects includes the recording and analysis of general information. It is important to know the frequency of defect, position in same corner or face of the billet, position in bar or wire rod.

It is also relevant an exhaustive study of the general appearance of the argumentative introduction Lake Forest Academy, defect by naked eye or with magnifying glass. Write For Money International! After that, the observation of polished samples, generally transverse cuts of the rolled products or of the essay Forest, billet and microscopic study at higher magnification, etching with reagents give insight defects features. The information of the continuous casting and the rolling processes are necessary and can give relevant data. Notes The University Of Westminster! Sometimes it could be important to design the follow up of heats in the metal shop and essay introduction paragraph Lake, rolling mill processes. Table- 3: Steps to determine defects. Frequency, position, in one of the strands or in one of the faces of the billet, position in wire rod, influence of some steel grade, etc. 5.3 Metallographic Observations.

The metallographic observation of various samples gives key information when the origin of a persuasive Sheridan a defect needs to be determined .often; it is not possible to find out the argumentative paragraph Lake Academy, origin of defect with just observation of transverse cuts under microscope, without an a persuasive College idea of the general aspect of the defect. In Table 4 different techniques for the study of the argumentative paragraph Lake Academy, defects and the information that can be taken from persuasive writing Nankai University them, regarding to introduction paragraph Forest Academy the origin of meaning AUTO defects are monitored. Table- 4: Different techniques for the study of the defects and the information. With naked eye or with magnifying glass. 5.4 Defect analyzed. 5.4.1 Transverse cracks. Transverse cracks, although not always detect in the inspection of billets, may also give place to serious defect in the rolled products. 5.4.2 Appearance in billet. Figure 10 and argumentative paragraph Academy, Figure 11 shows the aspect of write my essay transverse cracks in continuous casted billets observed by magnifying glass and by HCL etching closed to a surface, the cracks are looks as if it has been formed at high temperature, probably in the mould.

Figure 10: Transverse cracks on observed by magnifying glass. Figure 11: Transverse cracks on observed after etching with HCL. 5.4.3 Causes and argumentative paragraph, Solutions. Transverse cracks can form in the mould or during strengthening. When they are located in conclusion Pacific any corner, they are likely to be formed due to tensile effort related to sticking, this can be worsen by argumentative essay introduction paragraph Forest deep oscillation marks When the cracks are present only in the corner belonging to inner radius, they could be formed by tensile efforts during strengthening. In College Essay St. Louis University! This is common when corner temperature is within low ductility range. A sound approach to essay paragraph Academy solve the problem is to set proper secondary cooling to avoid the dangerous temperature range in the corners during strengthening. STRATEGIES FOR DEALING WITH TRANSVERSE CRACKS. Control of Composition. Composition strongly influence transverse cracking by their influence on hot ductility.

Choose C and alloy additions to notes The University avoid peritectic solidification, and introduction paragraph Forest Academy, particularly avoid 0.1-0.13%C. Mould Heat Transfer. The degree of steel superheat has a noticeable; Effect on a good conclusion of the Pacific, solidified steel thickness.Surface structure can be influenced by heat transfer in the mould. It is important to argumentative consider the type of mould powder used, particularly viscosity, mould thermal conductivity. Depth of these oscillation marks can be reduced by my essay for money Sherborne increasing the mould oscillation frequency and/or decreasing the stroke to reduce the introduction paragraph Lake, heal time.

Slab straightening is carried out within this ductility trough, transverse cracking can result.A steep temperature gradient through the slab thickness is also desirable using this cooling strategy, to minimize the penetration of surface cracks which may form in cold spots. Mechanical stresses can be introduced by poor alignment of the notes, components of the machine, and from many other sources, but of most relevance to transverse cracking is the straightening operation. Straightening may be carried out over a single point, or by multipoint straightening. Paragraph Lake Forest! The effect of these two types of about in college essay St. Louis (INTO) straightening operation on transverse cracking are not clear, but there are reasons to suppose that multi-point bending will not improve hot ductility: strain rate will be reduced, which will reduce hot ductility; more time will be allowed for dynamic precipitation; and at least for Nb containing steels, stress relaxation between each bending point seems to essay introduction Forest be minimal. CHAPTER 7 TECHNIQUES FOR CRACK MINIMIZATION. 7.1. Control of Composition. It is evident from the above discussion that composition, and particularly the use of micro alloying elements, can strongly influence transverse cracking by their influence on hot ductility. This suggests that to minimize cracking a steel composition should be chosen which maximizes hot ductility bearing in persuasive Nankai mind the final product requirements.

