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bod lab report 5210 BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD)* * Approved by Standard Methods Committee, 1997. 5210 B. 5-Day BOD Test. 1. General Discussion. a. Vrije Universiteit? Principle: The method consists of filling with sample, to overflowing, an airtight bottle of the specified size and incubating it at the specified temperature for how to write an autobiography essay Moreton Hall, 5 d. On Work Amsterdam? Dissolved oxygen is measured initially and after incubation, and the BOD is write Lime House School, computed from the difference between initial and Universiteit Amsterdam final DO. Because the initial DO is determined shortly after the essay writing, dilution is made, all oxygen uptake occurring after this measurement is included in the BOD measurement. b. Essays Universiteit? Sampling and storage: Samples for write Moreton Hall, BOD analysis may degrade significantly during storage between collection and analysis, resulting in low BOD values. Minimize reduction of Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, BOD by analyzing sample promptly or by cooling it to Paris near-freezing temperature during storage. However, even at low temperature, keep holding time to a minimum. Warm chilled samples to 20 ± 3 o C before analysis. 1) Grab samples – If analysis is begun within 2 h of collection, cold storage is unnecessary.
If analysis is not started within 2 h of sample collection, keep sample at or below 4 o C from the essays Vrije Amsterdam, time of collection. How To Essay The University Of Birmingham? Begin analysis within 6 h of essays on work Universiteit, collection; when this is not possible because the sampling site is distant from the laboratory, store at or below 4 o C and report length and temperature of storage with the of critical College, results. In no case start analysis more than 24 h after grab sample collection. When samples are to essays on work Vrije be used for regulatory purposes make every effort to deliver samples for analysis within 6 h of collection. 2) Composite samples – Keep samples at or below 4 o C during compositing. Limit compositing period to 24 h. Use the thinking College, same criteria as for storage of grab samples, starting the measurement of holding time from end of compositing period. State storage time and essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam conditions as part of the results. a. Best Online? Incubation bottles: Use glass bottles having 60 mL or greater capacity (300-mL bottles having a ground-glass stopper and a flared mouth are preferred). Clean bottles with a detergent, rinse thoroughly, and drain before use. As a precaution against drawing air into the dilution bottle during incubation, use a water seal.
Obtain satisfactory water seals by inverting bottles in a water bath or by adding water to the flared mouth of special BOD bottles. Place a paper or plastic cup or foil cap over flared mouth of bottle to reduce evaporation of the water seal during incubation. Essays Amsterdam? b. Air incubator or water bath, thermostatically controlled at 20 ± 1 o C. Exclude all light to prevent possibility of photosynthetic production of DO. Prepare reagents in advance but discard if there is essay of Birmingham, any sign of precipitation or biological growth in the stock bottles. Commercial equivalents of these reagents are acceptable and different stock concentrations may be used if doses are adjusted proportionally. a. Phosphate buffer solution: Dissolve 8.5 g KH 2 PO 4 , 21.75 g K 2 HPO 4 , 33.4 g Na 2 HPO 4 · 7H 2 O, and 1.7 g NH 4 Cl in essays on work Vrije, about 500 mL distilled water and dilute to 1 L. The pH should be 7.2 without further adjustment. Alternatively, dissolve 42.5 g KH 2 PO 4 or 54.3 g K 2 HPO 4 in about 700 mL distilled water. Adjust pH to my childhood essay Paris 7.2 with 30% NaOH and dilute to 1 L. b. Magnesium sulfate solution: Dissolve 22.5 g MgSO 4 · 7H 2 O in distilled water and dilute to 1 L. c. Calcium chloride solution: Dissolve 27.5 g CaCl 2 in distilled water and dilute to 1 L. On Work Vrije Amsterdam? d. Ferric chloride solution: Dissolve 0.25 g FeCl 3 · 6H 2 O in distilled water and dilute to 1 L. Best Online Writing Services? e. On Work Vrije Amsterdam? Acid and alkali solutions, 1 N, for an essay Lime School, neutralization of caustic or acid waste samples. 1) Acid – Slowly while stirring, add 28 mL conc sulfuric acid to distilled water.
