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BAU Institute, Otranto, Italy. Chinati Foundation, Marfa, TX. visiting artist residency. Presidential Purchase Award, Hunter College, The City University of New York. Purchase of three prints for permanent collection. The Drawing Center, New York, NY.
Viewing Program member. Cade Tomkins Projects, Providence, RI. representation of work. American Abstract Artists. MINUS SPACE, Brooklyn, NY. representation of College work. M.F.A., Hunter College, The City University of New York; New York, NY. Writing Piece School? concentration in printmaking. magna cum laude, double major: studio art and an autobiography essay Moreton School art history. Bill Van Siclen. Writing Piece Taunton School? More than Meets the Eye. The Providence Journal, May 10, 2012. Catalogue. MINUS SPACE en OAXACA. Thinking Theory Of Brighton? Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012.
Eva Diaz. Notations: The Cage Effect Today. Art Forum, Summer, 2012. Brent Hallard. How Little is Enough. Writing Taunton? Visual Discepancies, May 25, 2009. Bill Van Siclen. It's Worth the Walk.
The Providence Journal, April 2, 2009 . Grace Glueck. “Presentational Painting III.” The New York Times, April 7, 2006. Stephen Maine. “Painting Presentation.” Artnet, April 7, 2006. Mark Rifkin. “Presentational Painting III.” This Week in essay writing New York, March 29, 2006. Writing Taunton School? Catalogue. Presentational Painting III. Critical Thinking Define Bishop Guertin High School? Hunter College/Times Square Gallery, New York, NY, 2006; Essays by Gabriele Evertz, Abbey Ryan and John Cox.
James F. L. Carroll. Interview on New Arts Alive, New Arts Program/Berks Community Television, Reading, PA, 2004. Catalogue. 4 by persuasive piece School, 4 by 4. New Arts Program, Kutztown, PA, 2004; Preface by Linda Francis.
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Laissez Faire in Nineteenth-Century Britain: A Bibligraphical Essay by Ellen F. Paul. Source: This essay first appeared in the journal Literature of writing Taunton School, Liberty: A Review of Contemporary Liberal Thought , vol. Persusasive Ellesmere College? III, no. Persuasive Writing Taunton School? 4 Winter 1980 published by the Cato Institute (1978-1979) and the Institute for Humane Studies (1980-1982) under the editorial direction of Leonard P. Liggio. Write Essay School? It is persuasive writing piece Taunton School, republished with thanks to the original copyright holders. Ellen Frankel Paul teaches at Bowling Green State university and is active in the Social Philosophy and Policy Foundation. She has written widely on social and political thought. Laissez Faire in Nineteenth-Century Britain: Fact or Myth?
A Bibliographical Essay by Ellen Frnakel Paul. Introduction: The Scholarly Debate over British Laissez Faire. Great Britain in the nineteenth century was a great bastion of individualism where that merciless principle of the political economists - laissez faire - dominated public opinion, and Parliament, under its sway, vanquished the last vestiges of an overweaning, Mercantilist state. Captivated by two allied and seemingly indomitable intellectual forces, the formats St. John's-Ravenscourt School radically individualist, antistatist philosophy of the persuasive writing piece Taunton School Benthamite Utilitarians and the rigidly free market economics of the Classical School, the Victorian era spurned governmental solutions to acute social problems. In its fanatic embrace of self-interest, self-help, and atomistic individualism, the period can only be characterized as an age of laissez faire.
It is precisely this halcyon or demonic vision (depending upon one's political perspective) of nineteenth century British economics, political philosophy, and governmental policy that has come under withering assault in the last three decades. Particularly in the mid-1960s a debate raged in the professional journals over essentially three interrelated issues. (1) What policy conclusions did Classical Economics dictate, and the Classical economists, as individuals, endorse? (2) Did Britain in the nineteenth century, or in some distinct portion of it, personify the ideal of minimal governmental intervention in the economic and social realm, or rather, was the period the breeding ground for the rampant collectivism that would follow? (3) Finally, what was the essential thrust of Benthamism as a political philosophy, and as a theoretical tool for writing formats School, the analysis of policy; and what effect did Benthamites have upon the course of British politics? These questions ought not merely concern antiquarians, pedants, or those intrigued by semantic quibbles over the definition of laissez faire. If we are to comprehend the nature of the modern Leviathan state, we need to discern the forces which promoted its creation and to examine the arguments advanced in support of its nascent powers. I. The Economic Policies of the Classical Economists. . Persuasive School? . . the Moreton School scholarship of the last forty years has proved beyond question that the architects of classical political economy cannot be characterized as upholders of the laissez-faire philosophy. 1.
To identify such doctrines [i.e., laissez faire] with the declared and easily accessible views of the writing Classical Economists is critical thinking, a sure sign of ignorance or malice. School? 2. While such ringing declarations of a cleavage between the political economists and theory The University of Brighton laissez faire may be a bit hyperbolic when applied to such figures as Adam Smith or David Ricardo, these assertions seem far less controversial when directed at writing piece School John Stuart Mill, Henry Sidgwick, or J.E. Thinking Define Bishop High? Cairnes. Those critics who take a dynamic rather than a static 3 view of the Classical School of economics agree that as the nineteenth century progressed the allegiance of leading economists to laissez faire became more and more attenuated. Whether one focuses upon the death of piece Taunton, Ricardo in 3 from paragraphs to great essays Saint Anthony’s High 1823, or the influence of Bentham's principle of utility, or John Stuart Mill's flirtation with socialism as constituting the definitive turning point toward a more activist, interventionist state, contemporary revisionist scholars concur in their assessment of the Classicals as deviationists from doctrinaire laissez faire. One might add, that for practically all of these contemporary authorities the effort to rescue the early political economists from the clutches of extreme noninterventionism is motivated by persuasive Taunton School, a desire to rescue their reputations, and, indeed, professional economics in its incipient stage, from scurrilous charges of extremism, callousness, and rigidity that have repeatedly defiled their memories.
With few exceptions, the Classical economists' deviations from great writing great to great Anthony’s, pure laissez faire are praised as examples of their pragmatism, rather than condemned as departures from sound public policy. Also, a Classical School replete with deviations, exceptions, and considerations of expediency is a much more venerable ancestor for modern Keynesianism. Motivational considerations aside, the revisionists' interpretations of the normative side of Classical economics is essentially accurate. The conventional vision of the followers of persuasive piece, Adam Smith as radical antistatists, shunning governmental incursions into private economic relationships on critical thinking theory of Brighton, all fronts is, quite simply, indefensible. As in all reigning myths, there is, however, a solid kernel of truth. Persuasive Writing Taunton? While the Classical economists tolerated, and indeed encouraged, repeated governmental interventions to cure perceived social and economic ills, noninterventionism remained, to a greater or lesser extent depending upon the quirks of each particular economist, the regnant principle, and any departures from it required elaborate justification. Writing To Great Essays Saint High? The general presumption, then, was on the side of laissez faire; exceptions arose on an ad hoc, case by case, usually empirical basis; and the burden of proof lay on the interventionists.
Of course, over time this laissez-faire presumption was attenuated until, in the hands of men like John Stuart Mill, its dim shadow could barely be perceived. Robbins's Distinction of Two Individualist Moral Traditions: Natural Rights vs. Utilitarian. If the Classical economists' attitudes towards state intervention into persuasive piece Taunton School the economy are to be rightly understood, we must delve beneath the surface of their various stands on write an autobiography Moreton Hall School, such salient issues of their time as the poor laws and the factory acts to the more fundamental level of their metaphysical and moral presuppositions. Writing Piece? In a seminal work published in 1953, The Theory of St. John's-Ravenscourt School, Economic Policy in English Classical Political Economy, Lionel Robbins attempted such an analysis. Persuasive Taunton? Dispensing with such traditionalist views as that of Jacob Viner 4 who perceived Adam Smith (at least) as an adherent of a natural law-natural rights philosophy, Robbins contended that the Classical school took its criterion for economic policy from the write an autobiography essay Hall utility principle as adumbrated by David Hume.
Thus, Robbins draws a rather sharp distinction between two traditions within eighteenth and nineteenth century individualist thought. 5 The first tradition, as personified in such figures as Frédéric Bastiat (1801-1850) and Mercier de la Rivière, founded a system of economic freedom upon natural law or natural rights underpinnings which spontaneously generated a milieu in which state intervention would be not only unnecessary but deleterious. Persuasive Piece School? The second individualist tradition, the English Classical school, subscribed to a Utilitarian moral foundation, rejecting all metaphysical ascriptions of natural rights as, in Bentham's pungent phrase, nonsense upon stilts. Thinking Theory Of Brighton? 6 For the English economists, who followed this second tradition, the state, consequently, had a more positive function. They refused to lay down any categorical injunction against state intervention, relying instead upon the principle of utility - the greatest happiness of the greatest number - to test the consequences of each particular proposal for state activism. Robbins's taxonomy of two distinct traditions is undoubtedly perceptive, but it fails in one significant respect.
The Classical economists after Smith held nothing but contempt for either a natural law, deistic conception of the writing universe and man's place in it or for a moral philosophy buttressed by natural rights. Bentham spared none of his vituperative skills in excoriating such doctrines as mere self-serving myth, undefended and indefensible dogma, and his calumnies banished such Lockean encumbrances from the critical thinking Bishop Guertin High arena of respectability. Persuasive Writing Taunton School? But for Adam Smith (1723-1790), Bentham's predecessor, such was not the case. Adam Smith: Naturalism and great writing great paragraphs Saint Anthony’s High School Laissez Faire. Upon careful scrutiny of writing piece, both An Inquiry into thinking of Brighton the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) and The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), Smith emerges as a largely, although not wholly, consistent advocate of naturalism.
7 In his philosophical premises - a belief in a natural, harmonious universe inhabited by men attuned by an innate moral sense to play their part in Taunton School society, and a natural harmony of interests between non-rights violating individuals - Smith adheres to principles which Robbins classified as belonging exclusively to the Continental individualist tradition. However, it is beyond question that when it came to his discussions of permissible governmental activities, Smith became much more pragmatic and seemingly utilitarian. There is a higher purpose to this quibble over the identification of Smith as either a naturalist or a Utilitarian. If one fails to distinguish between Adam Smith as a philosophical naturalist and the subsequent Utilitarianism of his economic successors, then one can only how to write, explain the gradual transition from quasi-laissez faire to persuasive piece School quasi-statism as the result of social forces, the press of events, the blistering attacks of their critics, or some other equally weak or partial explanation. It is how to write Braemar College, only when we pierce below the veil of persuasive Taunton School, their actual policy pronouncements, and examine this awesome shift from naturalism to utilitarianism that we can adequately comprehend the attitude of write, members of the English Classical School towards the state. Adam Smith advocated a truncated state, limited in its functions to persuasive writing piece Taunton School defending its citizens against foreign and internal aggression, and creating and maintaining certain necessary public works and institutions which it can never be in the interest of critical define Guertin, any small number of individuals to maintain because the profit would not repay the expense.
8 Of course, the inclusion of this public works category of School, permissible state intrusions nullifies the claim that Smith was a laissez-faire purist, or a consistent advocate of natural harmony of interests. But its inclusion was a harbinger of things to come, and that is its greatest significance. If the system of natural liberty broke down in certain cases, says Smith, and then we must be pragmatic instrumentalists in applying governmental remedies, why does it not break down in even more cases, inquired Smith's successors? Admittedly, Smith's own departures from noninterventionism were modest ones by contemporary standards - e.g. the state might intervene to provide such public works as roads, bridges, canals, lighthouses; to protect by write an autobiography Moreton, tariffs industries necessary to defense and to retaliate against foreign tariffs; to persuasive writing School grant temporary monopolies to joint-stock companies in unexplored areas; to regulate the banking industry; to prohibit usury; and to provide state funded education to children of the indigent; and to collect taxes - but they set a striking precedent for advocating interventions in theory The University future cases where markets were seen to operate inexpeditiously. Ricardo and Malthus: Interventionism vs. Laissez Faire. For Smith's immediate followers, David Ricardo and Thomas Robert Malthus, the presumption not of market beneficence per se but of state incapacity remained quite strong.
Given Malthusian population theory coupled with Ricardo's wages and rent theories, there was relatively little impetus to extend government's purview. 9 Of course, we would be grossly remiss not to mention Malthus's idiosyncrasies, particularly his rejection of Say's law (i.e., that supply creates its own demand, thus denying any pervasive disequilibrium within a general market). This deviation from the position of the Classical School led Malthus to propose government intervention to correct the persuasive writing piece market during depressions, including the endorsement of government debts and large public works projects for the unemployed. From the impetus of another peculiar Malthusian doctrine, Malthus also broke the otherwise unanimous ranks of the economists in their efforts to repeal the Corn Laws. In contrast, Malthus's population theory which portended an immutable conflict between population growth and the means of subsistence, led him, as it did Ricardo, to vigorously advocate a gradual termination of the Poor Laws. It is in Malthus's introduction to the Principles of Political Economy (1820) that we first hear a refrain that would be repeated by other Classical economists - McCulloch, Sidgwick, Cairnes - that absolute laissez faire was not a doctrine endorsed by Smith and that such a blanket condemnation of all government regulation is nonsensical: It is obviously, therefore, impossible for a government strictly to let things take their natural course; and to recommend such a line of conduct, without limitations and exceptions, would not fail to bring disgrace upon general principles, as totally inapplicable to practice. 10. David Ricardo (1772-1823) presents a curious case of an economist whose pure theories could have driven him to write an essay about a movie College embrace interventionism, but who nevertheless endorsed a fairly abstemious and consistent noninterventionism. Ricardo's theory of writing piece Taunton School, rent and its projection of antagonistic class interests and his prognostication of an eventual stationary state did not lead him to abandon laissez faire.
Why? Perhaps the great writing 3 from paragraphs essays Saint explanation might lie in his understanding of these economic laws as tantamount to natural laws: hence, if government abridged them abysmal consequences would occur. Persuasive Writing Piece? Despite Ricardo's strong ties to an essay a movie Braemar Bentham, there was still a large measure of Taunton School, moralistic individualism and suspicion of government in Ricardo that had seemingly little to 3 from great to great Anthony’s do with his pure economic doctrines. Persuasive Writing Taunton? When it came to the activist campaigns of his day, Ricardo tended to adhere to noninterventionist tenets: he opposed state provision for the poor, favored the repeal of the Corn Laws, theoretically opposed schemes to tax inheritance, prided himself on never voting for critical theory The University of Brighton, an increase in taxes while a member of Parliament, voted for repeal of a whole host of interventionist taxes, opposed all protectionist measures, argued for persuasive piece Taunton School, the resumption of gold after the Napoleonic War, and favored expeditious payment of the persusasive Ellesmere national debt. Ricardo's one momentous aberration was his advocacy of persuasive writing piece Taunton School, a national bank, which finally came to fruition under Robert Peel's ministry in 1844.
Despite this notable exception, Ricardo's adherence to laissez faire was more pronounced than any of essay College, his fellow Classical economists, with the exception of Adam Smith. Bentham: Utilitarian Erosion of Laissez Faire. Jeremy Bentham (1748 -1832), a melioristic social engineer if there ever was one, laid the theoretical groundwork for persuasive piece Taunton School, the enervation of the let alone principle. Critical Thinking Theory The University? Colin Holmes may even understate the case when he writes: It is difficult to maintain that Bentham expounded a negative view of the persuasive piece School state's functions, for according to his principle of utility the laws and institutions of government are to be judged and justified merely by their usefulness. 11. Bentham's explicitly avowed allegiance to Smithian economics was not destined to influence posterity. Quite the persusasive essay College contrary, the legacy Benthamism would leave to posterity was inspired not by the individualist strands in Bentham's writings, but rather by his collectivist tenets. Bentham, while certainly not the earliest expositor of the utility principle, was undoubtedly its most zealous.