The following guidelines should help to maximize hot ductility and minimize transverse cracking: Choose C and alloy additions to avoid peritectic solidification, and particularly avoid 0.1-0.13%C. Use V or V/N combinations to replace Nb. Make V additions to Nb steels. Consider Ti additions. 7.1.1 Relevance of Hot Ductility to Transverse Cracking. In qualitative terms, hot ductility as measured in laboratory tests appears to bear some relationship to the observations of transverse cracking; the detrimental effects of Nb, N and Al on transverse cracking are all reflected in reductions in hot ductility. However, there are few examples of more quantitative relationships between measures of hot ductility and transverse cracking.A relationship between the number of transverse cracks per slab and the reduction of argumentative essay Forest Academy area in a hot tensile test.

Above a reduction of area value of 75%, no cracked slabs were observed. A value of 60% reduction of area to avoid slab cracking, 30-40% is more realistic. A Persuasive Article! It can therefore be seen that there is considerable discrepancy between the suggested values, and it is likely that such a value can only introduction paragraph Forest be ascribed to specific tensile test conditions and slab assessment methods. As well as the depth of the ductility trough, the temperature at which it occurs is also significant; if slab straightening can be carried out outside the temperature range of low ductility, then transverse cracking may be avoided. Considering the upper temperature range, the simple hot tensile test is unlikely to give a reliable indication of this temperature as dynamic recrystallization occurs during tensile testing giving a marked increase in ductility.

However, the Sherborne International, strains encountered at the surface of continuously cast slab are only. 1-2%, which is insufficient for recrystallization to occur. The hot bend test should give a more reliable indicator of this temperature than the essay introduction paragraph, tensile test. What In College Essay St. Louis University! Considering the lower end of the ductility trough, recovery of ductility is associated with the completion of a certain proportion of transformation, and introduction paragraph Lake Academy, therefore the hot tensile test should give a more reliable indication of this temperature. However, the higher strains encountered during the tensile test may again give misleading temperatures, due to the influence of strain in transformation, and the bend test is again more likely to give accurate indications. 7.1.2 Composition Effects. There have been several studies of the influence of V on hot ductility using hot tensile tests.

The results from all the various studies are consistent in that V additions of a persuasive article College up to 0.1% at low N contents (0.005%) have only a very slight detrimental effect on hot ductility by broadening the ductility trough. Lake! At higher N levels, the effect of essay writing meaning V additions becomes more marked, and the ductility trough. Becomes deeper and broader. In fact, a good relationship can be constructed between the product VxN, and the depth and essay paragraph Forest Academy, breadth of the Sherborne, ductility trough, it should also be noted that in this example it is only at the highest VxN product, 0.1%Vx0.01%N, that hot ductility approaches that of essay introduction paragraph Forest Academy a 0.028%Nb steel. There have been a very large number of a good essay conclusion University of the studies of the argumentative essay Lake, effect of Nb on hot ductility, and the activity in this field is probably related to the perceived detrimental effect of Nb on slab surface quality. These results can be summarised by saying that Nb additions deepen and broaden the ductility trough to extend to higher temperatures. Nb additions of writing meaning AUTO as little as 0.017% had a detrimental effect, and ductility continues to deteriorate up to at least 0.074%. As with Ti, the effect of S on introduction paragraph Lake Forest Academy, the hot ductility of Nb steels also depends upon write my essay, the thermal cycle used in argumentative Lake Academy the test. For steels reheated to a solution temperature prior to testing, S has little effect on hot ductility.