Dilute to Vrije Amsterdam 1 L. Stages College? 2) Alkali – Dissolve 40 g sodium hydroxide in distilled water. Dilute to 1 L. f. Essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam? Sodium sulfite solution: Dissolve 1.575 g Na 2 SO 3 in 1000 mL distilled water. This solution is not stable; prepare daily. g. Nitrification inhibitor, 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl) pyridine.* h. How To A Convincing Essay The University Of Birmingham? Glucose-glutamic acid solution: Dry reagent-grade glucose and reagent-grade glutamic acid at 103 o C for 1 h. Add 150 mg glucose and 150 mg glutamic acid to distilled water and dilute to 1 L. Essays Vrije Amsterdam? Prepare fresh immediately before use. i. Ammonium chloride solution: Dissolve 1.15 g NH 4 Cl in thinking College, about 500 mL distilled water, adjust pH to 7.2 with NaOH solution, and dilute to Universiteit Amsterdam 1 L. Solution contains 0.3 mg N/mL. j. Of Critical Thinking College? Dilution water: Use demineralized, distilled, tap, or natural water for making sample dilutions. *Nitrification Inhibitor, Formula 2533, Hach Co., Loveland, CO, or equivalent. a. Preparation of dilution water: Place desired volume of water (¶ 3 j ) in on work Vrije Amsterdam, a suitable bottle and add 1 mL each of an essay House, phosphate buffer, MgSO 4 , CaCl 2 , and FeCl 3 solutions/L of water. Essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam? Seed dilution water, if desired, as described in ¶ 4 d. Test dilution water as described in ¶ 4 h so that water of assured quality always is on hand. Before use bring dilution water temperature to 20 + 3°C. Write The University? Saturate with DO by shaking in a partially filled bottle or by aerating with organic-free filtered air. Alternatively, store in cotton-plugged bottles long enough for water to become saturated with DO. Protect water quality by using clean glassware, tubing, and bottles. b. Essays On Work Amsterdam? Dilution water storage: Source water (¶ 3 j ) may be stored before use as long as the prepared dilution water meets quality control criteria in an essay in an Lime School, the dilution water blank (¶ 4 h ). Such storage may improve the quality of some source waters but may allow biological growth to cause deterioration in others.
Preferably do not store prepared dilution water for more than 24 h after adding nutrients, minerals, and buffer unless dilution water blanks consistently meet quality control limits. Discard stored source water if dilution water blank shows more than 0.2 mg/L DO depletion in 5 d. c. Glucose-glutamic acid check: Because the BOD test is a bioassay its results can be influenced greatly by on work Vrije Universiteit, the presence of toxicants or by use of a poor seeding material. Stages Of Critical Thinking? Distilled waters frequently are contaminated with copper; some sewage seeds are relatively inactive. Low results always are obtained with such seeds and waters. Periodically check dilution water quality, seed effectiveness, and analytical technique by making BOD measurements on a mixture of 150 mg glucose/L and 150 mg glutamic acid/L as a standard check solution. Glucose has an exceptionally high and essays Amsterdam variable oxidation rate but when it is used with glutamic acid, the oxidation rate is stabilized and is similar to that obtained with many municipal wastes. Alternatively, if a particular wastewater contains an School identifiable major constituent that contributes to the BOD, use this compound in place of the glucose-glutamic acid. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam? Determine the a convincing The University, 5-d 20 ° C BOD of a 2% dilution of the on work Vrije Universiteit, glucose- glutamic acid standard check solution using the techniques outlined in ¶s 4 d-j . Adjust concentrations of commercial mixtures to give 3 mg/L glucose and 3 mg/L glutamic acid in each GGA test bottle. Evaluate data as described in ¶ 6, Precision and write The University of Birmingham Bias.
1) Seed source – It is Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, necessary to have present a population of microorganisms capable of oxidizing the biodegradable organic matter in College, the sample. Domestic wastewater, unchlorinated or otherwise-undisinfected effluents from biological waste treatment plants, and surface waters receiving wastewater discharges contain satisfactory microbial populations. Some samples do not contain a sufficient microbial population (for example, some untreated industrial wastes, disinfected wastes, high-temperature wastes, or wastes with extreme pH values). For such wastes seed the dilution water or sample by adding a population of microorganisms. The preferred seed is effluent or mixed liquor from a biological treatment system processing the waste. Where such seed is not available, use supernatant from essays on work Amsterdam domestic wastewater after settling at room temperature for at least 1 h but no longer than 36 h. When effluent or mixed liquor from online a biological treatment process is used, inhibition of on work Vrije Amsterdam, nitrification is recommended. Some samples may contain materials not degraded at normal rates by the microorganisms in settled domestic wastewater. Seed such samples with an adapted microbial population obtained from the undisinfected effluent or mixed liquor of a biological process treating the waste. In the absence of such a facility, obtain seed from the receiving water below (preferably 3 to 8 km) the point of discharge.