If every proposal for governmental activism must be evaluated on its merits according to persuasive piece School the utilitarian felicific calculus, then it is only a matter of time before the laissez-faire principle is rendered nugatory in the wake of one enervating, rear-guard battle after another. Essay Moreton Hall? But we do not need to speculate on mere potentialities for erosion, for Bentham was diligent enough to provide an writing piece extensive catalog of what he termed agenda for government. By the how to Hall time Bentham was finished enumerating various agenda, his be quiet dictum for government lay mortally wounded. The following passage offers a compendium of permissible interference which Bentham endorsed in various of his writings: . . Persuasive Piece Taunton School? . to establish Poor Laws, hospitals for the indigent, workhouses for the unemployed; to levy taxes for redistribution purposes and to decrease the need for direct taxes; to recompense victims of persusasive Ellesmere, crime when the perpetrator is piece School, indigent; to safeguard national security and establish courts and internal police; to disseminate useful information to industry; to label poisonous substances; to guarantee marks for quality and quantity on goods; to set a maximum price for corn; to provide security of subsistence by stock-piling grain or granary bounties to producers; to encourage investment in times of unemployment; to grant patents to inventors; to regulate banks and stockbrokers; to promote government annuities and a voluntary government insurance plan; to establish government banks; to establish and how to write about College enforce a government monopoly on the issuance of paper currency; to engage in public works to put the unemployed to work; and, finally, to establish institutes, boards, and universities. 12. A prodigious list, indeed, and one that underscores the interventionist proclivities of a liberalism founded upon Utilitarian principle as opposed to a natural rights based liberalism. Most assuredly, Bentham in his philosophical, economic, and political writings incessantly urged state activism, but to characterize Bentham himself as a collectivist would be a gross oversimplification. Cohabiting in unholy alliance with his centralizing, social happiness maximizing tendencies was a core of individualism, of persuasive Taunton, insistence that each person must count for one in great writing 3 from paragraphs essays Anthony’s High the social calculus, that governmental remedies require a special justification, and that one must guard one's liberty against an overweaning and persuasive piece Taunton School often corrupt state. Whatever tendency Bentham had towards invoking governmental solutions was held at bay by these individualistic precepts and by his admiration for Smithian economics.
13. Mill and Utilitarian Collectivism. It was left to Bentham's brilliant, rebellious, and eventually reluctant disciple, John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) to extrude the collectivistic tendencies in Benthamism and drive the principle of utility to its statist denouement. Driven to despair and a mental breakdown in his early twenties by the rigors of his father's aridly rationalistic, Benthamite regimen of education, Mill searched for new meaning for his life. This search led him to Coleridge, Carlyle, Comte, and essay College even the socialist St. Simonians.
The younger Mill's flirtations with socialism began as early as 1830. This attraction to Continental radicalism preceded his scandalous association with the persuasive Taunton School humanitarian, Harriet Taylor. Perhaps Joseph Schumpeter's appraisal of Mill is a bit overstated, but it does capture much of the moral conviction which animated Mill's intellectual life: Though repeatedly changing his position in details, he was from about his middle twenties on an evolutionary socialist of associationist complexion. 14. Mill's Principles of Political Economy published in 1848 became the leading text on economics for a generation, thereby salvaging Ricardian economics and introducing young economists to an increasingly (as new editions emerged) sympathetic examination of Continental socialist creeds. For anyone familiar with the debates of the 1820s over the scope and method of political economy, the Principles must have appeared anomalous. Both Nassau Senior and School J. S. Mill had drawn a seemingly impenetrable barrier between the pure science of economics and persuasive writing piece School the art of how to College, policy prescriptions.
Economists, they had argued, could not, as scientists, give advice to persuasive School statesmen. Curiously, Mill's Principles repaired to a Smithian conception of political economy in which the instructive powers of the an essay a movie Braemar discipline were, if not paramount, then of considerable importance. Apparently, Mill's motive for abandoning his art-science distinction was to present a political economy as encompassing as Smith's but bereft of his predecessor's natural law affinity and laissez-faire strictures. Mill's Interventionism: The Split Between Production and Distribution. One weapon that Mill employed to advance the second objective was a distinction between the laws of production, which were held to be immutable, and persuasive writing Taunton School the laws of production, which could be manipulated at the discretion of write an essay Braemar College, legislators. As Mill declared in his Autobiography (1873), the purpose behind this distinction was to underscore the flexibility of distributing wealth.
Social arrangements regarding distribution, rather than being immutable, as previous economists implied, ought to succumb to redistributive schemes, particularly those concerning private property. It is not surprising, then, that Mill's agenda for government, under the aegis of the persuasive piece School general expediency (utility) principle, exceeded in both magnitude and intrusiveness that of his predecessors. Not only did he endorse land nationalization, aid for the unemployed, the curtailment of inheritance, the granting of a right to relief, the enforcement of legal restraints against Bishop High those among the poor who procreated, compulsory education, regulation of child labor, government housing schemes, but also the regulation or, if necessary, the nationalization of persuasive writing Taunton, monopolistic or large scale industries. While laissez faire remained a principle to which Mill nodded respectfully, after the enumeration of his list of exceptions, virtually nothing is left of that once mighty barricade against the intrusive state. But Mill's fleeting acknowledgment of essay Hall, noninterventionism was even further negated by his sympathetic evaluation of the socialists, St.
Simon, Fourier, and Robert Owen. While Mill's views on the particular details of socialistic schemes underwent various modifications through the years, 15 a persistent refrain can be heard throughout - that a property based free market system is transitory, and that in all likelihood human progress will result in some form of socialism. Taunton? The seductive appeal for Mill of equality, fraternity, and communalism certainly held little charm for his predecessors. In fact, if men like Malthus, Ricardo, or Senior mentioned socialism at all, it was to cast aspersions upon it. In all fairness, one ought to add a caveat: Mill was never a rabid collectivist, perhaps because he was too much of an intellectual elitist and individualist to trust the writing School sovereignty of the masses, and particularly the stifling conformity of public opinion. Cairnes and Sidgwick: The Split between Laissez Faire and piece Taunton School Economic Science. Two disciples of John Stuart Mill, Henry Sidgwick (1838-1900) and J.E. Cairnes (1823-1875), completed in the 1870s and 1880s the Classical School's evolution toward constructing an impenetrable theoretical barrier between their economic science and persusasive College laissez faire. In 1870, Cairnes delivered a revealing essay at University College, entitled Political Economy and persuasive writing piece Laissez-Faire, in which he categorically denied that economics as a science had anything to do with laissez faire. Contending that the maxim had no scientific basis whatever, he dismissed laissez faire as a mere handy rule of practice, useful, perhaps, as a reminder to statesmen on which side the presumption lies in critical define Guertin questions of industrial legislation, but totally destitute of all scientific authority.
16 Cairnes also leveled a frontal assault upon the Smithian notion of harmony of interests and the invisible hand process which led individuals in persuasive piece School pursuit of their self-interest to act in ways that prove beneficial to society. Society did not spontaneously organize itself, thought Cairnes, to promote the social good. He maintained that, despite the an autobiography essay Hall School steady progression of laissez faire in the preceding fifty years, substantial social amelioration had not occurred. Ejected from the pantheon of persuasive, scientific principle, laissez faire was demoted to a feeble reminder to how to write an essay about a movie Braemar College legislators to move circumspectly in pursuit of social improvement. In a similar vein, Sidgwick promulgated a principle to replace the persuasive writing Taunton School disgraced laissez-faire dogma: To sum up: the general presumption derived from persusasive Ellesmere College, abstract economic reasoning is not in favor of leaving industry altogether to private enterprise, in any community that can usefully be taken as an piece ideal for how to a movie College, the guidance of practical statesmanship; but is on writing piece Taunton, the contrary in favour of supplementing and controlling such enterprise in various ways by the collective action of the community. 17.
Mill and his successor, Henry Sidgwick, when bombarded with socialistic arguments condemning the distributive effects of the how to write an essay free market as inequitable, challenging the private ownership of land as usurpation, and denouncing the capitalists' claim to profit as theft, conceded the distributive justice issue to Taunton the socialists. Here we see, most clearly, the effects of Bentham's jettisoning of natural rights moral theory with its theory of commutative rather than distributive justice. The principle of utility proved an unstable buttress for the laissez faire doctrine, as succeeding economists became less enamored of invisible hand explanations and more hospitable towards governmentally promulgated reforms. If each proposed intrusion into the market must be judged upon a cost benefit, greatest happiness maximizing standard, with all the problems of measuring interpersonal comparisons of utility and unknown or unquantifiable costs that such a standard implies, governmental remedies are likely to be given a sympathetic hearing by economists. No longer would inflexible barriers, rigid principles, and doctrinaire injunctions stand between the economist and his enlightened social conscience. The weight of authority, both from original and critical sources, leads ineluctably to the conclusion that as the Classical School evolved - as Bentham succeeded Smith, and Mill followed Bentham - the connection between economics as a science and critical theory of Brighton laissez faire as a policy became ever more tenuous.
Even Adam Smith, the piece Taunton grand mentor of the School, evinced pronounced and precedent setting departures from dogmatic laissez faire. The Manchester School and Free Trade: Richard Cobden and John Bright. If the how to write an autobiography essay Moreton Hall School Classical School cannot be viewed as the great bastion and repository of noninterventionism in writing Taunton nineteenth century Britain, were there other forces who did argue for a purist laissez-faire doctrine? Indeed, there were. Theorists of the Manchester School, led by Richard Cobden (1804-1865) and John Bright (1811-1889), who worked tirelessly for the repeal of the Corn Laws, would be one frequently cited example. Essay Formats St. John's-Ravenscourt? Their status, however, as a group predominantly motivated by laissez faire has been questioned by the revisionists who view them, rather, as proponents of free trade as the fundamental principle. Cobden's support of the factory acts would appear as an persuasive School aberration if one viewed the Manchester School as fundamentally noninterventionist, and as further evidence if one held to the revisionist line. 18. Pure Laissez Faire: Martineau, the Journals, and Political Economy.
It was the popularizers of essay St. John's-Ravenscourt, political economy, such as Harriet Martineau and Jane Marcet, who dispensed laissez-faire nostrums in their purest form, although in the case of Martineau her general hostility towards the state did not extend to a denunciation of state provision of education. Other purist sources were the piece non-conformist journals and newspapers, particularly the Economist during the years 1843-1854 under the editorship of James Wilson and essay writing St. John's-Ravenscourt the Leeds Mercury of Edward Bain. It was the Economist which nurtured the persuasive writing piece budding antistatist, evolutionist, Herbert Spencer. 19 In such journals, one could find consistent and Bishop High School principled arguments that condemned such statist proposals as the sanitary laws, compulsory vaccinations, and state grants to schools. In the popular mind of the time there certainly was an association between the political economists and the laissez-faire injunction against state interference. While the Classical School undeniably did pay homage to that maxim, the encomiums became less frequent and more qualified as the century unfolded. Finally, in the hands of John Stuart Mill and persuasive Taunton School his successors little was left of noninterventionism but a hollow shell.
II. The Age of Laissez Faire and Benthamism. Dicey vs. the Revisionists on the Reality of essay writing formats School, Nineteenth-Century British Laissez Faire and the Significance of persuasive writing Taunton, Benthamism. A. V. Dicey's classic study published in 1905, Lectures on the Relation Between Law and how to write an autobiography Moreton School Public Opinion in persuasive piece Taunton England During the Nineteenth Century, 19a serves as the focal point for a reappraisal of the extent of laissez faire in British politics of the period and the causes which led to its decline and fall. Beginning with a somewhat injudicious article by J. Bartlet Brebner, Laissez Faire and State Intervention in Nineteenth Century Britain, which appeared in the Journal of Economic History in 1948, a body of revisionist historiography emerged which challenged the fundamental assumptions of Dicey's thesis: that Britain in the years 1825 to 1875 enjoyed a respite from interventionism and realized the College apotheosis of individualism; and that Benthamism was the primary force inspiring this liberalization. With Brebner's typically hyperbolic pronouncement the issues were joined: Conceivably, British laissez-faire was a political and economic myth in the sense formulated by George Sorel half a century ago, that is, a slogan or war cry employed by new forces of enterprise in their political-economical war against the landed oligarchy. This seems the more likely when one discovers from persuasive piece Taunton School, their writings that Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, who have been commonly represented as typical, almost fundamental formulators of laissez-faire, were in essays Anthony’s fact the exact opposite, that is the formulators of state intervention for collectivist ends . In using Bentham as the archetype of British individualism he [Dicey] was conveying the exact opposite of the truth - Jeremy Bentham was the archetype of persuasive Taunton School, British collectivism. 20. The subsequent controversy has focused upon the extent to which laissez faire prevailed in the political arena and - if it did prevail - during which part of the century; and whether Bentham and his followers influenced the persusasive course of writing piece Taunton School, events in an individualist or collectivist direction. The weight of opinion seems to fall on the side contesting against an age of laissez faire, while the an essay a movie College contending forces seem to be arrayed about equally on writing piece Taunton School, the question of the influence of Benthamism upon the political landscape.
There is, however, near universal agreement that, at least in theory, Benthamism had a strongly collectivist tinge, as evidenced by the Utilitarian philosopher's penchant for reform schemes necessitating the creation of new administrative bodies with centralized inspectors empowered to oversee compliance. Essay Moreton Hall School? Numerous examples of this proclivity are enshrined in Bentham's Constitutional Code. Dicey's Thesis: Benthamism's Role in Laissez Faire. If the contemporary debate is to be understood, we must first repair to Dicey's Law and Opinion. Dicey divided nineteenth century England into three somewhat overlapping periods: (1) 1800 to 1830 marked an epoch characterized as Old Toryism and legislative quietism; (2) 1825 to 1870 saw an England dominated by Taunton School, Benthamism or Individualism; (3) while 1865 to 1900 signalled the ascendancy of critical thinking Bishop High School, collectivism. 21 Dicey's characterization of the middle two quarters of the century as the apogee of laissez faire generated our contemporary controversy as did his assessment of both the nature and writing piece influence of Benthamism upon that alleged era of noninterventionism. Upon Dicey's analysis, laissez faire emerges as in practice the most potent and vital principle of Benthamite reform.
22 Bentham's principle that the individual is the best judge of his own happiness cast a legislative shadow aimed at the removal of encumbering restrictions. But Dicey implicitly acknowledged the malleability of the utility principle when he wrote: This dogma of laissez-faire is how to write, not from a logical point of view an essential article of the Utilitarian creed - But though laissez-faire is not an persuasive writing piece essential part of persusasive essay Ellesmere, Utilitarianism it was practically the most vital part of piece School, Bentham's legislative doctrine, and in define Bishop Guertin High School England gave to the movement for reform of the law, both its power and its character. 23. In order to preserve this specter of piece Taunton School, Benthamite individualism, Dicey performed some fancy footwork, for example, describing the of Brighton passage of the factory acts (particularly the Ten Hour Act of 1847) as a defeat for the Benthamites that set a precedent for socialistic enactments that would nurture future collectivism.
While the latter judgment seems judicious, it is difficult to maintain that such legislation was a defeat for the Benthamites, considering the number of them who were influential figures on Taunton School, the Royal commissions and write an essay who tirelessly campaigned for factory legislation. In chronicling Britain's slide into piece Taunton School legislative collectivism in the latter third of the nineteenth century, Dicey displayed a more measured appraisal of the effects of Benthamism upon the creation of Britain's administrative state. The principle of utility, the thrust for thinking define Bishop Guertin High, parliamentary sovereignty, and the extension and improvement of the mechanism of government, Dicey views as the enduring legacy of Utilitarianism which undermined (and he thinks this occurred unconsciously) the dominant individualism of the Benthamite creed. In 1830 the despotic or authoritarian element latent in utilitarianism was not noted by the statesman of any party. The reformers of the day placed, for the most part implicitly, faith in the dogma of laissez-faire, and failed to persuasive Taunton School perceive that there is in thinking define High School truth no necessary logical connection between it and the greatest happiness principle which may with equal sincerity be adopted by either believers in writing piece School individual freedom, or by the advocates of paternal government . The Liberals then of 1830 were themselves zealots for individual freedom, but they entertained beliefs which, though the men who held them knew it not, might well under altered social conditions, foster the despotic authority of a democratic State. . . . Somewhere between 1868 and 1900 three changes took place which brought into prominence the authoritative side of Benthamite liberalism. Faith in persusasive laissez-faire suffered an eclipse; hence the principle of utility became an argument in favour, not of individual freedom, but of the absolutism of the State. Parliament under the progress of democracy became the representative, not of the middle classes, but of the whole body of persuasive Taunton, householders; parliamentary sovereignty, therefore, came to mean, in the last resort, the unrestricted power of the wage-earners.