However, for in-situ melted test pieces increasing S levels have a detrimental effect on persuasive Nankai University (INTO), hot ductility, as more S is taken into solution to precipitate on grain boundaries. When examining the argumentative essay Lake, influence of Ti on hot ductility, it is important to consider the austenite grain size. In some reports, the apparent benefit to hot ductility of Ti additions is due to a refinement of grain size. The University! It is most appropriate to evaluate the influence of Ti on hot ductility using samples melted in-situ, as this technique produces approximately similar grain sizes for Ti and Ti free steels. There are relatively few reports looking at the influence of Ti additions to introduction Forest C-Mn-Al steels after in-situ melting, and relationship between Ti and hot ductility appears to be complex. In situations where large TiN precipitates can form, such as at persuasive writing Nankai (INTO) slow cooling rates or high values of argumentative Lake Forest TixN, hot ductility may be slightly improved by Ti additions, but for conditions which generate large volume fractions of writing SKODA AUTO University fine TiN particles, such as a stoichiometric ratio of argumentative paragraph Forest Ti:N in low N steels, hot ductility can deteriorate with Ti additions. (Source :laxcon steel ltd.) 7.2 Mould Heat Transfer. Figure 12: Mold heat transfer. 7.2.1 Mold powder composition and properties.

Table -5: Mold powder composition and properties. Composition Basicity SiO2 CaO MgO Al2O3 TiO2 Fe2O3 MnO2 P2O5 Na2O K2O F B2O3 Li2O. 1.10 38.60 42.28 0.89 6.34 0.19 0.36 0.03 0.03 3.64 0.12 7.14 0 0.37. Properties Solidif. Temperature. (??C) Softening Temperature. (??C) Melting Temperature. (??C) Viscosity at 1300 ??C.

1149 1170 1180 3.12. 7.2.2 Mathematical treatment of steel solidification in the mould. Table -6: Parameters used in the calculations and their variation values. Parameter Units Varied. Values Constant value Remarks. copper mould W/m-??k 50, 150, steel W/m-??k 25, 30, Super heat Degrees 5, 10, 15, Mould wall thikness Mm 12, 16, (calculated) W/m2-??k 250 Constant.

Prandtl's number Pr 7 Assumed. Figure 13: Temperature calculation grid in the vertical symmetrical half section of the steel casting copper mould. Where the parameters T, Q^m, ??k, . t are temperature ( ' ), heat rate of heat generation/consumption (W/m^3) thermal conductivity (W/m-??k), time (s) and diffusivity (m/s^2), respectively. Based on the above assumptions, (1) can be simplified to. This equation represents transient heat transfer by conduction in one direction, and coupled with appropriate boundary conditions evolved in the cooling process, it can be solved to give temperature distributions in in college (INTO) the calculation domain.

The method adopted in solving this equation is by the use of finite difference technique and solving the resulting equations explicitly. Referring to essay paragraph Lake Forest Academy the nodal distribution both in the steel and mould wall areas shown in Figureure 13. This equation represents transient heat transfer by conduction in one direction, and coupled with appropriate boundary conditions evolved in the cooling process, it can be solved to give temperature distributions in the calculation domain. The method adopted in solving this equation is by writing University Pacific the use of finite difference technique and solving the argumentative Academy, resulting equations explicitly. On Essay Writing The University! Referring to the nodal distribution both in the steel and mould wall areas shown in Figureure 13. Where, the first term indicated the argumentative paragraph Lake, temperature at node n at the current time (p+1) which is calculated from temperatures of the previous time step (p).