When such seed sources also are not available, develop an adapted seed in the laboratory by continuously aerating a sample of settled domestic wastewater and adding small daily increments of waste. Optionally use a soil suspension or activated sludge, or a commercial seed preparation to how to essay obtain the initial microbial population. Determine the existence of a satisfactory population by testing the performance of the seed in BOD tests on the sample. BOD values that increase with time of adaptation to a steady high value indicate successful seed adaptation. 2) Seed control – Determine BOD of the seeding material as for any other sample. This is the seed control . Essays On Work Vrije Universiteit? From the value of the seed control and a knowledge of the i need Robert Gordon, seeding material dilution (in the essays on work Universiteit Amsterdam, dilution water) determine seed DO uptake. Ideally, make dilutions of seed such that the largest quantity results in at least 50% DO depletion. A plot of DO depletion, in milligrams per liter, versus milliliters of seed for all bottles having a 2-mg/L depletion and a 1.0-mg/L minimum residual DO should present a straight line for which the slope indicates DO depletion per write an essay in an Lime House School, milliliter of seed. The DO-axis intercept is oxygen depletion caused by the dilution water and Vrije Universiteit should be less than 0.1 mg/L (¶ 4 h ) . Alternatively, divide DO depletion by volume of seed in milliliters for each seed control bottle having a 2-mg/L depletion and i need to write Gordon a 1.0-mg/L residual DO. Average the results for all bottles meeting minimum depletion and residual DO criteria. The DO uptake attributable to the seed added to Universiteit each bottle should be between 0.6 and 1.0 mg/L, but the amount of how to write essay, seed added should be adjusted from this range to Universiteit Amsterdam that required to provide glucose-glutamic acid check results in an essay Robert University (NAVITAS), the range of 198 ± 30.5 mg/L.
To determine DO uptake for on work Universiteit Amsterdam, a test bottle, subtract DO uptake attributable to how to the seed from total DO update (see ¶ 5). Techniques for adding seeding material to dilution water are described for two sample dilution methods (¶ 4 f ). e. Sample pretreatment: Check pH of all samples before testing unless previous experience indicates that pH is essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, within the an essay in an Lime House, acceptable range. 1) Samples containing caustic alkalinity (pH 8.5) or acidity (pH 6.0) - Neutralize samples to pH 6.5 to Amsterdam 7.5 with a solution of sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) of such strength that the quantity of i need to write Robert (NAVITAS), reagent does not dilute the sample by more than 0.5%. The pH of dilution water should not be affected by the lowest sample dilution. Always seed samples that have been pH-adjusted. 2) Samples containing residual chlorine compounds - If possible, avoid samples containing residual chlorine by sampling ahead of chlorination processes. If the sample has been chlorinated but no detectable chlorine residual is present, seed the dilution water.
If residual chlorine is present, dechlorinate sample and on work Universiteit seed the dilution water (¶ 4 f ). Do not test chlorinated/dechlorinated samples without seeding the dilution water. In some samples chlorine will dissipate within 1 to 2 h of standing in the light. This often occurs during sample transport and handling. For samples in in an Lime, which chlorine residual does not dissipate in a reasonably short time, destroy chlorine residual by adding Na 2 SO 3 solution. Determine required volume of Na 2 SO 3 solution on a 100- to 1000-mL portion of neutralized sample by adding 10 mL of 1 + 1 acetic acid or 1 + 50 H 2 SO 4 , 10 mL potassium iodide (KI) solution (10 g/100 mL) per essays Vrije Amsterdam, 1000 mL portion, and titrating with Na 2 SO 3 solution to the starch-iodine end point for residual. Add to neutralized sample the how to an autobiography essay Moreton, relative volume of Na 2 SO 3 solution determined by the above test, mix, and after 10 to 20 min check sample for residual chlorine. (NOTE: Excess Na 2 SO 3 exerts an oxygen demand and reacts slowly with certain organic chloramine compounds that may be present in chlorinated samples.) 3) Samples containing other toxic substances - Certain industrial wastes, for example, plating wastes, contain toxic metals. Such samples often require special study and treatment. 4) Samples supersaturated with DO - Samples containing more than 9 mg DO/ L at 20°C may be encountered in cold waters or in water where photosynthesis occurs. To prevent loss of essays on work Universiteit, oxygen during incubation of such samples, reduce DO to saturation at 20°C by bringing sample to about 20 °C in partially filled bottle while agitating by vigorous shaking or by aerating with clean, filtered compressed air.
5) Sample temperature adjustment - Bring samples to 20 ± 1 ° C before making dilutions. 6) Nitrification inhibition - If nitrification inhibition is desired add 3 mg 2-chloro-6-(trichloro methyl) pyridine (TCMP) to i need an essay Robert each 300-mL bottle before capping or add sufficient amounts to the dilution water to make a final concentration of essays Vrije Universiteit, 10 mg/L. (NOTE: Pure TCMP may dissolve slowly and can float on top of the sample. Some commercial formulations dissolve more readily but are not 100% TCMP; adjust dosage accordingly.) Samples that may require nitrification inhibition include, but are not limited to, biologically treated effluents, samples seeded with biologically treated effluents, and river waters. Note the use of nitrogen inhibition in stages of critical College, reporting results. f. Dilution technique : Make several dilutions of sample that will result in a residual DO of at least 1 mg/L and a DO uptake of at least 2 mg/L after a 5-d incubation. Five dilutions are recommended unless experience with a particular sample shows that use of a smaller number of dilutions produces at on work Vrije Amsterdam least two bottles giving acceptable minimum DO depletion and residual limits. A more rapid analysis, such as COD, may be correlated approximately with BOD and how to write a convincing The University of Birmingham serve as a guide in selecting dilutions. In the absence of prior knowledge, use the following dilutions: 0.0 to 1.0% for strong industrial wastes, 1 to 5% for raw and settled wastewater, 5 to 25% for biologically treated effluent, and 25 to100% for essays on work Vrije, polluted river waters.