English administrative mechanism was reformed and strengthened. The machinery was thus provided for the practical extension of the activity of the State. . Thinking The University? . . Benthamites it was then seen, had forged the persuasive writing Taunton School arms most needed by socialists. 24. However unwittingly, the Benthamites forged the tools of socialism by 3 from paragraphs, creating an efficient administrative state in place of the persuasive School corrupt, medieval, nepotistic one which they decried. 25. Dicey's analysis of the impact of Benthamism is more sophisticated than some of The University, his critics recognize. He does not absolve Benthamism of blame for piece School, the collectivism that ensued, but he steadfastly refuses to recognize that they consciously contributed to it. The unceasing efforts of Bentham's disciples in launching a propaganda barrage that altered the climate of opinion and won legislative approval for a large measure of the social engineering legislation of the 1840s escaped Dicey's scrutiny. Brebner's and the Revisionists' Critique of Dicey. The revisionist assault upon Dicey, initiated by J. Bartlet Brebner, focused upon two features of Dicey's analysis: (1) that there was, indeed, an age of great writing 3 from great paragraphs Saint Anthony’s High, laissez faire in piece nineteenth-century England, and (2) that Benthamism was an essential ingredient in fostering the climate of individualism that characterized the period.
Although these two issues are intimately intertwined in write about a movie Braemar the revisionist literature, and also in the counter-revisionist work which that literature inevitably triggered, it will prove expeditious to examine the two arguments separately, as the commentators tended to diverge on the two as the debate wore on. A. Was There an Age of piece Taunton School, Laissez Faire? Brebner's Critique of the Myth of Laissez Faire. Brebner categorically denied such an era, branding it as a fallacious myth. The supposed perpetrators of a laissez-faire ideology, Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, in critical Bishop Brebner's eyes, turn out to be the very opposite: apostles of state interventionism for writing piece Taunton, collectivist ends. College? And while the state did remove its regulations from commerce in the early part of the century it simultaneously extended them to industry. Almost year by year a parallel development of laissez faire and state intervention can be documented, as competing political interests vied for power. 26 Occasionally one interest triumphed, but usually the battle terminated in an uneasy compromise. To Brebner, the engine of change in persuasive writing piece School the nineteenth century was neither laissez faire nor state interventionism, but rather the basic forces of industrialization. Yet, there was from 1832 on, that is, from the year of the how to an essay a movie Braemar College first Reform Act, a snowball effect of one intervention leading to the next. In the large, power passed from the writing piece School land to other forms of wealth and persusasive Ellesmere College from them to the people, but as it did so, and as the three politico-economical elements moved in and out of the writing Taunton School possible combinations of two against one, there was an astonishingly consistent inclination to resort to the Benthamite formula for state intervention.
27. Brebner's sympathizers, the most important of whom include Oliver MacDonagh, David Roberts, H. College? Scott Gordon, William B. Writing Piece School? Anydelotte, W. L. Burn, and Colin Holmes, 28 have succeeded in writing 3 from to great essays School amassing powerful and persuasive documentation of a pervasive interventionism by persuasive piece Taunton, the British government during Dicey's putative era of laissez faire. Their arguments, and the somewhat more feeble attempts at refutation by their adversaries, deserve a detailed examination. MacDonagh and critical define High the Interventionist Governmental Revolution In his influential article, The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Government: A Reappraisal, Oliver MacDonagh attempted to extrapolate from his earlier work on the emigration administration a model that would explain the genesis of what he conceived to be a governmental revolution in Britain during the middle portion of the nineteenth century. There were, he argues, powerful forces that contributed to this transformation in the functions of government, a transformation that definitively put to rest any belief that individualist forces could be left free to take their own, unregulated course. Conspicuous among these forces were the piece Taunton social problems generated by steam powered industrialization, the writing vast increase in the concentration and mobility of the population, the widespread influence of persuasive piece, humanitarian sentiments, an increasing sensitivity of political institutions to the pressure of public opinion which generated a prodigious growth in Parliamentary investigative organs and legislation, and, finally, the possibility of solutions to social problems generated by technological developments in mass production and rapid transportation. MacDonagh argues that it was these coterminous forces that created a partial collectivism upon which the how to write an essay a movie government could build in the last quarter of the century. Once one understands both the mechanism at work in the earlier period and the momentum it generated, Britain's very general collapse of political individualism becomes comprehensible. The model MacDonagh offers for explaining this phenomenon of the growth of Britain's administrative state is compelling; although critics have found fault with its detail, they have by and large displayed little desire to dispute its perception of a profound administrative revolution. According to MacDonagh's model, the first stage in the process was usually triggered by the exposure of some outrageous social evil (e.g. Persuasive School? child labor, accidents in the mines, rampant disease in the cities) followed irresistibly by demands for a remedy:
No wall of either doctrine or interest could permanently withstand that single cry ('intolerable'), all the more so as governments grew more responsive to public sentiment, and public sentiment ever more humane. The demand for remedies was also, in the contemporary context, a demand for prohibitory enactments. Men's instinctive reaction was to legislate the evil out of existence. Writing Great Paragraphs To Great Saint Anthony’s High School? 29. Naturally, resistance was encountered from the persuasive writing endangered interests, but the usual result was not inaction; rather, a weak compromise was reached establishing a precedent for future, more comprehensive regulationism.
In MacDonagh's second stage, new revelations were publicized, indicating that the original evils remained untouched by the earlier legislation which lacked an enforcement mechanism and, thus, left compliance in the hands of local officials. These discoveries led to the third stage, the appointment of central administrators who gradually gained expertise in their fields and became a vocal force for agitating additional legislation and greater centralization. The fourth stage in the growth of the administrative state was characterized by a new sophistication on the part of these centralized bureaucrats who began to view their mission as a protracted one. Define Guertin High? They substituted a dynamic for a static concept of administration, wherein they would play a leading role in closing loopholes and tightening the screws. Finally, in the ultimate stage, these bureaucrats became enamored of the idea of scientific expertise and adopted a more or less conscious Fabianism.
This process of persuasive writing piece, administrative centralism helps to explain how collectivism spread like a contagion out of sight during the century. Roberts's Attribution of the Rise of the Administrative State to Ad Hoc Responses to Industrialism. In his fascinating study, Victorian Origins of the British Welfare State, David Roberts advances a view of the genesis and motivations behind Britain's erection of the welfare state. Roberts's analysis is compatible with MacDonagh's contention that this statist development was largely unintended. In remedying perceived social evils, but not primarily economic evils, the Victorians laid the foundation for Britain's administrative, centralized, bureaucratic state. And they did so not out of critical thinking define Bishop, any overarching ideological imperative, but rather from an ad hoc pragmatism which Roberts characterizes as presumptuous empiricism. That the mid-Victorians were an piece Taunton activist breed cannot be denied once we consider Roberts's prodigious list 30 of essay writing St. John's-Ravenscourt, new central administrations and commissions established during the period 1833 to 1854: I. Permanent Departments for General Administration A. Independent Commissions 1. Poor Law Commission (1834) 2. Ecclesiastical Commission (1836) 3. Writing Piece School? Lunacy Commission (1842) 4. Charity Commission (1854) 5. Registrar of Births, Deaths, and Marriages (1836) B. Home Office Inspectorates 1. Factory inspectors (1833) 2. Prison inspectors (1835; after 1854 they also inspected reformatories) 3. Anatomy inspectors (1839) 4. Mining inspectors (1842 and 1850) 5. Burial inspectors (1854) 6. Constabulary inspectors (1856) C. Colonial Office Colonial Land and Emigration Commission (1839) D. Privy Council Departments 1. Committee on Education (1839) 2. Board of Trade a. Merchant Marine Department (1850) b. Department of write Moreton, Arts and Sciences (1852) c. Railway Board (1839) d. Commissioners of Patent and Invention (1850) e. School? Office of Registrar of Joint-Stock Companies (1833) f. Design of Registry Office (1839) II. Permanent Departments for the Metropolis A. Home Office: Metropolitan Police 1. Critical Thinking Theory The University? Inspectors of common lodging houses (1853) 2. Inspectors of persuasive writing, noxious trade (1854) B. Office of Woods and Forests and Public Works: expanded powers over Thames embankments, parks, and numerous streets C. Board of Trade 1. Inspectors of London water sources (1852) 2. Commissioners to regulate London's coal whippers (1843) D. Metropolitan Sewers Commission (1847) E. Metropolitan Building Commission (1844) III.
Temporary Commissions A. Essay? Administrative 1. Oxford University commissioners (1854-58) 2. Commissioners of Tithes, Enclosures, and Copyhold (1836, Tithes; 1841, Copyhold; 1845, Inclosure; 1851, consolidated) B. Commissioners of Inquiry into: 1. Statute law 2. Cambridge University 3. Fine arts 4. Newcastle cholera 5. London Corporation 6. Charitable donations 7. Three election disputes 8. Mercantile law 9. Registration and writing piece conveyance 10. County courts. Roberts repeats a refrain that runs through the literature - that Each reform was passed to Ellesmere College meet an persuasive writing observed fact, not to essay formats School accord with principle, and that the transforming event was not a party platform or political philosophy, but rather the phenomenon of the industrial revolution itself. Roberts's arguments epitomize a strand of historiography which denigrates the role of ideas and individuals while attributing change to seemingly independent forces. And so the industrial revolution, with its large factories, mines, railways, steamships, and writing piece Taunton School crowded cities, led to the concentration of essay writing formats St. John's-Ravenscourt School, abuses and their increased visibility, and these abuses generated governmental restrictions. Other equally dehumanized forces operated in a parallel direction, for example, the advance of science, the rapid increase of wealth, a deep humanitarianism, and a growing belief in progress. In Roberts's analysis, these disembodied forces account for England's transformation from among the persuasive writing School least interventionist governments in Europe in 1833, into one of critical thinking theory The University of Brighton, those most involved in securing the wellbeing of its citizens by 1854. Thus, Britain succeeded, inadvertently, in creating an administrative state which she didn't want. Although Roberts evidently overstates his case for mechanism over human agency as an explanatory tool of historical change, he is undoubtedly on persuasive writing Taunton School, firmer ground in his appraisal of the ideological inconsistency of the leading forces in British politics of the great writing paragraphs Anthony’s High day.
While both the Conservatives and the Whigs had traditions of opposition to piece Taunton School centralism, they both contributed to the creation of the administrative, interventionist state. Only one faction favored a strong, benevolent government, in Roberts's account, and that was the utilitarians, while the Tory Evangelicals, such as Lord Ashley (Earl of Shaftesbury), were also committed to reform, they did not operate from any consistent principle. Given his mechanistic viewpoint, however, Roberts remains reluctant to cede to critical thinking theory of Brighton either of these active minorities any conspicuous or controlling role in building the collectivist state. Gordon's Distinction between Laissez Faire and Free Trade. The same general theme was sounded by H. Scott Gordon in persuasive his essay, The Ideology of Laissez-Faire, but with a slightly different twist. Gordon denigrates the notion that the Anti-Corn Law crusade was the result of a principled laissez-faire position, citing the Guertin High School absence from the voluminous Parliamentary debate of a single mention of the School term laissez faire, and Sir Robert Peel's declaration that there were no more than half a dozen MPs who believed in applying that maxim to economic questions generally. What Gordon does perceive, instead, was a vigorous free trade ideology: A widespread development of free trade ideology developed in mid-nineteenth-century England, but a similar laissez-faire ideology did not.
31 Thus, a substantial fault in how to write about Braemar historiography accounts for the fallacious identification of laissez faire and free trade. Once this apparent high tide of laissez faire in the successful effort to rescind the Corn Laws has been disposed of, Gordon's case for an ad hoc piecemeal growth of the administrative state concludes on (by now) familiar grounds. 32. Burn's Age of Equipoise: Localism vs. Centralization.
Perhaps the most equivocal position of the revisionists was enunciated by persuasive piece School, W. L. Burn in his study of mid-Victorian England, The Age of Equipoise. He characterizes the years between 1852 and formats St. John's-Ravenscourt School 1867 as a particularly confused period. 33 It becomes more and persuasive Taunton School more apparent that any hard-and-fast distinction between Individualism and Collectivism is not merely useless but harmful. The most that can be said is that public opinion had a bias toward Individualism. 34 What seems most pronounced to Burn, as to an essay the other revisionists, is the persuasive writing piece School piecemeal and how to write an autobiography essay Moreton Hall School theoretical approach to solving social problems as they jostled the public conscience. Rather than attempting to writing School investigate the critical thinking The University of Brighton period along the lines of a conflict between individualism versus collectivism, he perceives a bifurcation as between the forces of centralization and localism. Before completing the revisionist case, we would be woefully remiss not to mention some of the key pieces of intrusive legislation that were passed in the period and repeatedly cited to buttress the revisionist case. This anti-laissez-faire legislation included: the Poor Law Reform Act of 1834 which established central inspectors (as did the Prison Act of 1835); the various Educational Acts from the persuasive writing piece 1830s on, which eventually culminated in 1880 in compulsory education at state expense; the an autobiography Moreton Hall prohibition of women, apprentices, and children under thirteen working in the coal mines in 1841 (and other acts extensively regulating the mines); the various Factory Acts which from 1833 on limited the hours of Taunton School, work for thinking theory, women and children; the persuasive writing inspection of asylums; the extensive regulation of railroads; the creation of the Metropolitan Building Act empowering the Board of Works to thinking define Bishop High School set building specifications (all this in the 1840s inspired by the Tory Paternalists); the Public Health Act of 1848; the Mining Inspection Act; Merchant Shipping Act; and persuasive writing Burial Ground Act of 1850; and other acts of the 1850s designed to write about a movie Braemar regulate London's common lodging houses, to suppress smoke in writing Taunton School London, to regulate lighthouses, to College aid juvenile reformatories, to establish a permanent charity commission, to regulate the merchant marine, and to create a department of science and piece Taunton School art in order to promote new technology. The list could go on, and every authority who makes such a compendium adduces somewhat different examples; there are certainly an abundance to choose from.
The Counter-Revisionists' Case for an Age of Laissez Faire Taylor's Case for an Era of Relative Laissez Faire. Given this overwhelming evidence testifying to the energy and inventiveness of Victorian legislators it is no wonder that the writing 3 from great paragraphs to great Anthony’s counter-revisionists - i.e., those who contend that there was, indeed, an age of laissez faire - advance a somewhat hesitant and qualified case. Arthur Taylor's Laissez-Faire and State Interventions in Nineteenth-Century Britain, is typical of this genre. For Taylor, laissez faire set the terms of debate in mid-century, and it acted as a brake against piece School more extreme interventionism, forcing compromises rather than simply vanquishing statism.
An example of this activity would be the an autobiography Hall School Factory Acts in which laissez faire set limits to the scope of reform; that is, while men like Senior and McCulloch supported the Act of 1833 to regulate the working hours of Taunton, women and children, they balked at the more intrusive Ten Hour campaign of 1846. Taylor concedes that the noninterference principle was quite often honored more in the breach than in the observance: Yet while the claims of the non-interference principle could never be wholly excluded from ministerial calculation, decisions on writing great paragraphs to great essays Anthony’s, policy often took an interventionist course. Even when the invalidity of non-interference was conceded in principle, expediency demanded and secured policies which breached both the letter and writing piece the spirit of laissez-faire. 35. How, then, does Taylor resolve the question of a supposed age of laissez faire? Curiously, he concludes that, in write about a movie essence, such an age lies in persuasive Taunton the eyes of the beholder.
Laissez faire certainly cannot be viewed as the keystone of the arch, yet its effects were important. Critical Bishop School? In fact, when we focus upon the economic realm an age of laissez faire seems justifiable. But even here, the evidence is not conclusive in the areas of banking, patents, bankruptcy, weights and writing piece School measures, and essay formats St. John's-Ravenscourt School joint-stock companies. Piece Taunton School? However, on the larger economic issues - free trade, internal economy of industry, and frugality in government - Taylor sees ample warrant for a verdict of 3 from great paragraphs essays High School, pronounced laissez faire. Taylor examines government expenditures between 1820 and 1870 and accounts for writing piece Taunton School, the relatively trivial increase (57.5 million pounds to 69 million pounds) as evidence of critical thinking Bishop Guertin High School, a fiscal policy of frugality and balanced budgets inspired by laissez faire. While government expenditures increased tenfold between 1900 and persuasive Taunton School 1938 they increased at an infinitesimal rate in the nineteenth century; in fact, government expenditures as a percentage of gross national product fell from 11% in 1792 to 8.9% in School 1890. Taylor concludes that the attempt to regulate the economy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (and, indeed, in the twentieth) is as evident as the deliberate abstention from such endeavors in persuasive writing piece Taunton School the nineteenth.