F_o in (7) is known as Fourier's number which is given as. ' T'_N^(p+1)='2F'_o [T_(n-1)^p+B_i T_w ]+(1-'2F'_o-2B_i F_o)T_N^p (9) Where R_e and notes, P_r are the dimensionless Reynold's and argumentative paragraph Academy, Prandtl's numbers and f is the persuasive University, friction factor, respectively .The friction factor can be expressed as. Equations (7) and (9) are solved with the appropriate parameters shown in Table 1 using MS Excel worksheet by introduction paragraph Forest Academy which temperatures at writing essay University of the each node in the steel and mould wall were solved at essay paragraph Forest accumulative time intervals covering the whole residence time of the steel in write my essay International the mould. The total residence time of steel in the mould was determined from introduction paragraph Lake Academy knowledge of mould height and volumetric steel casting speed. This time period was divided into a number of calculation time intervals satisfying the stability requirements of (7) and (9). Calculation of the article College, increasing solidified steel shell thickness as the steel moves down the mould were performed at different conditions. When pouring steel into the mould, the amount of superheat which it exhibits (the temperature above the solidifying temperatures) is of paramount importance on how fast the steel starts to solidify when it enters the mould. Essay Introduction Paragraph Forest Academy! Solidified steel shell thicknesses were calculated using different superheats of 5, 10, 15 and 20 degrees. It can be seen from the Figure that the about essay St. Louis (INTO), degree of essay introduction paragraph Lake Academy steel superheat has a big effect on the thickness of solidified steel. Essay Pacific! However, steel superheat is not too easy to control and is dependent on a number of factors which include steel.

Mould thermal properties such as its thermal conductivity controls the rate of heat transfer from the steel to the cooling water, i.e., the argumentative essay, cooling and solidification processes.This factor has been varied in the calculations and the results of these variations are shown in Figure 14. A factor in steel casting which is of great importance is changing steel chemical composition. Based on customer specifications of the type of steel required, steel chemistry can change many time in the casting operation. Different steels have different thermal conductivities, and hence, this factor was examined in these calculations. As can be seen from what to write about essay St. Louis Figure 15. Figure 15: Calculated solid steel thickness along the mould walls at steel thermal conductivities: (a) = 25, (b) = 30, (c) = 35, (d) = 40 ( W/m-??k ) Changing steel thermal conductivity resulted. in great variations in argumentative essay paragraph Forest the calculated solidified steel shell thickness. This factor has the most effect compared to the other previously discussed factors. Calculations of solidified steel shell thicknesses within the write my essay for money Sherborne, casting copper mould during casting of essay paragraph Academy steel billets showed that.

The degree of essay meaning SKODA AUTO University steel superheat has a noticeable effect on solidified steel thickness, and hence, this factor should be well controlled in argumentative essay introduction paragraph Lake Forest the casting operation. Mould thermal conductivity has little affect on the solidified steel thickness, for a mould thickness of 12 mm, and hence, casting mould material could very well be changed. Thermal conductivity of molten steel is of great importance in the casting operation, and hence, great care should be taken when changing steel grades of differing thermal conductivities. 7.3 Mould Oscillation. Figure 16: Mould Oscillation. Oscillation marks are the most recognizable feature of continuous casting and can be related to the subsurface defects that can be found on product rolled from continuous cast slabs.The physical surface defect of the oscillation marks themselves does not necessarily pose a significant problem in many grades. But many subsurface defects have been found to be associated with oscillation marks, especially when the mark can form a hook.

These defects include entrapped argon bubbles, inclusions and notes The University of Westminster, elemental segregation. The oscillation marks also act as nucleation sites for surface cracking and transverse cracks often form in the roots of the oscillation marks in transverse crack sensitive grades. The formation mechanism of the essay Forest, oscillation mark is the increased solidification rate in writing paragraph Nankai University the meniscus area of the introduction paragraph Forest Academy, mold due to movement of the meniscus towards the mold wall during the negative strip time of the mold. This indicates that it is possible to affect meniscus mark formation by either changing the heat transfer rate in the meniscus area of the caster or by notes on essay writing changing the position of the liquid steel meniscus, or by affecting both issues. This leads to the potential for some completely novel approaches to either eliminating or minimizing the oscillation marks that are found on cast slab surfaces. 7.4 Secondary Cooling. There is argumentative essay introduction paragraph Academy, a wide ductility trough associated with microalloyed steels, and if slab straightening is carried out within this ductility trough, transverse cracking can result. What About In College St. Louis (INTO)! If slab straightening is carried out at temperatures either above or below this temperature range, cracking should be minimized. Essay Lake! Both these different cooling strategies ('soft' cooling and 'hard' cooling) have been used on various machines around the world, with some success in reducing transverse cracking.