Prepare dilutions either in an essay University, graduated cylinders or volumetric glassware, and then transfer to on work Universiteit BOD bottles or prepare directly in a convincing essay, BOD bottles. Either dilution method can be combined with any DO measurement technique. The number of bottles to be prepared for each dilution depends on the DO technique and the number of replicates desired. When using graduated cylinders or volumetric flasks to prepare dilutions, and on work Vrije when seeding is necessary, add seed either directly to dilution water or to individual cylinders or flasks before dilution. Seeding of individual cylinders or flasks avoids a declining ratio of seed to sample as increasing dilutions are made. When dilutions are prepared directly in BOD bottles and when seeding is necessary, add seed directly to dilution water or directly to the BOD bottles. When a bottle contains more than 67% of the i need to write an essay University (NAVITAS), sample after dilution, nutrients may be limited in on work Universiteit, the diluted sample and subsequently reduce biological activity. Best Online Essay Writing Services Ashbury College? In such samples, add the nutrient, mineral, and buffer solutions (¶ 3 a through e ) directly to individual BOD bottles at a rate of 1 mL/L (0.33 mL/ 300-mL bottle) or use commercially prepared solutions designed to on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam dose the appropriate bottle size.
1) Dilutions prepared in of critical thinking Kendall College, graduated cylinders or volumetric flasks - If the azide modification of the titrimetric iodometric method (Section 4500-O.C) is used, carefully siphon dilution water, seeded if necessary, into a 1- to 2-L-capacity flask or cylinder. Universiteit? Fill half full without entraining air. Add desired quantity of carefully mixed sample and dilute to appropriate level with dilution water. Mix well with a plunger-type mixing rod; avoid entraining air. Siphon mixed dilution into write an autobiography essay Hall School two BOD bottles. Determine initial DO on one of these bottles. Stopper the second bottle tightly, water-seal, and incubate for 5 d at on work 20 ° C. If the membrane electrode method is used for an essay Lime School, DO measurement, siphon dilution mixture into essays on work Universiteit one BOD bottle. Determine initial DO on this bottle and replace any displaced contents with sample dilution to fill the an essay Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS), bottle. Vrije Universiteit? Stopper tightly, water-seal, and incubate for 5 d at how to write essay The University 20 ° C. 2) Dilutions prepared directly in BOD bottles - Using a wide-tip volumetric pipet, add the desired sample volume to individual BOD bottles of on work Amsterdam, known capacity.
Add appropriate amounts of seed material either to the individual BOD bottles or to the dilution water. Fill bottles with enough dilution water, seeded if necessary, so that insertion of stopper will displace all air, leaving no bubbles. Of Critical Thinking Kendall? For dilutions greater than 1:100 make a primary dilution in a graduated cylinder before making final dilution in the bottle. When using titrimetric iodometric methods for DO measurement, prepare two bottles at essays on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam each dilution. Determine initial DO on one bottle. Stopper second bottle tightly, water-seal, and incubate for 5 d at 20 ° C. If the membrane electrode method is used for DO measurement, prepare only one BOD bottle for each dilution. Determine initial DO on this bottle and replace any displaced contents with dilution water to fill the bottle. How To Essay? Stopper tightly, water-seal, and incubate for 5 d at 20 ° C. Rinse DO electrode between determinations to prevent cross-contamination of samples. Use the azide modification of the iodometric method (Section 4500-O.C) or the membrane electrode method (Section 4500-O.G) to Universiteit Amsterdam determine initial DO on all sample dilutions, dilution water blanks, and where appropriate, seed controls. If the membrane electrode method is used, the azide modification of the iodometric method (Method 4500-O.C) is recommended for calibrating the DO probe. g. Writing Istituto Paris? Determination of initial DO: If the sample contains materials that react rapidly with DO, determine initial DO immediately after filling BOD bottle with diluted sample.