Set beside the experiences and policies of an The University earlier and later age and writing piece Taunton School related to the principles and practices followed by her European contemporaries, nineteenth century England may be said to have come closer to experiencing an age of laissez-faire than any other society in essay Moreton Hall the last five hundred years of world history. Thus, though laissez-faire was on more than one occasion honored in the breach in persuasive writing piece Britain itself and still more clearly subverted in the economic policies applied to Bishop Ireland and India, it was until at least 1870, and piece Taunton arguably for writing formats, a further twenty-five years beyond that, the strongest impulse influencing the shape and character of persuasive Taunton, governmental economic policy. 36. Given the extent of interventionism that can only persusasive Ellesmere College, be denominated economic- the factory acts, railroad and mining regulation, banking, etc. School? - one must remain somewhat skeptical of Taylor's rather exaggerated conclusion as indeed Taylor himself is in some of his more equivocal pronouncements. Crouch on Refined Laissez Faire and Enlightened Interventionism Undoubtedly, the most inventive of the 3 from paragraphs to great essays Saint counter-revisionists is R. L. Crouch. His Laissez-Faire in Nineteenth-Century Britain: Myth or Reality? went to tortuous lengths in redefining laissez faire, thereby emasculating it to such an extent that it is barely recognizable, all in order to resurrect an age of laissez-faire. Crouch attempts to convince us that what Roberts and Brebner take as evidence of incipient welfarism was, rather, quite consistent with a refined laissez faire position of the classical economists.
The classical economists, in Crouch's account, embodied this refined laissez-faire position, not the anarchy plus the constable caricature castigated by Carlyle. Government functions under such a refined view of government's role include: (1) to establish and enforce the law and arbitrate disputes, (2) to combat monopoly and promote competition, (3) to persuasive writing piece School make allowances for the existence of externalities (for example, Adam Smith's views on public works, patents, and monopolies), (4) to exercise unavoidable paternalism (as in the case of children), (5) to provide a stable monetary framework, and (6) to protect the define Bishop School indigent. Having redefined the concept of laissez faire to include whatever the Classical economists had to say about government's legitimate powers, Crouch, to no one's great surprise, finds nineteenth-century legislative enactments in conformity with his redefinition. Persuasive Piece? But as we discovered earlier, the Classical School was far from a repository of a consistent noninterventionism. Critical Thinking Theory The University? A few examples ought to suffice to illustrate how far Crouch stretched the concept of laissez faire on his procrustean bed in persuasive piece order to make it fit British regulationism. Thinking Theory The University Of Brighton? Now, the persuasive Factory Act of 1833, the Chimney Sweep Act of 1840, the Miners' Act of 1842, and the Ten Hour acts of 1847 - 48 are pictured as measures designed to combat firm - individual external diseconomies, or alternatively as acts of unavoidable paternalism.
Dicey, according to Crouch, was simply wrong in critical of Brighton denouncing state involvement in writing Taunton School education or the imposition of minimum safety and sanitary standards as inconsistent with laissez faire and the harbingers of collectivism. Rather, they were the quite natural results of paragraphs to great essays High, a refined laissez faire position which requires a substantial amount of enlightened interventionism. Crouch fervently denies that his refined principle could justify every policy of modern welfarism. Piece School? Such salient features of the welfare state as nationalization, import controls, public housing, price controls, minimum wage legislation, and critical theory of Brighton agricultural support programs would remain unjustifiable. Colin Holmes, in his assault upon the counter-revisionists, unveils Crouch's semantic sleight-of hand: In seeking to persuasive writing piece Taunton reconcile classical economics with the laissez-faire position Crouch begs the St. John's-Ravenscourt question, on the grandest scale possible, by offering a compromise redefinition of laissez-faire that is so wide as to be devoid of useful meaning.
Acts of government intervention that are justifiable in terms of the resulting external economies include nationalization of key industries and persuasive writing piece state provision of great writing great Anthony’s High, welfare schemes. Piece School? Therefore, Crouch's redefined version would accommodate most mixed economies and welfare states of the late twentieth century; in how to write School this way the last 150 years could be described as an age of laissez-faire. 37. Holmes obviously has the better of the arguments here because Crouch's redefined laissez faire could quite easily embrace the welfare state measures which he declares beyond its pale with little more ingenuity required than he employed in justifying the factory acts. Holmes fired one more salvo against the counter-revisionists when he refuted Taylor's claim that a low rate of increase in persuasive writing piece Taunton governmental expenditures during the nineteenth century reflects a prevailing opinion against interventionism. If one compares the decade of the 1820s with that of the 1870s, the St. John's-Ravenscourt School categories of civil and persuasive educational expenditures have jumped from 1% of the national budget to 20.4%. The Final Judgment on Britain's Age of Laissez Faire How might we appraise this heated controversy over an age of laissez faire? The record of interventionist legislation is critical thinking theory of Brighton, prodigious, but we ought not to persuasive School dismiss too lightly the legislative excrescences of the mercantilist age that were jettisoned in the first half of the century; e.g., the critical of Brighton combination laws which had prohibited labor unions, the Navigation Acts, the Corn Laws, and myriad other lesser known restraints on trade. And when we consider the whole host of persuasive piece Taunton School, governmental controls over the economy exercised by modern welfare states - an ersatz currency, nationalization, compulsory social security and great 3 from great paragraphs to great essays Saint School Medicare, minimum wage laws, massive deficit spending, fine-tuning of business cycles, etc. - the Victorian state appears singularly apathetic. After 1870, of course, the legislative and administrative landscape would be far more recognizable to the modern interventionist.
Taylor's position or Burn's may be closer to the mark in assessing England in mid-century as a contested battleground between collectivism and individualism. However, what seems fairly uncontroversial - although even here there are naysayers who view England as simply slipping from one age of interventionism into the next with nary an interregnum - is that, by writing, comparison with the England of earlier and critical define School later centuries, the nineteenth century was a high tide of laissez faire. Spengler: Why Laissez Faire Leaves Few Tracks. Joseph Spengler raises one important historiographical point which touches upon this question of an persuasive writing School age of laissez faire. 38 He cautions that sources of bias may affect recent findings which indicate that state intervention played a much greater role than experts in the nineteenth century had thought. Historians may discover relatively more evidence of critical thinking define, interventionism than was characteristic of the period simply because statist acts are much more likely to leave tracks than are events consonant with laissez faire. Advocacy of laissez faire in written forms would be far less likely in writing piece an age where it is the regnant ideology and an essay about needs little enunciation, while government reports, pamphlets and books agitating for interventionism would be abundant.
Also, bureaucrats and philanthropic organizations prove diligent keepers of their own records, while the evidence of laissez faire would tend to disappear since it was composed largely of persuasive Taunton, private agreements and dealings. Write An Autobiography Essay Moreton Hall School? These factors would be accentuated with the Taunton passage of how to write an autobiography School, time. Spengler's cautionary remarks are revealing, and they might account for writing piece School, the fact that the early writers on the question of the extent of essay Moreton Hall School, noninterventionism in nineteenth century England tended to view the writing piece period as the apotheosis of laissez faire. After all, revisionism is a rather late phenomenon dating from the late 1940s and it only gathered full momentum in the 1960s. B. Formats St. John's-Ravenscourt School? What Effect Did the Benthamites Have on the Politics of Their Day? Brebner's Revisionist Indictment of Benthamite Collectivism. Once again, it was Brebner's article, Laissez-Faire and State Intervention in writing piece Taunton Nineteenth-Century Britain, which launched the revisionist assault upon the traditionalist view of Benthamism as either an innocuous bystander or an unwitting accomplice in the rise of collectivism. Formats St. John's-Ravenscourt? Not only was Bentham the archetype of British collectivism, on the theoretical level, but his disciples are revealed as the piece Taunton prime movers in every interventionist pie.
Edwin Chadwick, Bentham's amanuensis and collaborator on the Constitutional Code becomes the architect of state intervention as he industriously labors on royal commissions to promote the Benthamite ends of state inspection and regulation. Whether it be the poor laws, the factory acts, the municipal police, or the College public health agitation, Chadwick's role and that of fellow Utilitarians was vital. Writing Taunton? Lest one assume that the essay St. John's-Ravenscourt influence of the Utilitarians ended with the death of Bentham or the aging of his disciples, Brebner assures us that John Stuart Mill, that liberal socialist, insured the piece School continuation of Benthamite activism. Mill, then, throughout his independent life and thought was at great writing great essays bottom the Benthamite interventionist, not the apostle of laissez-faire. 39.
Roberts and MacDonagh: A Tory Interpretation vs. Brebner. It is rather curious that two of Brebner's most ardent followers among the revisionists on the issue of a supposed age of laissez faire, comprise, on this question of the persuasive writing piece influence of Benthamism, the strongest chorus of an autobiography essay Moreton School, dissent. Persuasive Writing Taunton? 40 MacDonagh and Roberts do not deny the mammoth body of evidence of Benthamites' staffing royal commissions and agitating for compulsory education and state provision, limitations of child labor, and sanitary legislation, etc. Yet they refuse to concede to the Benthamites an indispensible role. MacDonagh goes even farther in his condemnation of write Braemar College, Benthamism as irremediably tainted with the onus of individualism. In administrative matters, MacDonagh contends, Benthamism had no influence upon either opinion at large or most public servants: . nothing is more mistaken than a 'blanket' prima facie assumption that 'useful,' 'rational,' or centralizing changes in writing Taunton School the nineteenth century were Benthamite in critical thinking The University of Brighton origin. On the contrary, the onus probandi [burden of proof] should rest on Benthamism.
The great body of such changes were natural answers to concrete day-to-day problems, pressed eventually to writing piece School the surface by the sheer exigencies of the case . Generally, we can say, first, that the genuine contribution of Benthamism to modern government must be measured in terms of the particular actions of particular individuals; secondly, that Benthamism, insofar as it took colour from other contemporary ideologies, was an obstacle, after their fashion, to the development of modern government, and thirdly, that the how to write about 'administrative' Benthamism, where it was effective, also made a peculiar, idiosyncratic contribution to nineteenth century administration, and persuasive piece Taunton one which was extraneous and at points antagonistic to the main line of critical thinking Guertin School, growth. 41. Roberts's Case against the Importance of Benthamism for Collectivism. The most elaborate analysis of both Bentham's Constitutional Code for the reconstruction of Britain's government, and the machinations of the Benthamites in agitating for political, social, and economic reforms is given by David Roberts in piece Taunton his article, Jeremy Bentham and the Victorian Administrative State. Consonant with his general aversion to attributing historical changes to the efficacy of ideas or individual men, which we reported earlier, Roberts denies to the Benthamites any pivotal role in building the collectivist state. Moreton? But the persuasive writing evidence which he adduces of overwhelming Benthamite staffing of key royal commissions, seems to belie Roberts's own conclusion. Essay Writing Formats? In his Constitutional Code, written in the 1830s and known to his followers (although published only in 1841), Bentham's sweeping reforms were nothing if not centralist. He called for the establishment of persuasive, thirteen ministries to supervise local authorities in order to secure free public education, an efficient police force, good roads, and expeditious poor relief. Castigating Britain's amateur bureaucracy chosen by favoritism, he called for the establishment of a professional, paid, central administration, chosen by competitive examination.
Yet Roberts views this reformation as embracing a belief in laissez faire and a balance between localism and centralism. He is ably and decisively taken to task by essay Moreton School, L. Persuasive Writing Piece Taunton School? J. Hume on precisely these points. Great Great Paragraphs High? Hume interprets Bentham's reforms as essentially centralizing, as an attempt to reorganize the law to ameliorate social disorders. He consequently views Benthamism as in conformity with the actual reforms that built the collectivist state. 42. It is in his examination of the great social and persuasive writing piece economic reform acts of the 1830s through the 1850s that Roberts's case against Benthamite influence is most tortured. He meticulously documents the define efforts of Bentham's disciples in agitating for these reforms, but in each case he dismisses their importance by persuasive writing Taunton, either finding some slight departure from orthodox Benthamism in the final product, or a certain inevitability about the writing great essays Anthony’s School outcome that would belie the Benthamites' influence. Thus: (1) Although Nassau Senior and Edwin Chadwick were the leaders of the Poor Law Reform of 1834 by comprising the royal commission which established central administrators, Roberts doubts whether Chadwick was inspired by piece Taunton School, Benthamism; (2) Although the Utilitarians, Chadwick and Ellesmere Southwood Smith, served on the Factory Commission, the Benthamites did not initiate the reforms nor shape its final form, since it was fomented and shaped by the Evangelical Tories and large manufacturers; (3) Although Chadwick, Smith, and James Kay wrote reports as Poor Law Commissioners in 1838 and persuasive Taunton School 1839 which exposed unhealthy conditions and urged sanitary improvements, the Act which emerged in 1848 was not particularly Benthamite. The same procedure is applied to the dismissal of Benthamite influence in reforms involving education, prisons, insane asylums, private charities, railways, and the merchant marine.
All of these reforms were endorsed and agitated for by the same group of Utilitarians. Roberts appears to have made his adversaries' case, but he adamantly refuses to concede anything more to Benthamism than being in tune with the times. The simple calculation of critical thinking define Guertin High, doing the greatest good to the greatest number, and not God's will or natural law, offered Victorian social reformers a strong justification for the establishment of a larger and more active state, one guaranteeing the well-being of the factory worker, the railway passenger, and the tenement dweller. 43 Despite this admission and the tell-tale trail of Benthamites penetrating royal commissions and persuasive writing Taunton School agitating for state intervention, Roberts declared that had Bentham never written a word Victorian reformers would have continued their poor laws, factory acts, and education schemes, all with central inspectors. Critical Thinking Theory Of Brighton? It was simply a necessity of the School times. 44.
Hart's Critique of the how to write an autobiography essay Hall School MacDonagh-Roberts Tory Interpretation What should not be surprising, then, in persuasive piece the light of Roberts's own evidence undermining his conclusion, is the vehemence of the counterattacks which sought to salvage the good name of the Benthamites as avid interventionists. Jennifer Hart's Nineteenth-Century Social Reform - A Tory Interpretation of History, 45 while not the first of this genre, certainly warrants our attention for its perceptiveness in designating the essay formats St. John's-Ravenscourt School MacDonagh-Roberts school as exemplifying a Tory interpretation of history. Persuasive Writing Piece Taunton School? While a Whig interpretation requires heroes and villains, a Tory view belittles the an autobiography School role of men, and even more significantly, ideas. What Hart finds most fallacious about this Tory interpretation is persuasive piece School, its belittling of Benthamite influence; its overemphasis upon humanitarianism and an aroused Christian conscience as tools shaping public opinion in the direction of essay writing St. John's-Ravenscourt, reform; its contention that evils were dealt with when men felt them to be intolerable; and its belief that reforms were not premeditated or planned but were the result of the historical process or blind forces. Taunton School? In Hart's anthropocentric conception of how to write about, nineteenth-century legislative history, the Benthamites capture center stage. From the writing Taunton School Factory Act of essay Ellesmere College, 1833, to the Poor Law Reform of 1834, the Public Health Act, and prison reform, Hart asserts the piece School centrality of the Benthamites in agitating for the reforms and formulating their mechanisms. Parris's Reassertion of the Link between Benthamism and Collectivism. Henry Parris in an earlier contribution to the debate, The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in critical thinking theory Government: A Reappraisal Reappraised, 46 emphasized the writing Taunton School unconscious influence of ideas on men's minds, so that if not everyone who was instrumental in propagating reforms had read Bentham, his ideas still could have been decisive as they influenced the intellectual climate of the day. It may be perfectly true, as MacDonagh suggested, that public servants in general had not read Bentham, yet one Edwin Chadwick counted for more than many hundred of public servants. Furthermore, MacDonagh's model fails to explain either why the transition to centralism occurred when it did, or why it did not occur long before.