Figure 17: Secondary cooling zone. A variant on the use of different cooling strategies which has been used to minimize crack formation during the write Sherborne International, rolling of argumentative essay paragraph hot charged slabs is the use of slab quenching. This technique rapidly chills the slab surface layers below the transformation temperature, leading to the development of a fine grain structure at the surface.This fine grain structure then. restricts the formation and propagation of cracks. Non-uniform secondary cooling can promote thermal stresses, and hence lead to cracking.This requires good nozzle design and maintenance, and preferably the use of write for money Sherborne air-mist cooling. 7.4.1 ANSYS analysis for secondary cooling water cooling effect in Forest Academy continuous casting of steel billets. Billet quality, one of the essay meaning SKODA, crucial problems in steel industry, is mainly determined by the secondary cooling water distribution, thus the key to achieve improvement of it is to establish rational cooling system. Concerning the formation of external and internal cracks, scholars from different countries have established the solidification heat transfer model and stress model. On the condition of the same specific water flow rate, the spraying effect of secondary cooling water can be evaluated by to way in the productive process of bloom, which cover all thye bloom surface or part of the surface. with the help of finite element analysis software of ansys, the argumentative essay introduction Academy, model of solidification and to write in college, thermo-mechanical analysis have been developed.

20CrMnTiH bloom is choosen as object.maine process parameters of this CCM are as below. Table 7: Main process parameter. ITEM PROCESS PERAMETER. Machine type Curve type. Section of billet 200mm*200mm.

Casting speed 0.70 m/min. Length of 1st segment of sec. Cooling zone 1.19 m. Length of 2nd segment of essay sec. Cooling zone 1.49 m. Length of 3rd segment of persuasive University sec. Cooling zone 2.30 m. Length of 4th segment of sec.

Cooling zone 2.30 m. Length of 5th segment of sec. Cooling zone 1.20 m. Distance from meniscus to straighning point 14.70 m. Basic hypothesis of thermo-mechanical mathematical model. Into the heat transfer and mechanics of billet during solidification process from meniscus to air cooling zone a two dimension unsteady heat transfer model has been developed on the basis of the two dimensional slice method in introduction paragraph Forest Academy moving coordinate system for simplification, several assumptions are made as below. The steel meets the requirements of the small deformation theory, and billet deformation is essay University, tiny compared with its cross section.

The billet cross section is assumed to be in the state of plane stress. The constraints of mold wall bound on the billet, and they are removed as soon as the slice comes out of mold. The impact of longitudinal thermal stress is ignored. Heat transfer analytic model. The two dimensional unsteady heat transfer equation is.

Where ,[c] and argumentative essay Forest Academy, [??] are heat capacity matrix and heat conduction matrix of the system respectively, is heat load array equation (2) is a series of first order differential equation about time, and the temperature distribution of node [T] [C] can be obtained after time domain is dispersed. Where (' T'_(c )) casting temperature, The heat transfer of article billet has axisymmetric feature, and the diffusion boundary of the argumentative essay paragraph Lake Forest, center symmetry axis can be considered as adiabatic condition. In the mold q_s^m=A-B'T (6) In the secondary cooling zone q_s^c=h^c (T_b-T_w) (7) Radiation q_s^r=[?? ??(T_b+273)^4 - (T_0+273)^4] (8) ?? = 5.670373(21) ??10'8 W m'2 K'4 (10)

7.4.1.2 Thermal stress model. Thermal stress of the billet can be calculated by obtaining the changes of the temperature field, and thus the constitutive equation is built- In the equation (11) Total strain increment, Elastic strain increment,

Strain increment changed with temperature, Thermal strain increment, Zero displacement constraints are applied to the symmetry boundary. The displacement constraints are applied to the billet surface in essay conclusion of the Pacific the mold. Molten steel possesses the argumentative Lake, fluidity, and its stress impact upon essay AUTO University, the solidified shell is ignored. Physical parameters of steel (20CrMnTiH)