If rapid initial DO uptake is Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, insignificant, the my childhood, time period between preparing dilution and measuring initial DO is not critical but should not exceed 30 min. h. Vrije Universiteit? Dilution water blank: Use a dilution water blank as a rough check on quality of unseeded dilution water and essay Marangoni cleanliness of incubation bottles. Together with each batch of samples incubate a bottle of unseeded dilution water. Determine initial and final DO as in Vrije, ¶s 4 g and j . Online Essay Services Ashbury? The DO uptake should not be more than 0.2 mg/L and Amsterdam preferably not more than 0.1 mg/L Discard all dilution water having a DO uptake greater than 0.2 mg/L and either eliminate source of contamination or select an alternate dilution water source.. i. Incubation: Incubate at online writing 20 o C ± 1 o C BOD bottles containing desired dilutions, seed controls, dilution water blanks, and on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam glucose-glutamic acid checks. Stages Of Critical Thinking Kendall? Water-seal bottles as described in ¶ 4 f . Essays Vrije? j. Determination of my childhood writing Istituto Marangoni, final DO: After 5 d incubation determine DO in sample dilutions, blanks, and checks as in ¶ 4 g . For each test bottle meeting the 2.0-mg/L minimum DO depletion and on work Vrije Universiteit the 1.0-mg/L residual DO, calculate BOD 5 as follows: When dilution water is not seeded: When dilution water is essay writing, seeded: D 1 = DO of diluted sample immediately after preparation, mg/L, D 2 = DO of Vrije, diluted sample after 5 d incubation at 20 o C, mg/L, P = decimal volumetric fraction of sample used, B 1 = DO of seed control before incubation, mg/L (¶ 4 d ), B 2 = DO of seed control after incubation mg/L (¶ 4 d ), and. f = ratio of seed in diluted sample to how to an autobiography Moreton seed in seed control = (% seed in diluted sample)/(% seed in seed control). Vrije Universiteit? If seed material is added directly to sample or to seed control bottles: f = (volume of seed in diluted sample)/(volume of seed in seed control) Report results as CBOD 5 if nitrification is inhibited. If more than one sample dilution meets the criteria of a residual DO of at least 1 mg/L and a DO depletion of at least 2 mg/L and there is no evidence of my childhood essay writing Istituto, toxicity at higher sample concentrations or the essays on work Vrije, existence of an obvious anomaly, average results in the acceptable range. In these calculations, do not make corrections for DO uptake by the dilution water blank during incubation. This correction is unnecessary if dilution water meets the blank criteria stipulated above.
If the essay writing Istituto Marangoni, dilution water does not meet these criteria, proper corrections are difficult ; do not record results or, as a minimum, mark them as not meeting quality control criteria. Essays Vrije Universiteit? 6. Precision and Bias. There is no measurement for establishing bias of the BOD procedure. The glucose-glutamic acid check prescribed in ¶ 4 c is intended to be a reference point for evaluation of dilution water quality, seed effectiveness, and analytical technique. Single-laboratory tests using a 300-mg/L mixed glucose-glutamic acid solution provided the following results: Number of months: 14. Number of triplicates: 421.
Average monthly recovery: 204 mg/L. My Childhood Essay Writing Paris? Average monthly standard deviation: 10.4 mg/L. In a series of interlaboratory studies, 1 each involving 2 to 112 laboratories (and as many analysts and seed sources), 5-d BOD measurements were made on synthetic water samples containing a 1:1 mixture of glucose and essays on work Vrije Amsterdam glutamic acid in the total concentration range of 3.3 to 231 mg/L. The regression equations for mean value, X , and standard deviation, S , from these studies were: X = 0.658 (added level, mg/L) + 0.280 mg/L. S = 0.100 (added level, mg/L) + 0.547 mg/L. For the 300-mg/L mixed primary standard, the how to a convincing essay, average 5-d BOD would be 198 mg/L with a standard deviation of Vrije, 30.5 mg/L. When nitrification inhibitors are used, GGA test results falling outside the 198 ± 30.5 control limit quite often indicate use of incorrect amounts of seed. Adjust amount of seed added to an essay Robert Gordon University the GGA test to achieve results falling within this range.
a. On Work Amsterdam? Control limits: Because of essay writing Istituto Paris, many factors affecting BOD tests in multilaboratory studies and the resulting extreme variability in test results, one standard deviation, as determined by Vrije, interlaboratory tests, is recommended as a control limit for individual laboratories. My Childhood Essay Writing? Alternatively, for essays on work Amsterdam, each laboratory, establish its control limits by performing a minimum of 25 glucose-glutamic acid checks (¶ 4 c ) over a period of my childhood essay writing Istituto, several weeks or months and calculating the mean and on work Vrije Universiteit standard deviation. Use the write a convincing essay, mean ± 3 standard deviations as the control limit for on work Vrije, future glucose-glutamic acid checks. Compare calculated control limits to the single-laboratory tests presented above and to interlaboratory results. If control limits are outside the range of 198 ± 30.5, re-evaluate the stages of critical thinking, control limits and Vrije Universiteit investigate source of the problem. If measured BOD for a glucose-glutamic acid check is outside the accepted control limit range, reject tests made with that seed and dilution water. b. Working range and detection limit: The working range is Kendall College, equal to on work Amsterdam the difference between the maximum initial DO (7 to 9 mg/L) and minimum DO residual of 1 mg/L multiplied by the dilution factor. A lower detection limit of essay Hall School, 2 mg/L is established by the requirement for Universiteit, a minimum DO depletion of 2 mg/L. U.S. E NVIRONMENTAL P ROTECTION A GENCY , O FFICE OF R ESEARCH AND D EVELOPMENT.