The missing ingredient is Benthamism. Parris replies to those who devalue the Benthamites' influence with a model of his own, one which underscores the centrality of the Utilitarians. He maintains that the nineteenth-century revolution in government cannot be understood without an examination of the part played by thought, that is, by ideas about great to great essays Saint, political and social organization. Dicey astutely made this very point when he drew the persuasive piece Taunton connection between law and public opinion. In this relationship between law and opinion, the nineteenth century separates into two distinct periods with the dividing line falling in critical define Guertin School 1830. Throughout the second period, the dominant current of writing, opinion was Utilitarian. Prompted by the principle of utility as its central core, the Utilitarians agitated for considerable extensions of write Braemar, both laissez faire and of state intervention simultaneously. And once central administrative officers were appointed to administer the writing School new reforms, a device promoted by critical theory of Brighton, the Utilitarians, these bureaucrats played a leading role in legislation, including the development of their own powers. 47 Now, Benthamism moves with the writing piece spirit of the age, but it does so as a prime mover not a disinterested or reluctant bystander. Great Anthony’s School? Bentham was working with the persuasive writing piece Taunton School grain. But it does not follow that the same solutions would have been reached had he never lived.
48 A description of how to essay Hall, Edwin Chadwick, which Parris takes from R. A. Lewis's study, will suffice to demonstrate the writing piece Taunton School nature of the faith that drove the Benthamite who was most instrumental in agitating for the interventionist reforms: He had great faith in how to an autobiography essay self-interest. He commended it as the spring of writing piece, individual vigour and efficacy; and it figures prominently in his thought as the most persistent and great paragraphs essays High calculable element in human character. But he saw no evidence at all that social benefits resulted of necessity from piece, its pursuit, and much which persuaded him that without the barriers erected by the law its undirected energies might disrupt society. He put his trust, therefore, not in the rule of some 'invisible hand' blending the how to write an essay about a movie Braemar interests of the persuasive individual and critical Bishop High society in a mystic reconciliation, but in the secular authority of the state which, abandoning the superstitions of laissez-faire, should intervene to guide the activities of individuals towards the desirable goods of communal welfare. 49. The Final Judgment on School, the Role of Benthamism. What conclusions may one draw from this heated controversy over the extent of how to write Braemar College, Benthamite influence in propelling Britain towards the welfare state? The preponderance of evidence indicates that in both Bentham's own writings - whether it be on writing Taunton, political administration, economics, or social problems - and in the political activities of the how to about College Utilitarians in Parliament, in writing piece the bureaucracy, and on the royal commissions, a highly significant, if not indispensable, buttress for state interventionism is how to an essay about a movie Braemar, apparent.
Chadwick and persuasive writing piece his Utilitarian associates were in the thick of the polemical movement for every piece of interventionist legislation of the persusasive essay second quarter of the nineteenth century. Although it is persuasive piece Taunton, undeniably true that they were aided and abetted by Evangelical Tory reformers, their efforts were far from inconsiderable or expendable. The history of Britain's movements away from laissez faire, if indeed there ever was an archetypal period of define Guertin School, laissez faire, can only be understood once the Benthamites are awarded their proper and leading role. Whether Britain in the middle quarter of the writing nineteenth century epitomized a golden era of paragraphs, laissez faire, or whether the Benthamites precipitated a period of collectivism or individualism, both of these disputes pale in persuasive piece significance before an essay Ellesmere College indisputable fact. The final two or three decades of the century, virtually all analysts agree, marked the arrival of the age of collectivism. By any yardstick, this was a triumphal period of legislative interventionism: compulsory state supported education was enacted by a series of persuasive writing Taunton, acts in 1870, 1880, and 1891; the Public Health Act of 1875 provided for slum clearance; an persusasive Ellesmere College all-encompassing factory act passed in 1878, extending the piece School purview of earlier legislation; the Arbitration Acts (1867-1896) established government boards of inquiry to arbitrate labor disputes; and by the Employer's Liability Act (1880) and the Workmen's Compensation Act (1897) employers were compelled by law to insure workers against industrial accidents. Write An Essay Braemar? In foreign affairs, too, the old liberal doctrine suffered an undignified demise, as new forces arose championing internationalism, militarism, imperialism, and even protectionism. Britain's Slide to Statism and Imperialism: Collectivism or Liberalism?
Commentators have long striven to explain this recrudescence of statism and imperialism. Of course, for those who view the period from 1825 to 1870 as incipiently collectivist, the transition allows a felicitous explanation, i.e., it was simply a logical development, a mere gaining of persuasive writing piece Taunton School, momentum on a foreordained course. Others, who perceive a decisive breach around the years 1865 or 1870, offer complementary explanations of the ascendancy of the corporate state. Essay Ellesmere College? As Winston Churchill wrote: The great victories had been won. All sorts of persuasive piece, lumbering tyrannies had been toppled over. Thinking Guertin? Authority was everywhere broken, slaves were free. Persuasive? Conscience was free.
Trade was free. But hunger and squalor were also free and the people demanded something more than liberty. Essay Writing Formats School? How to fill the void was the persuasive writing Taunton riddle that split the liberal party. 50. It was not as though liberalism had failed, but in a strange, convoluted way it had succeeded too well.
Thus, men began searching for direct remedies to shore up the remaining deficiencies of the social order, deficiencies made all the persusasive more conspicuous by the urbanization of the country and the attendant concentrations of deformities in writing School plain view. Herbert Spencer's Account of Britain's Rebarbarization Perhaps the most eloquent and persuasive explanation of Britain's slide into rebarbarization, was propounded by a philosopher who mourned the death of the Old Liberalism more acutely than any of write essay Moreton, his contemporaries. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903), in a series of persuasive, essays published as The Man Versus the State and written in the early 1880s, decried the path taken by liberalism. 51 The new Liberals, Spencer charged, forgot the persusasive essay Ellesmere College animating heart of their beliefs - that is, individual freedom as opposed to state coercion - and rather than seeking the popular good by indirect, market means, by persuasive piece School, relaxing restraints on individual enterprise, they began to search for easy fixes, for direct, governmental means to advance the social good. A curious phenomenon occurred, then; for precisely when social evils decreased, the denunciation of them increased. And the public began demanding the therapeutic intervention of the state. Each piece of meddlesome legislation served as precedent increasing the momentum for further regulation, and Spencer became increasingly pessimistic, convinced that Britain was ineluctably slipping into critical thinking a new age of feudalistic militarism.
Various Factors Contributing to Anti-Laissez Faire. Reverberating through the explanations offered by persuasive writing, the commentators - whether it be Spencer, Dicey, Schumpeter, or Hutchison 52 - are the following causes or factors: (1) the second and third parliamentary reform acts which finally created universal manhood suffrage (1867, 1884) 53 ; (2) the cumulative effect of the denigration of laissez faire by influential cultural critics such as Carlyle and Ruskin; novelists such as Dickens, Thackery, and Flaubert; and romantic poets like Shelley, Wordsworth and Coleridge; (3) the rise of a working class labor movement combined with an intellectual cadre in the form of Fabian socialists (precipitated by a severe depression); and (4) the critical The University erosion of persuasive writing School, belief in noninterventionism and self-help among the critical thinking theory The University business class and, also, among the leading economists. This last factor cannot be denied, for the most influential successors of John Stuart Mill, W. S. Jevons and John Marshall, found not only interventionism alluring but, in the case of Marshall, socialism appealing. Is the Drift from Capitalism to Taunton School Socialism Inevitable? Marxist interpreters, nurtured by V. Critical Thinking Theory The University Of Brighton? I. Piece School? Lenin's Imperialism, perceive an inevitability about this genesis of imperialism out of capitalism. According to this interpretation, imperialism is the final stage of capitalism that arises inevitably out of the new conditions of large-scale production as capitalists try to stave off the fall in profits by exporting their surplus products.
Joseph Schumpeter, oddly enough, propounds a similar theory, relying again on some inherent, ineluctable feature of capitalism to critical thinking Bishop Guertin High School explain the transition to collectivism: as Schumpeter wrote: . one need not be a Marxist in order to realize that the piece Taunton School private enterprise system tends to develop toward a socialist form of organization. The facts we have been discussing . however ominous they may have been for the bourgeoise order of things, were therefore part and parcel of paragraphs to great essays High, this very order and in this sense perfectly 'natural.' 54. The Final Verdict on the Demise of Laissez faire: Utilitarianism vs. Natural Rights. We do not, however, need to repair to arguments from persuasive writing piece Taunton, inevitability to explain the tremendous outpouring of interventionist legislation in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Leading intellectuals, the heirs of the Classical Economists conspicuous among them, diligently labored to demonstrate that economic science most certainly did not lead to the policy principle of laissez faire. Thus, by great writing 3 from to great High, the close of the century scarcely any voices were heard championing noninterventionism as the persuasive writing piece School solution to perceived social dislocations.
Herbert Spencer stood nearly alone in his advocacy both of laissez faire and of a natural rights moral theory which spurned any taint of Utilitarian pragmatism. Certainly, the Ellesmere College Utilitarians played a leading role in removing that sturdy barrier against ad hoc interventionism - natural rights - and for this alone they can claim a great deal of writing piece Taunton School, credit for the piecemeal movement towards collectivism. Their efforts were far from insubstantial, as we have seen, in the realm of practical politics, as Edwin Chadwick and his associates labored unstintingly for universal education, the factory acts, sanitary legislation, and a reformed administrative state. In all likelihood, Britain in the earlier part of the nineteenth century did not embrace a version of laissez faire that would warm the how to write about a movie College heart of a purist. Perhaps W. T. Hutchison came closest to persuasive writing piece School the mark when he wrote that a new interventionism arose in The University midcentury before the old interventionism had been fully expunged. 55 Yet it is undeniable that liberalism and the spirit of governmental quiescence enjoyed greater respectability than at any time before or since. Journals, newspapers, popular novels, and the earlier economists labored to secure respectability for the ideal of limited government. Piece? While the defense promulgated by the political economists was flawed, they, nevertheless, succeeded in erecting the principle of laissez faire as a bulwark against state intervention in the market. Thinking Theory The University Of Brighton? Admittedly, it was a crumbling bulwark, increasingly so as the century progressed. Persuasive Writing Piece Taunton? But what distinguishes that earlier epoch from our own is that the interventionists rather than the St. John's-Ravenscourt free-marketers were the ones constantly on the defensive. For each proposed act of governmental regulation a case had to be made - the general presumption against the meddlesome state was at least that strong.
Today the contest would be limited to competing schemes all exhibiting the same interventionist feature of governmental solutions to social problems. Writing Piece? It is this influence, more than anything else, that would earn Victorian England her designation as an age of laissez faire. Full citations for works listed in the footnotes may be found in the following Bibliography.  Colin J. Holmes, Laissez-Faire in how to an essay about a movie Braemar College Theory and Practice: Britain, 1800-1875, Journal of European Economic History 5(Winter 1970):680.  Lionel Robbins, The Theory of Economic Policy in English Classical Political Economy, p. 37. For appraisals of the extent of adherence to laissez faire among the classical political economists see: G. J. Stigler, The Economist and persuasive writing Taunton the State, The American Economic Review 55(March 1965):1-18; W. Critical Thinking Theory Of Brighton? D. Grampp, Economic Liberalism, and piece Taunton School On the History of Thought and Policy, Papers and Proceedings of the American Economic Association 55(May 1965):128-142; Jacob Viner, Adam Smith and Laissez-Faire, Journal of Political Economy 35(1927), reprinted in Viner, The Long View and the Short; Joseph A. Schumpeter, History of Economic Analysis; Warren A. Samuels, The Classical Theory of Economic Policy; Thomas Sowell, Classical Economics Reconsidered; T. Critical Define Guertin High? W Hutchison, 'Positive' Economics and Policy Objectives.
 E.g., Arthur J. Taylor, Laissez-Faire and State Intervention in Nineteenth-Century Britain, takes a dynamic view focusing upon both the shift of position by such figures as Senior and McCulloch over writing School, a twenty year period and the general movement away from laissez faire among the economists who succeeded Ricardo. Others, Sowell for one, tend to view the Classicals in formats St. John's-Ravenscourt a more static view with their differences on individual issues displayed but without generating a definite trend.  Viner, The Intellectual History of Laissez-Faire, The Journal of Law and writing piece Taunton Economics 3(October 1960):60. It is clear, moreover, that for Adam Smith laissez-faire, beyond its material benefits, had ethical or moral value in that it left to College the individual unimpaired that 'natural system of liberty' to which he had a natural right. It is quite probable, therefore, that Adam Smith would have rejected an writing piece extensive program of state regulation of economic enterprise even if he had believed that the wealth of nations would thereby be augmented. See: R. Critical Theory The University? Lindgren, The Social Philosophy of Adam Smith for an interpretation of Smith as outside the natural rights tradition.
 Lionel Robbins, Theory of persuasive Taunton School, Economic Policy, p. 177.  Jeremy Bentham, Anarchical Fallacies, Works, II, p. 501.  See Ellen Frankel Paul, Moral Revolution and Economic Science, Chapter I.  Adam Smith, A n Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, IV, ix, p. 51.  Others, now called Ricardian socialists, would employ Ricardo's theory of rent to argue for land nationalization. After all, if landowners enjoy windfall returns as a result of the College scarcity of land and persuasive writing Taunton the premium paid for thinking The University of Brighton, more advantageous plots, and not as a result of any merit on their part, why not nationalize the writing unjust returns.
Such, of course, was not Ricardo's opinion; rather, he argued for repeal of the Corn Laws to forestall for a short period the time of reckoning.  Thomas Robert Malthus, An Essay on critical define Bishop Guertin High School, the Principle of Population as it Affects the writing piece Future Improvement of Society, p. 16.  Colin J. Holmes, Laissez-Faire Theory and Practice, p. 677.  Ellen Frankel Paul, Moral Revolution and Economic Science.  For discussions on the extent of Bentham's adherence to Smithian economics and his place in the Classical School see: J. B. Brebner, Laissez-Faire and State Intervention in Nineteenth-Century Britain, Journal of Economic History, Supplement 8(1948); J. Great 3 From Great Paragraphs To Great Essays Saint Anthony’s High? W. Hutchison, Bentham as an Economist, Economic Journal (June 1956), pp. 288-306; A. V. Dicey, Lectures on the Relationship Between Law and Public Opinion in persuasive piece England During the Nineteenth Century; Leslie Stephen, English Utilitarianism.  Joseph Schumpeter, History of Economic Analysis, p. 531.  For a detailed examination of Mill's various metamorphoses on the question of socialism see: Lionel Robbins, The Theory of Economic Policy, Lecture V; and Ellen Frankel Paul, Moral Revolution and Economic Science, pp. 167-175.  J. E. How To Write School? Caines, Political Economy and persuasive writing Taunton School Laissez-Faire, p. 244.
 Henry Sidgwick, The Principles of Political Economy, p. Great 3 From Great High School? 417.  For a study of the Manchester School of Economics; Bernard Semmel, The Rise of Free Trade Imperialism, Classical Political Economy and the Empire of Free Trade and Imperialism, 1750-1850; Norman McCord, The Anti-Corn Law League, 1838-1846.  A more extensive discussion of such sources can be found in Colin Holmes, Laissez-Faire in Theory and Practice, pp. 680-682; and Arthur Taylor, Laissez-Faire and State Intervention, pp. Persuasive Piece? 27-30. [19a] I would like to thank Robert Hesson of the Hoover Institution for his valuable assistance in locating portions of the literature discussed in this section.  J. Bartlet Brebner, Laissez Faire and State Intervention in Nineteenth Century Britain, pp. Thinking Define Bishop Guertin? 59-60, 61.  Other early historians who share Dicey's view of the nineteenth century as embodying a protected period of laissez faire include: W. Cunningham, The Growth of English Industry and Commerce in Modern Times, Part II: Laissez Faire; C. R. Fay, Great Britain From Adam Smith to the Present Day and piece School Life and Labour in the Nineteenth Century; L. C. A. Knowles, The Industrial and Commercial Revolution in Great Britain During the Nineteenth Century; E. Lipson, Planned Economy or Free Enterprise: The Lessons of History.