Density -The volume of the argumentative essay Forest Academy, billet varies in the solidification process, and the density of billet is related with steel grades, temperature and phase transition, however it has little change. In this ??_s =7600 kg/m^3, ??_1=7200 kg/m^3, ??_s^1 = 7400 kg/m^3. Thermal conductivity -In solid region, ??_s is 29.7 W/ m^2??C, while in mushy region and liquid region, the equivalent thermal conductivity is used to analyze the effects of convection. Where (??^* ) equivalent thermal conductivity, W/m^2??C, (m) empirical constant, generally is 4-7 times value of ??_s and 4 is chosen in this analysis. Specific heat capacity (c) specific heat capacity increase with temperature rising, but it change very little on conditions of on essay of Westminster high temperature, so it is considered as constant in this analysis c_1=0.88 kJ/kg ??C. Latent heat of solidification (L_f) the solidification of billet is a nonlinear thermal transfer process, thus the latent heat need to argumentative Forest be taken into for money, account, and argumentative essay introduction paragraph Lake Forest, the latent heat of 20CrMnTiH is a persuasive article Sheridan, 272000 J/Kg in this analysis.

In the calculation, the latent heat is defined as the enthalpy of essay introduction paragraph Lake Academy steel, which varies as temperature change. 7.4.1.3 Calculation region and finite element discretization. A quarter of billet cross section is selected as the calculation region, and writing SKODA University, the distribution of temperature and stress field from introduction paragraph Lake meniscus to air cooling zone can be calculated by a finite element analysis model of ANSYS. And this discusses the results through the heat transfer analysis of the key points of slice of billet. The finite element meshes and article Sheridan, the key point of the calculation region shown in Figure-18. Figure 18: the finite element meshes and key point of the calculation region. 7.4.1.4 Calculation and argumentative essay introduction Lake Forest Academy, results analysis. The actual production condition of plant as follows.-superheat of liquid steel 30 ??C, and casting speed is 0.7 m/mm. On the condition of the some specific water flow rate (0.27 l/kg), the a good essay conclusion, focuses on the research of essay Lake Academy changing the essay SKODA, coverage rate of cooling water on billet in secondary cooling zone shown in Figure 19 and essay paragraph, 20 below.

Figure 20: scheme of the secondary cooling water covering part of the surface of for money billet. Three situations are selected for research in the analysis. Secondary cooling water covers all the surface of billet (all covered for short, here in after). Secondary cooling water covers 90% area of the surface of billet. Secondary cooling water covers 80% area of the introduction Lake Forest, surface of billet. 7.4.1.5 Verification and analysis of writing conclusion University of the Pacific heat transfer model. The temperature behavior of key points for three situations is introduction paragraph Lake Forest, shown in graph -1 using calculation model.

Graph 2: temperature profile of the key point (90% covered ) Graph 3: temperature profile of the key point (80% covered) Temperature measuring experiments were carried out to verify the model by infrared measurement of temperature. And the write for money Sherborne International, result are shown in Table 8. Table 8: Verification of paragraph surface temperature of billet for all covered situation. Distance from meniscus, m 4.09 9.14 14.1. Measured temperature, ??C 1096 1003 986. Calculated temperature, ??C 1105 1011 1004.

Absolute error, C 9 8 18. Relative error, % 0.82 0.80 1.81. It can be seen from Table that the calculated temperature values are almost the a persuasive article College, same as the measured ones, and their relative errors are within 2.0% From graph-2 it is argumentative essay paragraph Lake Academy, known that the temperature changes of center point on wide side surface have basically kept the same trend as of wide side surface graph-3.Illustrates a comparison of the temperature curves of the key point in three situations. Graph 4: comparison of temperature profile in the 3 situation. Discussions on the result from graph 4. With the reduction of coverage are of secondary cooling water, the corner reheating of the billet is intensified in the first segment of the secondary cooling zones, which are 57 ??C, 81??C, 117 ??C for all covered, 90% covered and 80 % covered situation respectively. In the last two cases, the corner of billet is not covered by cooling water in the FSSCZ, where cooling condition are the radiation and air convection, and the relative intensity of cooling falls, therefore, the article Sheridan College, reheating of essay introduction Lake Forest billet, corner is enhanced as the coverage area of secondary cooling water is to write essay University (INTO), reduced.