1986. Method by Method Statistics from Water Pollution (WP) Laboratory Performance Evaluation Studies. Quality Assurance Branch, Environmental Monitoring and Support Lab., Cincinnati, Ohio. Y OUNG , J.C., G.N. M C D ERMOTT D. J ENKINS . 1981. Alterations in write an essay hour, the BOD procedure for essays Universiteit Amsterdam, the 15th edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Best Online? J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 53:1253. © Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 20th Ed.
American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation.
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nus law essay ARTICLES, TALKS, and the like. On this page you will find a variety of essays spoken and written, in whole or in excerpt or summary, devoted to the topic of women's topfreedom. TERA does not necessarily agree with everything expressed here. We will post more material as time allows.
The topfreedom dilemma (by the girl who wrote One small step for topfreedom, Adelle Shea; posted 2006 Septermber 10) Baring our breasts (by Oquawka, posted 2004 September 27) One small step for topfreedom (by a girl in Edmonton, Alberta, posted 2004 May 20) Buffaloed (by John Aaron, posted 2004 March 16) Wal-Mart is wrong (by Julia Goforth, posted 2002 December 28)
Discriminatoire! (by Isabelle, posted 2002 December 14) [in French] Key West's Fantasy Fest: (by Bruce Frendahl, posted 2002 November 03) John, John, John: a poem about the boob in the Hall of Justice (by Claire Braz Valentine, posted 2002 April 30) The Judge (by Kayla Sosnow, posted 2001 October 25) Canadian Tire attire (by Julia Goforth, 2001 July 07) Beauty and essays on work Universiteit, the Breast: An Art Exhibition (by Allison Roberts, 2001 June 01) The KAYLA SOSNOW interview (by Peri, 2000 March 30 and April 10) I am not a sex object. I own my own body (by Allison Ezell, 2001 April 10) You can think for yourself (by Whitney R. McCleskey, 2001 May 9) Topfree as you wanna be! (by Peri, 1999 September 7) A taste of freedom (by Cindy Olsen, 1999 September 14) My breasts reclaimed (by a woman in writing Ashbury, Ontario, Canada, 2001 April 27) Articles by Paul Rapoport: Burn this page . . Essays On Work Universiteit? . (2005 November 28) Barebreasted women: Exposing indecency?
Outline and my childhood essay Istituto Marangoni, Summary (2001 June 1) 'Topfreedom' gaining ground (2000 March 01, a response to Topless advocates ignore differences between genders, by Lydia Lovric, 2000 February 23) Breastfeeding frenzy: Two views (1999 February 25, with update note 2001 August 27) Women's bare breasts: Equal rights or double standard? Summary (1998 March 11) Women take back their breasts: Canadian topfree struggles in 1997 (1997 October, excerpts and web link) Are barebreasted women monsters from space? (1997 August) THE TOPFREEDOM DILEMMA. The person who wrote the essays on work Universiteit Amsterdam next item has drawn a telling cartoon on to write an essay University (NAVITAS) the subject in essays on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, three frames: She concluded with this: The only way people will get used to seeing the naked female breast is by s eeing the naked female breast. Can't get any simpler, can it!
UNCOVERED: CELEBRATING WOMEN IN NEW YORK CITY. by Jordan Matter. The author is a noted New York photographer. Four of Kendall his photos are below; two more are here. Jordan Matter is looking for women above 40 (especially 60 and over) to participate in Universiteit Amsterdam, an ongoing photography project titled Uncovered: Celebrating Women in New York City. This project has recently been featured several times in the New York Daily News, as well as WOL radio. It involves photographs of women casually going about their daily routine in public while topfree.
The project is a reaction to the public madness that followed Janet Jackson's wardrobe malfunction. Public topfreedom for women and men in New York State is completely legal. If you're interested, please contact Jordan Matter. After Janet Jackson's breast was briefly exposed during the Super Bowl halftime show in 2004, the Federal Communications Commission launched an investigation as a reaction to the public outrage. Meanwhile, advertisements showing scantily clad models hawking beer received no such attention. The message to women across America was clear: your body is i need to write Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS), something to on work Vrije Universiteit be used but not shown. Conceal your breasts behind 150 grams of fabric and you're an attractive, desirable woman; but remove that fabric and you're at how to write an autobiography Moreton Hall School, best an aggressive opportunist. This double standard leads many women towards an Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, extremely negative self-image. Of Critical? They are measured by the highest physical standards, unmatchable by even the standard bearers themselves. Heidi Klum doesn't even look like Heidi Klum in person.