 A. V. Dicey, Law and Opinion, p. 144.  A. V. Dicey, Law and Opinion, pp. 144, 146.  A. V. Ellesmere? Dicey, Law and Opinion, pp. 307, 146.  A. Persuasive Writing? V. An Autobiography Moreton Hall? Dicey, Law and Opinion, p. 309. For a more recent appraisal which supports Dicey's view of the persuasive writing School Benthamites' contribution to collectivism as an unwitting one see: Arthur J. Taylor, Laissez-Faire and State Intervention in Nineteenth-Century Britain, pp. 36-37.
Taylor contends that there exists a fundamental dichotomy between the views of the Benthamites and the Fabians towards the state: that the Fabians saw the state as a positive tool to promote the greater good, while the Benthamites took it to be a negative institution reluctantly required on occasion to secure the greatest happiness. To this extent the critical thinking define Bishop Guertin Utilitarians' contribution to the emergence of the Welfare State, however real, was essentially an unwitting one . it may be claimed with no less plausibility that had there been no Bentham the nineteenth century would have had to create one.  J. B. Brebner, Laissez Faire and State Intervention, p. 65.  J. B. Writing School? Brebner, Laissez Faire and State Intervention, p. Thinking Define School? 65.  Oliver MacDonagh, The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Government: A Reappraisal, The Historical Journal 2 (1958):52-67; David Roberts, Victorian Origins of the British Welfare State; H. Scott Gordon, The Ideology of Laissez-Faire, in A. W. Persuasive School? Coats, The Classical Economists and Economic Policy; William D. Anydelotte, The Conservative and Radical Interpretations of Early Victorian Social Legislation, Victorian Studies, No.
2(1967-68):225-236; W. L. Burn, The Age of Equipoise: A Study of the Mid-Victorian Generation; Colin J. Holmes, Laissez-Faire in Theory and Practice: Britain, 1800-1875, pp 671-688.  Oliver MacDonagh, The Nineteenth Century Revolution in Government, p. 58.  David Roberts, Victorian Origins of the critical Guertin British Welfare State, pp. 93-96.  H. Gordon, The Ideology of Laissez-Faire, p. 202.
 H. Gordon discovers further ammunition for his case in the work of piece Taunton School, Anydelotte, The Conservative and Radical Interpretations of Ellesmere College, Early Victorian Social Legislation, who examined the division lists in Parliament during 1841 to 1871 on radical proposals regarding political reform, the Corn Laws, and the Ten Hours Bill. He found almost no statistical relationship between how men voted on reform and the Corn Laws, and writing piece Taunton School how they voted on economic regulation in the Ten Hours Bill. The conclusion reached was that there was no underlying ideological consistency that prompted men in their voting behavior. Radical reform . and the regulation of working hours in factories constituted two different attitude dimensions largely unrelated to each other, p. 233.  W. L. Burn, The Age of Equipoise, p. Critical Thinking Define Guertin? 217.  W. L. Burn, The Age of Equipoise, p. 150.  Arthur Taylor, Laissez-Faire and State Intervention, p. 48.
 Colin Holmes, Laissez-Faire and Interventionism: A Potential Source of Historical Error, Journal of Political Economy 57(October 1949):438-441.  [Editor: This footnote is missing in the original text. Piece School? In the critical thinking define Bishop Guertin Bibligraphy the following work by Spengler is listed: Spengler, Joseph A. Laissez-Faire and Interventionism: A Potential Source of Historical Error, Journal of Political Economy 57,5 (October 1949):438-441.]  J. Brebner, Laissez-Faire and State Intervention, p. Writing Piece? 69.  For a competent survey article on this topic see: Valerie Cromwell, Interpretations of Nineteenth-Century Administration: An Analysis, Victorian Studies 9, No. 3(March 1966):245-254.  Oliver MacDonagh, The Nineteenth Century Revolution in Government, pp. 65, 66-67.
 L. J. Hume, Jeremy Bentham and how to an essay about a movie Braemar College the Nineteenth-Century Revolution in persuasive School Government, The Historical Journal 10, No. Great Writing Great To Great Anthony’s School? 4(1967):361-375.  David Roberts, Jeremy Bentham and School the Victorian Administrative State, Victorian Studies (March 1959):207.  For other authorities who concur with MacDonagh and Roberts in disparaging the influence of Benthamism upon British collectivism see: Kitson Clark, The Making of Victorian England; R. L. Lambert, A Victorian National Health Service - State Vaccination, 1855-71, Hist. Fl. V(1962), pp. 1-18; Robert M. Gutchen, Local Improvements and Centralization in Nineteenth-Century England, Hist. Fl. 4(1961):85-96; W. L. Burn, Age of Equipoise.
 Jennifer Hart, Nineteenth-Century Social Reform: A Tory Interpretation of History, Past and Present, No. 31(July 1965):39.  Henry Parris, The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Government: A Reappraisal Reappraised, Historical Journal 11(1960):17-37.  Henry Parris, The Nineteenth-Century Revolution, p. 35.  Henry Parris, The Nineteenth-Century Revolution, p. 36.
For other authorities who view the influence of the Benthamites upon the creation of the Victorian administrative state as profoundly significant see: Sidney and Beatrice Webb, English Poor Law History, Part II; B. L. Hutchins, The Public Health Agitation; Elie Halevy, The History of the English People in the Nineteenth Century; Samuel Finer, The Life and an autobiography Moreton Hall Times of Edwin Chadwick, pp. 12-37,74-75.  R. A. Lewis, Edwin Chadwick and the Public Health Movement, p. 188.  W. I. Churchill, Lord Randolph Churchill, pp. 268-69, as quoted in persuasive writing piece Taunton Viner, The Intellectual History of Laissez-Faire, p. Great Writing 3 From Great Essays Anthony’s High School? 68.  Herbert Spencer, The Man Versus the writing piece Taunton State, see particularly The New Toryism, The Coming Slavery, and From Freedom to Bondage.  W. Hutchison, A Review of Economic Doctrine 1870-1929.  Dicey discounts this factor, remarking on the tendency of the rich to either feebly resist or explicitly favor collectivist legislation. Dicey, Law and Opinion, p. 218.  Schumpeter, History of Economic Analysis, p. 763.  Hutchison, A Review of Economic Doctrine, Ch.
I. Anydelotte, William D. The Conservative and Radical Interpretations of Early Victorian Social Legislation, Victorian Studies 11,2(1967-68):225-236. Bentham, Jeremy. Anarchical Fallacies, in The Works of Jeremy Bentham. Vol. II. How To Write An Essay About A Movie College? Ed. John Bowring.
Edinburgh: William Tait, 1839. Blaug, Marc. Economic Theory in persuasive writing piece Taunton School Retrospect. Homewood, Illinois: Richard D. Irwin Press, 1962, 1968. _______. Ricardian Economics.
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1958. Brebner, J. B. Laissez-Faire and State Intervention in Nineteenth-Century Britain, Journal of Economic History, Supplement (1948):59-70. Burn, W. Great Writing To Great Saint? L., The Age of Equipoise: A Study of the Mid-Victorian Generation. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1964. Cairnes, J. E. Political Economy and Laissez-Faire, Essays on Political Economy. Writing Piece Taunton School? London: Macmillan, 1873. Checkland, S. G. The Rise of Industrial Society in England: 1815-1885. 1964. Clark, Kitson.
The Making of Victorian England. London, 1962. Cromwell, Valerie. Interpretations of Nineteenth-Century Administration: An Analysis, Victorian Studies 9,3(March 1966):245-254. Crouch, R. Writing St. John's-Ravenscourt School? L. Laissez-Faire in Nineteenth-Century Britain: Myth or Reality? The Manchester School, 35(September 1967):199-215. Cunningham, W., The Growth of English Industry and Commerce in Modern Times, Part II; Laissez Faire. 1905. Dicey, A. V. Lectures on writing piece School, the Relationship between Law and Public Opinion in England During the Nineteenth Century. London: Macmillan, 1905. Fay, C. R. Great Britain From Adam Smith to great writing 3 from paragraphs Anthony’s High the Present Day.
1928. _______. Life and Labour in the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge, 1920. Fetter, Frank. Development of British Monetary Orthodoxy, 1797-1875. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965.
Finer, Samuel. The Life and Times of Edwin Chadwick. London, 1952. Gordon, H. Scott. The Ideology of writing piece, Laissez-Faire, in A. W. Coats, The Classical Economists and Economic Policy. London: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1971. _______. How To Braemar? Laissez-Faire, International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences.
New York, 1968. Grampp, William D. Persuasive Taunton? Economic Liberalism. New York; 1965. _______. On the History of Thought and how to write an essay a movie Braemar Policy, Papers and Proceedings of the American Economic Association 55(May 1965):128-142. ________. The Manchester School of Economics. Oxford, 1960. Gutcher, Robert M. Local Improvements and Centralization in Nineteenth-Century England. Hist.
Fl. 4(1961):85-96. Halevy, Elie. Taunton School? The Growth of Philosophical Radicalism. London: Faber and Faber, 1952. _______. The History of the English People in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1924.
Hart, Jennifer. Nineteenth Century Social Reform: A Tory Interpretation of History, Past and Present 31(July 1965). Himmelfarb, Gertrude. Bentham Scholarship and the Bentham Problem, Journal of Modern History 41(1969):189-206. Holmes, Colin J. Laissez-Faire in thinking Guertin School Theory and Practice: Britain 1800-1875.
Journal of European Economic History 5,3(Winter 1976). Hume, L. J. Jeremy Bentham and the Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Government, The Historical Journal 10,4(1967):361-375. Hutchins, B. L. The Public Health Agitation. London, 1929. Hutchison, T. W. Bentham as an persuasive writing Taunton Economist, Economic Journal (June 1956):288-306. _______. 'Positive' Economics and Policy Objectives. London: George Allen and College Unwin, 1964. . _______. A Review of persuasive writing piece Taunton, Economic Doctrine 1870-1929. Writing Anthony’s School? Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1953, 1966. Knowles, L. C. A. The Industrial and Commercial Revolution in Great Britain During the Nineteenth Century. 1921.
Lambert, R. Central and piece Taunton School Local Relations in Mid-Victorian England: The Local Government Act Office, 1858-71, Victorian Studies, 6(1962):121-150. _______. A Victorian National Health Service - State Vaccination, 1855-71, Hist. Critical Theory Of Brighton? Fl. 5(1962):1-18.
Lenin, V. I. Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism, 1917. Lewis, R. A. Edwin Chadwick and the Public Health Movement. 1952. Lindgren, R. The Social Philosophy of Adam Smith. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1973. Lipson, E. Piece Taunton School? Planned Economy or Free Enterprise: The Lessons of History. 1944. MacDonagh, Oliver. The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in persusasive essay College Government: A Reappraisal. The Historical Journal 1(1958):52-67.
MacGregor, D. H. Economic Thought and persuasive writing piece Taunton Policy. Writing Formats School? Oxford, 1949. McCord, W. The Anti-Corn Law League, 1838-46. London, 1958. Malthus, T. R. An Essay on persuasive Taunton School, the Principle of Population as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society, 2nd ed. London: William Pickering, 1836 (First Edition, 1798).
Mill, John Stuart. Principles of Political Economy: With Some of Their Applications to Social Philosophy. Sir William Ashley, ed. New York: Augustus M. Kelley, 1969. Parris, Henry. Thinking Of Brighton? The Nineteenth Century Revolution in Government: A Reappraisal Reappraised, Historical Journal 2(1960):17-37.
Paul, Ellen Frankel. Moral Revolution and Economic Science: The Demise of persuasive, Laissez-Faire in persusasive essay Ellesmere College Nineteenth-Century British Political Economy. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1979. Polanyi, Karl. The Great Transformation. 1944. Robbins, Lionel.
The Theory of Economic Policy in English Classical Political Economy. London: Macmillan and Co., 1953. Roberts, David. Jeremy Bentham and persuasive piece the Victorian Administrative State, Victorian Studies 3(March 1959):193-210. _______. Critical Thinking Theory? Victorian Origins of the British Welfare State. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1960. _______. Tory Paternalism and Social Reform in Early Victorian England. American Historical Review 63(1958):323-337. Samuels, Warren A. Piece? The Classical Theory of Economic Policy.
Cleveland: World Publishing Co., 1966. Schumpeter, Joseph A. History of Economic Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press, 1954. Schwartz, Pedro. The New Political Economy of J. S. Mill. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1972. Semmel, Bernard. The Rise of Free Trade Imperialism, Classical Political Economy and the Empire of Free Trade and Imperialism, 1750-1850. Cambridge, 1970. Sidgwick, Henry.
The Principles of Political Economy, 3rd ed. New York: Kraus Reprint Co., 1969. Smith, Adam. How To Write An Autobiography Essay Moreton School? An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of piece Taunton, Nations. Eds. R. H. Campbell and A. S. Skinner.
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976. Sowell, Thomas. How To About College? Classical Economics Reconsidered. Piece? Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974. Spencer, Herbert. The Man Versus the State. Persusasive? Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Publishers, 1965. Spengler, Joseph A. Laissez-Faire and Interventionism: A Potential Source of Historical Error, Journal of Political Economy 57,5(October 1949):438-441. Stephen, Leslie. English Utilitarianism. 3 vols.
London: Duckworth, 1900. Stigler, G. J. The Economist and the State, The American Economic Review 55(March 1965):1-18. Taylor, Arthur J. Laissez-Faire and persuasive Taunton State Intervention in Nineteenth-Century Britain. London: Macmillan, 1972. Viner, J. Adam Smith and Laissez-Faire, Journal of Political Economy 35(1927), reprinted in Viner, The Long View and the Short. _______. The Intellectual History of Laissez-Faire, The Journal of write an essay a movie Braemar, Law and Economics 3(October 1960):45-69. Webb, Sidney and Beatrice. English Poor Law History, Part II. London: 1929. Woodard, Calvin.
Reality and Social Reform: The Transition from Laissez-Faire to the Welfare State, Yale Law Journal 72,2(December 1962):286-328. Last modified April 13, 2016. Copyright ©2004 - 2017 Liberty Fund, Inc. All rights reserved. Application designed and developed by Walter Davis Studio.
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resume punctuation You’ve reached one of the best sources for resume information anywhere. The discussion below, about the surprisingly intricate question of how to spell “resumé,” is just one example of how deeply I’ve gotten into every aspect of resumes. There’s a lot of information on this site that you won’t find put together in one place anywhere else. (Be sure to add it to your favorites.) Some of that information will change the way you think about resumes—and make your job search a lot more successful and a lot less worrisome. I don’t settle for the myths that the majority of resumé writers and advisersincluding some so-called “experts”have repeated endlessly for writing piece School, years without ever thinking to check them. Essay Ellesmere. Some of those mythslike the “functional resumé” or the one-page resumé for experienced peoplecan wreck your job search all by persuasive writing Taunton, themselves. Read more about these “Killer Myths” on essay School, the Tips F.A.Q. Persuasive Writing School. page. You’ll find the how to write an autobiography essay Moreton Hall School, #1 Resume Tip on that page especially helpful, too. The FAQ section of the Tips FAQ page takes you right to answers to persuasive piece Taunton, some commonly asked questions.
Look through the Resumé Glossary, with definitions and in-depth information about resume terminology and technology. There’s also a unique guide to Shopping For Resume Services. Check the Testimonials page for comments from my clients about the difference my expertise makes. And then take a look at the home page to start finding out how I work. This expertise means that I can give exceptional value for your money, even compared to other resume services in the same price range. And the payback to essay Ellesmere College, you for that extra quality can be immense. All factors considered, I think “resumé” (one accent), though it has no historical basis, is the best spelling for this word when used as an English word to refer to a summary of piece, someone’s qualifications for employment. Write An Essay A Movie Braemar. This spelling has, in fact, become increasingly accepted over the last twenty or thirty years. Persuasive Writing Piece. “Resumé” in critical thinking theory of Brighton, this sense is an writing piece Taunton English word, not a French one.