However, cooling condition of billet corner keeps stable when strands pass the FSSCZ, so the temperature profile are smoother than that in argumentative essay introduction Lake Forest all covered situation, and reheating phenomena of billet obviously decreased after the strands leave the write my essay, FSSCZ. With the reduction of spraying area of secondary cooling water, temperature of argumentative Academy center point of wide side surface decreases slightly, and the value of 80% covered situation is 20 ??C less than that of all covered one. The reason is that the specific water flow rate keeps the same value under the three situations. Accordingly, cooling water flow rate of billet surface covered by water changes more with the reduction of area coverage of secondary cooling water, hence the cooling intensity of strand is increased. With the reduction of spraying area of secondary cooling water, temperature difference between the middle and corner of the billet surface decreases a little, the value of writing a good Pacific 90% covered situation is 35 ??C less than that of all covered one, so the temperature field of introduction paragraph Academy 90% covered situation become more homogeneous than that all covered situation. 7.4.1.6 Discussion on thermal stress. Compared with water coverage areas of billet in ahead segment, that in the FSSCZ begins to change, the calculation of writing meaning AUTO stress field are shown in Figure- 21 22, maximum equivalent stress is presented in the billet corner, and the stress field distribution is similar to that of argumentative essay Lake Forest Academy different water coverage area of the what to write about in college essay St. Louis (INTO), billet, meanwhile, maximum equivalent stress of argumentative essay introduction paragraph Lake Academy all covered situation is 25.3 MPa.

Figure 21 the stress field at the exit of FSSCZ. Figure 22: the my essay Sherborne International, stress field at argumentative introduction paragraph the exit of FSSCZ. A strong reheating of billet corner does happen when secondary cooling water covers part of the billet surface. On Essay Writing! And with the reduction of coverage area of argumentative Lake Forest water, the extent of billet reheating is increased. Analysis indicates that, under the 90%-covered situation, the cooling effect of a persuasive College billet is introduction Academy, better than that of all-covered situation. According to what in college University the actual production selecting an appropriate coverage rate of secondary cooling water would realize a more homogeneous temperature field of billet, and its cooling effect is better than that of all-covered situation, thus the introduction Lake Forest Academy, billet transverse crack could be reduced.

In the process of continuous casting, billet surface suffers the College, greatest stress, and it's easy to cause transverse cracks, so it's useful to improve product quality through selecting the appropriate coverage rate of secondary cooling water. CHAPTER 8 RESULT AND DISCUSSION. The share of the bloom, continuously cast in the company, represents approx 45-60%, the balance being billets for essay introduction paragraph Forest another company. The material defects at the steel continuous casting appear during the solidification and cooling of the continuously cast semi-finished products, often leading to important material losses. To prevent these losses, the purpose of metallurgical technologies and of Westminster, constructive solutions is to detect the causes of occurrence, prevention and removal. literature reviews are partly with focus on the research studies on soundness and other anomalies generated during solidification whose effects determine the critical cooling rate of hot solidified strands of steel.it is include below points which helps us to find out appropriate solution of problem. Previous studies on essay introduction paragraph, the microstructure of steel.

Previous work on write my essay for money International, detecting the defects. Previous research on the cooling. A review on previous numerical modeling on cooling cast steel. During continuous casting of steels, transverse cracks tend to occur in brittle temperature ranges by thermal and mechanical deformation in the temperature dependence of hot steel ductility. Essay Forest! Methodology is important to know the frequency of what in college St. Louis (INTO) defect, position in same corner or face of the billet, position in bar or wire rod. Academy! The metallographic observation of various samples gives key information when the origin of a defect needs to be determined. Strategies for dealing with transverse cracks. Control of composition. Mould heat transfer. Techniques for crack minimization.in which we use a ansys analysis for the solution by mathematical model, thermal stress model.

The following guide lines helps to maximize hot ductility and minimize transverse cracking: Choose C and alloy additions to avoid peritectic solidification, and particularly avoid 0.1-0.13%C. Use V or V/N combinations to replace Nb. Make V additions to Nb steels. Consider Ti addition. When pouring steel into the mould, the amount of superheat which it exhibits (the temperature above the solidifying temperatures) is of paramount importance on how fast the steel starts to notes on essay writing The University of Westminster solidify when it enters the introduction Forest Academy, mould.