So women rely on smoke and Vrije Amsterdam, mirrors, spending a small fortune on pushup bras, body slimmers, and how to write an autobiography essay Hall, stiletto heels. To reveal what's beneath the packaging renders it in effect useless. This project reveals what's beneath the packaging. And it does so very publicly. Men are free to rip off their shirts with absolute impunity. I am encouraging women to Universiteit do the same. The purpose is to demystify the female body.
To accomplish this, I have chosen to photograph women topless in the most public venue in the world---New York City. When I photographed Alicia, she was lying down on a curb in Soho. A van with two men was parked three metres away. Write In An House School? They were very excited when they saw the essays on work Universiteit Amsterdam purpose of the write a convincing essay The University photograph. First they sat in essays, stunned silence, then they hooted and hollered.
But after five minutes they lost interest, and left before the shoot was finished. Her body was no longer mysterious. The women I have photographed all mention the liberation they feel while posing topless in public. College? Having covered themselves up for a lifetime, they found it exhilarating to on work Vrije Amsterdam shatter the walls that society had placed around them. I hope that when people view this work, they get a sense of School that exhilaration---because it can be intoxicating, and essays on work Universiteit, inspiring. I want to have a national conversation about beauty.
I'd like to sponsor a Pants Only parade, where men and Moreton, women march in essays on work Vrije Amsterdam, topfree solidarity down Fifth Avenue. Best Writing Ashbury College? I want Americans to see so many bodies that they move beyond the mindless, petty titillation of cleavage and physical beauty and into a more meaningful conversation about humanity and individuality. LETTER TO THE GOVERNOR OF CALIFORNIA. by Julia Goforth. The following letter was written in the winter of 2004, in response to the move by California public defender Liana Johnsson to essays on work Vrije Amsterdam permit women more topfreedom in that state. I am having a difficult time finding out essay College your position on the proposed bill for female breast equality. I would think that your background would cause you to essays on work Vrije Universiteit have a more enlightened view than that of the more gymnophobic westerner. From what I've read, the an essay arguments against on work Universiteit the proposed bill are based in fear rather than fact.
Statistics related to sex crimes against women indicate that countries/cultures that allow female breast freedom have a lower incidence of such crimes. In North America, states and how to write essay Moreton, provinces which do not criminalize the female breast have not suddenly become states of indecency. In fact, very few women choose to exercise their right to be topfree, due to the shame they still carry from the ongoing sexualization of the female breast by essays on work Vrije those who can profit by such measures. Randy Thomasson, president of Campaign for stages thinking Children and Families, insinuates that allowing women to on work Universiteit Amsterdam choose to wear tops or not will increase sex crimes against women. This is in direct opposition to studies concerning predators, as sexual assault is write essay The University, not a crime of on work Universiteit Amsterdam sex but one of to write an essay Robert (NAVITAS) power. When a woman has the essays Vrije Amsterdam courage to writing Ashbury College choose freedom and on work Universiteit, comfort, she projects power and is unlikely to stages of critical become a victim.
Predators prey on I'm weak body language. Publicly reclaiming ownership of one's breasts is not an act of on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam a weak woman. His claim is not based in fact and is propaganda meant to essay Istituto Marangoni induce fear and essays on work Vrije Amsterdam, perpetuate body shame. Essay Writing Istituto Marangoni? A side note: body shame is the root of on work Vrije Amsterdam eating disorders, body-altering surgeries, and related societal diseases which are damaging our families in far greater numbers than even the current rate of sex crimes. Breast shame also prevents some women from performing breast exams and my childhood essay Istituto, getting mammograms.
It was you who proclaimed October to be Breast Cancer Awareness Month. As a victim of sexual assault, rape, and sexual abuse, having the opportunity to reclaim my breasts has helped heal my formerly devastated body image and self concept. While I do not encourage other women to go without tops, I do encourage them to Vrije Universiteit make a conscious choice rather than allow others to essay writing Paris make the choice for them. Without choice, one is oppressed and enslaved. And although I have the right to choose, I rarely choose to be topfree. Thomasson goes on to say, The average man views a woman's exposed breasts as fascinating and sexually stimulating. That view is a result of this culture's teaching that breasts are taboo and intended for male sexual gratification only. Only 12% of the world's cultures view the female breast as sexual. Biologically speaking, female breast development is essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, a secondary sex trait, the same as male facial hair is. The female breast's primary function is not one of a sexual nature.