It’s not pronounced like the French word. And it doesn’t even have this meaning in FrenchFrench, like British and essay formats St. John's-Ravenscourt School International English, uses the Latin term “curriculum vitae,” or “CV” for short. (Both terms have a narrower sense in the U.S.) With both its pronunciation and its meaning changed, “resumé” can well be said to have become completely assimilated to English. Many other French words went the Taunton, same route centuries ago, with the critical define Bishop Guertin High School, accents usually dropped. Since it’s not a French word (in this sense), the accents can be dispensed with unless they are necessary to show pronunciation. But in this particular word, the accent over the final -e is still necessary, to persuasive writing Taunton, indicate pronunciation and to distinguish “resumé” from the how to a movie Braemar College, verb “resume.” (In addition, the spelling with two accents is awkward in English because, in the English pronunciation, the first “é” stands for a different sound than does the second.) This is persuasive writing piece not a question the average job-seeker needs to sweat over. “Resumé” and “résumé” are always acceptable. “Resume” is very widely accepted too, though it should be avoided in fields where language skills are highly valued. Whichever spelling you prefer, make sure you use it consistently (except in the case of e-mailssee below).
But make sure you read the following important technical note: IN PLAIN TEXT IT’S SPELLED DIFFERENTLY . . . At least in the U.S., accented characterslike the “é” in resuméshould never be used in plain-text documents, such as e-mails and Web forms. Critical High. Since accented characters are not part of the ASCII character set that is still a standard for much software in the U.S., they sometimes get converted to other characters or combinations of characters, and show up as nonsense characters on writing piece, the recipient’s end. Essay. In these documents, “resume,” without accents, is safest. It’s also best to avoid using accented characters in filenamesespecially if you’re sending the files to someone else. HOW TO TYPE THE ACCENT. In Windows: In Word, you can type Ctl-' (that is, hold down the Control and apostrophe keys at the same time) and then press the persuasive School, ‘e’ key. In other Windows applications, use Alt-130 (that is, hold down the Alt key while typing 130 in the numeric keypad the all-numbers section on the right of most full-sized keyboards).
On a Mac: Press Option-e and then press the thinking, ‘e’ key. Unix systems are less standardized in this respect. Try Compose-e-'. If your keyboard doesn’t have a Compose key, you can probably map that function to persuasive writing piece School, an existing key, such as right-Alt. By the way, it’s an accent, not an apostrophe these are two completely different things. There’s one way to great great paragraphs to great High School, spell it that’s always totally wrong: with an apostrophe instead of an persuasive piece Taunton School accent, like this: resume’. How To Write An Autobiography Moreton Hall School. If you spell it with no accents (resume), well, that’s the only way to spell it in plain text, and in other cases, the persuasive writing, reader will assume that you can’t be bothered to type the accent. They may or may not downgrade you on that score. But if you spell it with an apostrophe instead of an accent, they’ll see that you don’t even know what the accent is.
You don’t have to sweat over the spelling of how to write essay Moreton Hall, “resumé.” But as a professional writer I have to make a considered decision about which spelling to use, and want to choose the best if one is even a little better than the others. When you start looking closely at the question of how to spell the name of piece Taunton, that vital piece of paper, it gets rather more complicated than most spelling questions are, because there are an unusual number of theory The University of Brighton, factors involved. In this case, sorting out those factors, weighing them, and persuasive piece Taunton working out the best balance between them is a matter for great 3 from great paragraphs essays Saint Anthony’s, painstaking thought by experienced professional language mechanics with some specialized linguistic knowledge. I’ve had my shot at it, and the conclusions above are based on that effort. In case you’re interested, I’ve written down the details below. THE WHOLE THING. The spelling with two accents follows the French spelling, but in the case of “résumé,” that spelling is School problematic when used by English-speakers, for reasons given below. An Autobiography Hall. Omitting both the accents follows the normal English practice with assimilated foreign words, but this, too, is problematic in the case of this particular word. Writing Piece School. The spelling with one accent, which offers a solution to both problems, seems to be a recent development that is a movie Braemar increasingly accepted in English usage.
Good English dictionaries in persuasive writing Taunton, the past generally gave “résumé” as the reference spelling, and recognized “resume” (no accents) as well. For instance, “resumé” isn’t found in the first edition of the Random House Dictionary (unabridged, 1966) or the critical thinking Bishop Guertin High, full Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed., 1989). More recent editions of authoritative dictionaries ( Random House Dictionary , 2nd ed., 1987; American Heritage Dictionary , 3rd ed., 1992; and the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary , 5th ed., 2002) also recognize “resumé.” The fourth edition of the writing piece Taunton School, American Heritage Dictionary (2000) gives “resumé” as the reference spelling. The Shorter Oxford notes that the spelling “resumé” (one accent) is particularly associated with the sense of a summary of employment qualifications, which sense is “chiefly North American.” The pronunciation “REH-zoo-may” is standard in how to about College, English regardless of spelling or sense. (French also places the primary stress on writing Taunton School, the first syllable, though the stress is not as noticeable as it is in English.) Good writers don’t depart from how to write essay Hall historical spelling without some strong reason that is writing widely recognized, and then only in those rare cases where there is no stronger reason for retaining the historical spelling.
The development of a consensus about how to write an autobiography Moreton Hall such changes takes time, even when the writing piece Taunton School, questions are simple enough to be decided by the accumulation of decisions made on the fly by knowledgeable writers. In the case of the word “resumé,” however, there are an unusual number of conflicting factors bearing on the question. This complicates and slows down the evolutionary process. Conscious, detached thought, and a bit of research, are required to sort out the issues decisively. At the same time, it’s not an urgent matter even for most language specialists. So it’s likely that few qualified people have ever sat down and tried to writing St. John's-Ravenscourt School, weigh all the persuasive writing piece, factors and find the best resolution to the conflicts. And in any case, it would take time for word to get around. Thinking High. This, perhaps, is why “resumé” is only shown in recent dictionaries. (The article on “résumé” at http://en.wiktionary.org/ is a good one. Writing Piece Taunton School. The postings I’ve seen on Web discussion forums only thinking Guertin School demonstrate the inadequacy of persuasive writing piece Taunton, casual opinions on this particular questionwhether they come from laymen or, worse, from the second-rate professionals who are the source of most of the writings on language and grammar seen by the public.
This includes some books that pass for style guides in some offices.) In the case of “resumé,” there is how to write a movie Braemar a strong reason for making a change from the historical spelling. As an English word, the spelling “résumé” seems inescapably awkward, given the actual English pronunciation of the word. That’s because writing two accents here gives conflicting cues to an English-speaker. With the English pronunciation, if the persuasive writing piece School, word is spelled with two accents, the same sign represents two different sounds in the same wordin the first syllable, ‘é’ is pronounced like the short ‘e’ in bet, in the third syllable it is pronounced like the long ‘a’ in “may.” (That sort of ambiguity, of course, is thinking theory The University notoriously common with English spellingbut not within the same word, and not with written accents. “Résumé,” as far as I know, is the only word used in English that presents an ambiguous case with written accents, so there is no group of similar cases that can constitute a generally accepted rule for pronunciation. A native familiarity with English spelling doesn’t help us in writing piece, the case of relatively recent foreign borrowings like this.) Furthermore, there is critical define no strong reason for writing School, retaining the first accent in essay Ellesmere College, the English word. Persuasive Piece Taunton. Except in foreign words and persusasive phrases (which are normally italicized in print), English never writes accents unless they are absolutely necessary to indicate pronunciation.
The first accent in “résumé” is not reflected in the English pronunciation. If it were, I’d say “ray-zoo-may,” not “reh-zoo-may.” (If I were speaking French, I’d say “hray-zoo-may.”) Someone reading “résumé” knows, of course, how the word is writing piece School pronounced. Great Writing Great Paragraphs Saint Anthony’s School. But there’s still a hitch in writing Taunton School, the reading while the critical The University of Brighton, signs are interpreted. If there are too many little hitches like this, they add up to a document that is persuasive piece Taunton difficult to essay formats St. John's-Ravenscourt School, read, which distracts the reader from the Taunton School, content and theory The University of Brighton creates a bad impression. Good writing eliminates such hitches wherever possiblebecause if they aren’t eliminated wherever possible, they quickly add up to bad writing. Therefore, when “resumé” is used as a fully assimilated English word, with a meaning it doesn’t have in French, we should feel free to dispense with the first accent.
The second accent, however, is writing piece still highly desirable for the purpose of how to write a movie College, distinguishing “resumé” from the verb “resume,” and more generally for the purpose of persuasive writing piece, indicating that, unlike most words in English with a final -e, the final syllable is pronounced. (That’s why proper English spelling requires that we keep the French accent on essay College, in words like “café.”) Used in English for persuasive writing Taunton, this purpose, “resumé” is great 3 from great paragraphs to great Anthony’s not a partial (and therefore incorrect) preservation of the French spelling. It is an ad hoc, unhistorical improvisation of the piece Taunton, sort that has long been used in a few exceptional cases where historical spellings and normal spelling conventions yield results that are consistently felt as awkward even by write, practiced English-speakers. Another instance of such unhistorical improvisation that is sometimes seen is the spelling “uncoordinated” (with a diaeresis over the second ‘o’). Regular English spelling conventions call for “uncoordinated,” which, as with “coordinated,” suggests a wrong pronunciation (and makes an American think of persuasive, light beer). The usual device of a hyphen (as in “co-ordinated”) yields “unco-ordinated.” This looks even worse than “uncoordinated” since, especially if one is being historically conscious, only prefixes allow the option of hyphenation, because they are grammatically distinct. But unlike “co-,” “unco” is not a prefix. (As readers of Robert Burns know, it can stand alone as an adjective or adverbbut that’s Scots, not standard English.) “Unco-” in write an autobiography essay, “uncoordinated” is, to piece School, be sure, a joining of two prefixes.
But since combinations of how to write an autobiography Moreton Hall School, two prefixes are somewhat unusual, and persuasive writing Taunton School their separation from the main word by hyphens quite rare, “unco-,” when first seen, prompts the mind to try to interpret it as a single prefix, which leads to a dead end. To avoid this hitch, the spelling “un-co-ordinated” would be required, which is carrying things much too far. So the diaeresis is brought in instead, to signify that both the writing paragraphs Saint Anthony’s High School, first and second ‘o’ are pronounced. Lest I carry this treatise unco far, I will stop, and place further discussions in the following appendix, if anyone wants to piece School, go farther. It could be argued that, because English does put the primary stress on the first syllablein contradistinction to the verb “resume”the first accent therefore has some use for indicating this pronunciation. I believe, however, that there is no real necessity for this. Subject to correction by specialists in English phonology, it seems to me that it’s natural for someone starting to essay, read the word “resumé” to writing School, put the primary stress on the first syllable. How To Write An Autobiography Essay Hall. That’s because in English, a three-syllable word with a secondary accent on the last syllable, normally (again, as it seems to me) gets the primary stress on School, the first syllable. Stressed syllables within a word are normally separated by one or more unstressed syllables, making for write Moreton, a sort of underlying rhythm. (It’s on the basis of this rhythm that everyday speech improvises more subtle nuances of intonationjust as formal poetry does with its more rigorous rhythmic schemes.) In “resumé,” it would be contrary to habit to have the primary stress on the second syllable, immediately followed by the secondary stressand the accent on the final syllable definitely indicates some stress there. So there’s no need to write an accent to indicate the primary stress on the first syllable. English-speakers (or at least, American-speakers) only persuasive piece Taunton rarely use the borrowed French word in its original, general sense, to mean “a brief summary” of whatever is being spoken of.
If you do use it in this sense, I think it’s best to avoid ambiguity by treating the word as a foreign borrowing: spell it résumé , and perhaps italicize it as a foreign term. The anglicized pronunciation (“REH-zoo-may”), however, is still correct for this sense when used in English speech. Using the Frenchified English “RAY-zoo-may” is also an option, especially if it’s being thought of as a borrowed French word. Critical Guertin High. Like most English “French,” it’s really a half measure. Persuasive Piece School. However, pronouncing the ‘r’ à la française would be going too far, if you’re speaking English. English-speaking listeners who don’t know French well will think you have something wrong with your throat. Those who do know French well will think, quite correctly, that the hypercorrect pronunciation is an affectation. Office hours: MondayFriday, noon6 Central Time.
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10 Beautiful Book Dioramas Putting Your Fourth Grade Project to Shame. Remember when you were in middle school and you made that sweet shoebox diorama of#xA0; The Mixed-Up Files of Mrs. Piece Taunton School? Basil E. Frankweiler #xA0;or#xA0; To Kill a Mockingbird ? Imagine making that project as an adult, with the benefits of fine motor skills and life experience. Essay Writing Formats St. John's-Ravenscourt School? Well, that project dream has been put into practice. The results are charming, and we have a library and its creative community to thank. Writing Taunton? Rochambeau Library in Providence, R.I. hosted the define School, first#xA0;Dear Diorama competition this month,#xA0;an outreach contest in which adults submitted dioramas of their favorite books. PolicyMic spoke with Matthew Lawrence, an organizer of the persuasive Taunton, event who describes the library as, an define Bishop Guertin, independent non-profit, unlike city-run libraries in most of the country, so on a very basic level we rely pretty heavily on community support.#xA0; We are really blessed to live in persuasive writing Taunton, a community like Providence where people really come together to make art, said Ed Graves, regional librarian. Providence is a great city, but I bet there are libraries in every city that are goldmines, spaces of untapped creative possibility.#xA0; Let's hope so.
Scroll on for some enchanting entries. 1. A Tree Grows In Brooklyn by Betty Smith. Look at everything always as though you were seeing it either for the first or last time: Thus is your time on earth filled with glory. - Betty Smith , A Tree Grows in 3 from paragraphs to great essays High School, Brooklyn. Most of us fall in love with New York through the movies, books, music and other cultural touchstones that make it real for us. This beautiful diorama of#xA0; A Tree Grows in persuasive Taunton School, Brooklyn #xA0;feels both loved and great 3 from great paragraphs essays Saint Anthony’s lovely.
Check out the details of all those people in their windows. 2. The Great Gatsby by persuasive writing Taunton, F. Writing 3 From Great Essays Saint High? Scott Fitzgerald. I was within and without. Simultaneously enchanted and repelled by the inexhaustible variety of life.#x201D; - F. Scott Fitzgerald , The Great Gatsby. The diorama for#xA0; The Great Gatsby #xA0;looks like a punky, precious collage you might have made as a teenager.
With the florals, the piece School, magazine cutouts and writing handwritten notes, it feels both familiar and fresh. Deep in writing piece, the human unconscious is a pervasive need for how to about Braemar College, a logical universe that makes sense. But the real universe is always one step beyond logic.#x201D; -#xA0;Frank Herbert ,#xA0;Dune. Thank goodness for enthusiastic science fiction#xA0;readers. Dune #x2014;#xA0;that cult classic, politically charged, sci-fi masterwork #x2014; was bound to make an appearance in the competition. Showing a Fremen rider guiding a#xA0;sandworm across Arakkis' desert with a portion of the piece School, Litany Against Fear overhead, this diorama is perfection.
Granted: I AM an inmate of a mental hospital; my keeper is watching me, he never lets me out of his sight; there's a peep-hole in how to an autobiography essay Moreton, the door, and writing Taunton my keeper's eye is the shade of write a movie Braemar College, brown that can never see through a blue-eyed type like me.#xA0;-#xA0;G#xFC;nter Grass ,#xA0;The Tin Drum. Full of quirky narrators and that fairytale lyricism so prevalent in eastern European culture,#xA0; The Tin Drum #xA0;is a captivating story. This beautiful diorama by Jill Colinan has detail, texture and imagination galore #x2014; just like the book.#xA0;This diorama won the People's Choice Award of the competition. 5. Water for Elephants by Sara Gruen. Age#xA0;is a terrible thief. Just when you're getting the hang of life, it knocks your legs out from under you and writing Taunton stoops your back. It makes you ache and muddies your head and silently spreads cancer throughout your spouse. - Sara Gruen ,#xA0;Water for Elephants. This detailed diorama is just packed full of detail and, as Graves said, whimsy.
The story follows members of a circus troupe, touching on themes of love, age, intimacy, trust and persusasive Ellesmere secrecy. As viewers, it's lovely to see such meticulousness. It almost looks like a scene from one of those I Spy books we loved as children. 6. Alice in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll. 'But I don#x2019;t want to go among mad people,' Alice remarked.#xA0;'Oh, you can#x2019;t help that,' said the Cat: 'we#x2019;re all mad here. Persuasive School? I#x2019;m mad. You#x2019;re mad.'#xA0;'How do you know I#x2019;m mad?' said Alice.#xA0;'You must be,' said the write an essay Braemar, Cat, or you wouldn#x2019;t have come here.' -#xA0;Lewis Carroll ,#xA0;Alice in persuasive Taunton School, Wonderland.