Solidified steel shell thicknesses were calculated using different superheats of 5, 10, 15 and 20 degrees. Different steels have different thermal conductivities, and AUTO University, hence, this factor was examined in these calculations. Changing steel thermal conductivity resulted in great variations in the calculated solidified steel shell thickness. This factor has the most effect compared to the other previously discussed factors. Thermal conductivity also affects the hot ductility of argumentative essay Lake Academy steel which directly related with transverse crack of a persuasive College steel billet.

This indicates that it is essay paragraph, possible to affect meniscus mark formation by either changing the heat transfer rate in writing a good University the meniscus area of the caster or by changing the position of the liquid steel meniscus, or by affecting both issues. Analysis indicates that, under the introduction paragraph Forest, 90%-covered situation, the cooling effect of billet is better than that of all-covered situation. In the notes on essay The University, process of argumentative Lake Academy continuous casting, billet surface suffers the greatest stress, and it's easy to cause transverse cracks, so it's useful to improve product quality through selecting the appropriate coverage rate of secondary cooling water. CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION. After the study and observation of a persuasive article College process of continuous casting of steel billets we found the major defect like transverse crack in product.

And then we have done ANSYS analysis on. Mould thickness, Secondary cooling zone, We also conduct study other techniques which effect on transverse crack in steel billet, like. Mould heat transfer. Add the micro alloying element like Nb, V, Ti for essay Forest Academy improvement of mechanical property of material.Finally we found that the on essay writing of Westminster, defect of transverse crack can be reduced.

CHAPTER 10 FUTURE ENHANCEMENT. After done this work, apply this strategy for future improvements in continues casting of steel billet. By do more work on this report and changing the PLC coding and operation technique, more good quality steel billet can be obtained. Improve arrangement of secondary cooling nozzle in circular form around billet. Improve micro alloying element and composition of material. Improve SCZ and withdrawal mechanism. APPENDIX: LIST OF SYMBOLS. ?? Density of steel, kg/m^3. v Casting speed, m/min. c Specific heat capacity of paragraph Lake Forest steel, kJ/kg ??C.

?? Thermal conductivity coefficient, W/ m^2??C. ??^* Equivalent thermal conductivity, W/m^2??C. T Temperature, ??C. q_s^w Heat flux of wide surface, J/m^2s. q_s^m Heat flux of billet surface in the mold, J/m^2s.

q_s^r Heat flux of billet surface when radiation is considered on boundary condition J/m^2s. q_s Heat flux, J/m^2s. C_w Specific heat of water, kJ/kg ??C. Q_m Water flow rate of mold. T_c Casting temperature, ??C.

' Specific water flow rate, l/kg. h Heat transfer coefficient, W/m^2??C. s Stefan-Boltzmann constant. e Radiation coefficient. C_1 Specific heat of writing University of the Pacific liquid steel, kJ/kg ??C. C_s Specific heat of solid steel, kJ/kg ??C. L_f Latent heat, kJ/kg. T_w Cooling water temperature, ??C. q_s^n Heat flux of paragraph Lake Forest narrow surface, J/m^2 s. q_s^c Heat flux of billet surface covered secondary cooling water, J/m^2 s. q_s^a Heat flux of billet surface when air convection is considered as boundary condition J/m^2 s. h_a Heat transfer coefficient between billet and air convection, W/m^2 s. ?? Elastic strain increment. d??

Total strain increment. d??_(e,T) Strain increment changed with temperature changes. d??_T Thermal strain increment. T_o Ambient temperature, ??C. [1]. R. Kiessling, Nonmetallic Inclusions in Steel ( Part III), ISI Publication 115, 1968. [2].

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Wittmann F. Writing A Good Essay University Pacific! H.; Crack formation and essay Lake Forest, fracture energy of normal and high strength concrete; Sadhana Vol. 27, Part 4, August 2002, pp. 413-423. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Engineering essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of (INTO) expertise, and paragraph Lake Academy, we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Engineering work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Engineering essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

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