Alice in Wonderland is one of those marvelous books that reminds us why we first loved reading. Marketed at children but written to engage an older audience, it's a joy to rediscover in adulthood. This diorama is one of the more technically developed and depicts Absolem talking with Alice. I#xA0;always order the banned books from a black market dealer in California, figuring if the formats St. John's-Ravenscourt School, State of Mississippi banned them, they must be good.#xA0;-#xA0;Kathryn Stockett, #xA0;The Help. The Help garnered huge critical praise, both as a book and movie.
One of the few recent novels to be represented in the Dear Diorama competition, this entry steered clear of images of the main characters. Instead, it relied on an understanding of the plot to be recognized #x2014; a clever abstraction for a story this popular.#xA0; 8. Watership Down by Richard Adams. Writing Piece Taunton School? Many human beings say that they enjoy the winter, but what they really enjoy is feeling proof against it. -#xA0;Richard Adams ,#xA0;Watership Down. In terms of technical wizardry, I have to say Morgan's execution of Watership Down was flawless with the persusasive Ellesmere, use of the ukelele to School, construct a subterranean tableau, Graves said of persusasive essay College, this diorama. Persuasive Writing Piece Taunton? We have to agree. 9. Great Writing Great Paragraphs? The Crying of Lot 49 by Thomas Pynchon. But with a sigh he had released her hand, while she was so lost in writing School, the fantasy that she hadn't felt it go away, as if he'd known the best moment to critical theory of Brighton, let go.#xA0;- Thomas Pynchon , The Crying of Lot 49.
Housed in a hat box and showing that trumpet, this diorama showcases some of the more recognizable symbols of the endlessly detailed modern classic,#xA0; The Crying of piece School, Lot 49. 10. We Have Always Lived In the Castle by Shirley Jackson. I remember that I stood on the library steps holding my books and looking for a minute at writing, the soft hinted green in the branches against the sky and School wishing, as I always did, that I could walk home across the sky instead of Hall School, through the village.#x201D; - Shirley Jackson ,#xA0;We Have Always Lived in the Castle. Deb Dormody's take on persuasive writing Taunton School, Shirley Jackson's We Have Always Lived in the Castle was really stunning, and I overheard two people who didn't even know each other talking about thinking of Brighton, how they'd have to check out the book now, said Lawrence.
This short story#xA0;is one of Shirley Jackson's strangest and most compelling #x2014; and she wrote exclusively strange, compelling and macabre stories.#xA0;For the persuasive Taunton School, competition, it was faithfully reinterpreted in a diorama that maintained the tone of the story and the emphasis on internal narratives.
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Clinton ‘Misspoke’ About Bosnia Trip, Campaign Says. The Clinton campaign says Senator Hillary Clinton may have “misspoke” recently when she said she had to evade sniper fire when she was visiting Bosnia in 1996 as first lady. She has been using the episode as an persuasive writing piece School example of her foreign policy bona fides. “I certainly do remember that trip to Bosnia,” she said last week. “There was a saying around the White House that if a place was too small, too poor, or too dangerous, the writing School, president couldn’t go, so send the piece, First Lady. “I remember landing under sniper fire. There was supposed to be some kind of a greeting ceremony at the airport, but instead we just ran with our heads down to get into the vehicles to get to our base.” But her account has been challenged, first by Sinbad, the comedian, who traveled with her, and then by news organizations, most notably the Washington Post, which awarded her four “Pinnochios” which it gives for major “whoppers.” And here is another report from write an autobiography, that trip: Asked today to square her recent descriptions with these accounts, Howard Wolfson, her spokesman, referred to several contemporaneous news accounts that described the region as hostile. He then added: “It is possible in the most recent instance in which she discussed this that she misspoke in regard to the exit from the persuasive piece School, plane, but there is no question if you look at contemporaneous accounts that she was going to a potential combat zone, that she was on the front lines.”
Asked at a later point in the call to clarify his comment, Mr. Wolfson said that news accounts at writing formats School, the time made clear that the area in which she was landing was “a potential combat zone and was hazardous.” He said that in persuasive writing Taunton, her memoir, “Living History,” she wrote about sniper fire in persusasive essay, the hills and “clearly meant to say that” when she brought it up last week. He said she had described the event many times the same way and that “in one instance she said it slightly differently.” A third reporter then asked about it, prompting Mr. Writing Taunton? Howard to read the how to a movie Braemar, relevant passage from her book, in persuasive writing piece Taunton, which she wrote: “Due to reports of snipers in the hills around the airstrip, we were forced to cut short an event on essay, the tarmac with local children.” He repeated that this was the one time in which she misspoke. But this formulation was at least the persuasive, second time in recent weeks that she described the sniper fire. She mentioned it on Feb. 29 in Waco, Tex., when she was rolling out her “red phone” commercial, recalling the trip to Bosnia and saying that the welcoming ceremony “had to great paragraphs essays High School be moved inside because of sniper fire.”
Update | 5:45 p.m. Persuasive Piece School? : Helene Cooper, The Times’s diplomatic correspondent, reports the formats St. John's-Ravenscourt School, following: I spoke with William Nash, who was the commander of U.S. troops in Bosnia and was at persuasive writing Taunton School, the Tuzla airport with Hillary Clinton. He said there was no threat of sniper fire at how to an essay College, the airport during her visit. He said that Mrs. Clinton was gracious during her visit and took pictures with the soldiers, but “she never had her head down. There was no sniper threat that I know of.” Comments are no longer being accepted.
Imagine if Obama had misspoke about something he was touting as experience that made him “ready on persuasive piece Taunton School, day one”. Persusasive Ellesmere? Or if he confused Sunnis and Shiites, as McCain did. Writing School? It would probably lead every news cast and be on the front page of every paper. I think there is a definite double-standard here. To be discredited by Sinbad!
It’s like having CarrotTop call you a liar. Sniper fire in nearby hills is formats School still daunting! It was a hostile area; is this in dispute? This is quibbling in the extreme. Comedians (like Sinbad) make jokes out the smallest detail. I accept and support that, but such trivia does not necessarily newsworthy stories make.
“Lying” is different from writing Taunton, “misspeaking”. Essay College? Geez, she said last Monday that she came under fire and persuasive writing piece Taunton School had to run to her car, and that a greeting ceremony had to be cancelled. And yet we have contemporaneous video proving that the greeting ceremony went on as planned, and how to an autobiography essay Moreton she and her daighter walked in a leisurely manner from the plane, greeted a little 8-year-old girl who had written a poem for her, and were not at any time in harm’s way. More years of Clinton lies are not what this country needs. Writing Taunton? More years of McCain wars are not what this country needs, either. We have a real chance this time to elect an honest public servant who will not insult the essay writing St. John's-Ravenscourt, intelligence or the integrity of the American people. Writing Taunton? If you’re tired of spin, lies and death, and want to restore honor and dignity to critical thinking define Bishop Guertin High School the United States of persuasive writing piece School, America, support Barack Obama.
This is news? Let me get this straight. No one cares that the US Constitution gets spit on with regard to separation of thinking define Bishop Guertin High School, church and writing piece state. What do I mean? The influence of Religion on Public Policy was seen, historically, as the center of all division between nations and their peoples. It was the wisdom of the how to a movie Braemar, founders to School make this separation steadfast and critical Bishop Guertin High School so they put it in the Bill of Rights [Rights of persuasive School, Individuals and those of Government to protect Individuals]. The freedom to critical define High practice whatever belief you follow without undue influence over the public masses is vital to piece the nation’s highest law. We have religious leaders hiding behind their pulpit and protection of Religion to essay writing formats St. John's-Ravenscourt run their political agendas and to influence generations of parishoners to follow whatever political dogma they so choose. This article speaks about an intinerary the Taunton School, former first lady had and followers of Obama are hoping this distracts the essay College, media from following an actual story that truly has widespread ramifications–Reverend Wright’s Trinity Church and it’s separatist views he calls empowering black people.
I could careless what religion a bigot hides behind. To leverage politics under the persuasive Taunton School, cloak of St. John's-Ravenscourt School, dogma is not protected free speech and is being followed closely now that this reverend has been instrumental in piece, the beliefs of the School, front runner for the Democratic Party. We ignored George W. Bush and his messianic views. We mocked his inarticulations and because Obama is so articulate we tell ourselves that he isn’t influenced by Reverend Wright. Get real. No reasoned mind sits in any system for twenty years, later admits to writing piece Taunton School hearing this rhetoric but proclaims all the media does is how to write a movie take the words out of context. The nation would be better off if these candidates would keep religion where it belongs–in the temple, synogogue, church and persuasive piece Taunton School their private lives. Critical Of Brighton? Instead, we continue to accept this divisive influence to infect our political system and thus create the chaos we see today that our founding fathers wisely separated. This flaw in the former First Lady’s itinerary is a joke. Persuasive Piece School? This flaw in critical Bishop Guertin High School, the Reverend Wright’s bigotry is not. just curious; is there anything this woman ever gets right the Taunton, first time?
So what’s the story? Her account is generally the same as in her memoir. Sniper fire in the area, outdoor event moved inside. I certainly would’ve been running with my head down with reports of sniper fire in the area. Where’s the story on Obama’s substantive lies/misspeaking? $75,000 in campaign contributions from Rezco. Well, actually $150,000. Oops, I meant to say $250,000. I was not present in church for Rev.
Wright’s inflammatory comments. Um, since videotape may actually exist of it, yeah, I meant to say I was actually present for Rev. Wrong’s hate speech. That’s the real story, but of course we can’t point out the how to a movie Braemar College, truth about a black man’s lies. That would be racist. This is a major issue. We cannot have a President who lies at whim. come on, everyone we need to unite we cannot elect a lair. This video clip of persuasive writing, Hillary’s Bosnia Landing is define much funnier: How can they expect to be taken seriously? If you look at the video, she is saying, in effect, that the sniper fire was in writing Taunton School, gosh darn close proximity to her plane, perhaps even right at the plane.
Did the Secret Service really let her fly into a situation like that? And, where are the brains in her campaign, letting her say something like that? It’s been a couple of weeks or so since Sinbad put out his version of the “red phone” moment. Didn’t her peeps let her know that there were questions out there and maybe she should avoid any mention of Bosnia for the time being? If they didn’t give her a heads up, they’re pretty useless. If they did and she ignored them, the Secret Service should change her code name to Icarus. …Wow! Breaking news! …and this just in– Clinton misspoke when she claimed she was “instrumental” in define Bishop High, bring peace to Northern Ireland. “You know,” she now says, “my claiming that was just a wee bit silly.” …and this just in– Clinton misspoke when she claimed she never backed NAFTA. “You see, I was happy to invite many people to persuasive writing piece Taunton the White House to ask them to define Bishop Guertin School support it,” she now says, “but I fervently disagreed with my support, then and now.”
…and this just in– Clinton misspoke when she claimed she had 35 years of relevant experience. “Come to writing School think of it,” she now says, “I have only been in elected office for seven years. My years as an unelected First Lady, with no national security clearance and no role in great paragraphs essays, creating legislation, should be discounted.” …and this just in– Clinton misspoke when she said she is persuasive writing piece responsible for the State Children’s Health Insurance Program. “Well, I did first oppose it, but I did back it once Ted Kennedy and School Orrin Hatch made sure it would pass.” …and this just in– Clinton misspoke when she said that she did not consider her vote for “Authorization for Taunton, Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002? was a vote for diplomacy, not war. “Come to think of essay, it,” she now says, “‘military force’ sure does sound like we might fire a shot or two.” And as snipers fired over the heads of Sinbad, Sheryl Crow, and Chelsea, then-First Lady Clinton calmly greeted the flak-jacketed 8-year-old Bosnian girl. “Hey,” rubbing her tummy, “when are we going to eat?” the Hillary Files released recently, pages 468 – 471 show no problems with snipers and describe the incident EXACTLY as the WaPo reported it and as appears in the youtube video. she’s clearly been caught lying, and she’s been saying it over and over lately, even though her own records show otherwise. she may have faced danger in Bosnia, but she did not at writing piece, this airport regardless of her recent insistence March 17 at George Washington university. How is “ran with our heads down” misspeaking?
Did she mean to say “walked calmly with our heads high”? And what was she thinking with the an essay about a movie, fictional version of the persuasive School, story? Were we supposed to admire her for taking her only daughter into a firing range? Oh, my God, who would have thought! Really, life is taking such unexpected turns. Great 3 From Saint Anthony’s High? Imagine my astonishment when I woke up this morning and saw daylight. Where is the sniper fire? Who cares?
She was there and it was dangerous. The reporter clarifies it in the clip. Watching the video made me even more proud of her. Make up some more experience, Hillary. Tell us how you wrassled the Martians into submission in Roswell, NM. Or how you swam to Cuba to poison Castro, but that backfired.
Or how about that time you got into hand to hand combat with Gorbachev but he got you in a half nelson and you were only able to writing piece School get out of it by karate chopping him on his birth mark. That was a good one. This is outrageous! It’s only “misspeaking” when it’s not an intentional fabrication. This is, by the standard definition, a LIE she has been propagating on the campaign trail as recently as last week.
You can tell the difference between mis-speaking and lying by how often the account in question has been repeated and by evaluating what benefits, if any, were to be gained from individuals believing in how to write an essay about College, this account. As the story comes as part of piece, Mrs. Clinton’s standard stump speech touting her national security credentials, it is write an autobiography clearly designed to make her look tough. Since we now know that it isn’t true, even though she’s been putting it forward as truth, this is officially a LIE, and ought to be regarded as such by voters, especially those concerned with national security. School? This is how to write an autobiography essay School disgusting. I never realized that Hillary had the piece Taunton School, heart of a lion. But there she is, dodging sniper fire just to say hello to thinking The University of Brighton the Military on the battle field.
And don’t tell me you don’t see the bullets flying because you can’t ever see bullets unless your loading them in the rifle. When did Obama ever duck sniper fire to suppoort the Taunton School, Military? The South Side of Chicago might be tough, but it isn’t as bad as Serbia or Baghdad. I know now that she has the right stuff to be Commander in Chief. If it was so dangerous, why did she take Chelsea Clinton? Maybe the how to write, sequel memoir can be titled “Imagined History”. How do you, on multiple occasions, “misspeak” about claiming to be at threat from sniper fire?! No other explanation except embellishment makes sense. Plus, if it really was so dangerous, why did she bring her DAUGHTER with her? No one questions the persuasive writing Taunton School, right of parent to defend their daughter’s honor from disparaging remarks from cable news wonks but taking her to “a potential combat zone” demonstrates good leadership on day one??
The whole episode is ridiculous and great paragraphs Saint High School that is why she should be called to task on it. Persuasive Writing Piece Taunton School? What else is resume padding? So sick of the persusasive Ellesmere, Hill-hatred! Mis-speaking about persuasive writing Taunton School, where the sniper-fire came from or was is MUCH DIFFERENT and essay writing School LESS HARMFUL than listening to a hate-spewing pastor for 20 yrs. Having wrapped herself in this “ready from Day One” mantel, Clinton has no choice but hype her resume to a delusionally high level. The fact that, after “35 years of experience” she seems unable to beat the writing Taunton School, most “inexperienced” candidate is surprising.
“Misspoke”? It was, knowingly, an critical thinking The University of Brighton outright lie. Let’s call a spade a spade. Look, she clearly lied and that is to be noted. But as an Obama supporter, I’d much rather us not get into these back-and-forth gotcha moments. Starting to get sick of it. The latest on President Obama, Congress and other political news from Washington -- and persuasive writing Taunton around the nation -- from the staff of The New York Times. The Caucus on Monday suspended its campaign. Follow First Draft, a fast-paced political briefing on all things Washington and elections.
Readmore… Congress approved funding for equipping Syrian rebels against how to write, Islamic States and piece Taunton lawmakers will discuss their votes on several of the how to write a movie, Sunday shows.Readmore… President Obama vowed to piece Taunton “degrade and ultimately destroy” ISIS in a speech he gave on Wednesday. Lawmakers and analysts will discuss his strategy on the Sunday shows. Readmore…