The biased laws perpetuate the myth that the female breast is inherently sexual. Sexuality of the breasts ought to be at Hall School, the discretion of the owners, not the lawmakers. US case law has already determined that the Amsterdam female breast isn't genitals, and that mere breast exposure doesn't constitute indecency or lewd and lascivious behaviour. Punishing women for having the misfortune of being women by denying the right to choose whether or not to wear a top is akin to punishing African-Americans for being African-Americans by denying them the i need Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS) right to Vrije Amsterdam sit where they want on a bus, attend a school with Caucasians, and vote. The opinion of individuals doesn't supersede the Constitution of the USA. To deny women the Lime House choice of wearing a top or not is a violation of the essays on work 14th Amendment, as this is imposed on the basis of one's sex. Children are not harmed by the sight of an essay Robert Gordon (NAVITAS) female breasts. They are harmed by prejudices and bigotry. Numerous studies indicate it is the parents' attitudes toward exposed breasts that determine how the child will be affected.
It is the gymnophobic parental response that traumatizes the child, not the essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam breast itself. The occasional exposure to the bare breast (pardon the an autobiography essay Moreton Hall School pun), if managed in a respectful manner, would provide an opportunity to educate and enlighten children (and adults) of the intended function of the female breast. Protecting the female breast from criminalization would help support breastfeeding mothers and help desensitize society. It would also make nursing mothers feel more at ease giving their child the best nutrition and nurturing, because they wouldn't have to be concerned about Vrije Amsterdam, being harassed for using their breasts in a non-sexual manner. (Breastfeeding is the best way to best online writing protect the health of the children in your state. It prevents numerous illnesses and helps relieve the burden of state-covered medical care.)
Thomasson also says, There are good reasons for modesty laws---to protect the essays on work innocence of women and girls and to promote a decent society supportive of children and write House, families. Modesty is a culturally relative term. The laws he speaks of aren't modesty laws; they are shame and oppression laws. They don't promote decency; they ensure the livelihood of strip clubs and other exploitive industries. They don't protect innocence; they perpetuate ignorance. They aren't supportive of children or families; they induce fear and essays on work, shame. TOPFREEDOM: A RHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DEBATE WITH A BUST. by Robin Jensen. This essay was written for presentation at the annual conference of the i need Robert University Organization for the Study of Communication, Language, and on work, Gender on write an essay in an hour October 10, 2003 in Ft.
Mitchell, Kentucky (hosted by on work Vrije the University of Cincinnati). One of how to an autobiography Hall School my biggest fantasies is just to on work Amsterdam ride down the highway bare-breasted on my motorcycle. I resent the fact that men do not have to wear shirts and women do, especially in the summer when it's so hot. My Childhood Essay Writing Marangoni? (Ayalah Weinstock, 1979, p. Essays On Work Vrije Universiteit? 122) It was probably a good thing for those children at write an essay in an House, the pool to see women's breasts as much as they wanted to and to be done with all the mystique, this hide-and-seek with women's breasts is essays on work Amsterdam, obviously unnatural and everybody suffers in online writing services, some way, especially women. (Ayalah Weinstock, 1979, p. 128) On the smoldering summer evening of June 21, 1934, everything seemed normal at Coney Island in New York City. The beach was crowded with men, women, and children dipping into the water after a long day at work.
Somewhere in this scene, a group of men decided to remove their bathing tops and perform calisthenics on the beach. The next day, The New York Times reported the scandalous incident. This was the second day in a row that men had refused to essays on work cover their chests in public (Heat, 1934, p. I Need Robert University? 3). The men were arrested and rushed to the county courthouse. Fortunately, Magistrate William O'Dwyer saw nothing wrong with shirtless men in the public sphere and released them without penalty (p. 3). To this day, the essays Universiteit ease with which these men earned the right to an autobiography Moreton Hall go topless stands in stark contrast to the efforts put forth by members of Universiteit the opposite sex. For instance, sixty years later a woman went to my childhood essay writing Istituto Marangoni Paris jail for going bare-breasted in the Osceola National Forest (Latteier, 1998, p. 161). On Work? On an equally scorching day, Kayla Sosnow, a graduate student, was hiking in the mountains with a male friend when they both decided to remove their shirts. Two forest rangers spotted the pair and demanded that Sosnow cover her chest. She refused to do so.
Later, she said, 'I knew it was ridiculous that men had the how to write Hall School right to essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam go without a shirt and of critical, women didn't, so I was going to essays on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam do something about an essay in an hour Lime House, it, which was just take my shirt off and be comfortable' (p. 161). Revealing her breasts in essays on work Universiteit, 1996 cost her four days in a Florida jail before she was allowed out on an essay Robert Gordon bail. Then, she: was found guilty of Vrije disorderly conduct and sentenced to stages of critical thinking Kendall thirty days in jail to be suspended after successfully serving five months probation, fifty hours of essays on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam community service, payment of $600 in fines and fees, and how to write an autobiography Moreton Hall School, a promise not to appear nude or partially nude in public for the next six months. Essays On Work Vrije Universiteit? (Latteier, 1998, p. 162) [At the time of Latteier's book publication in 1998, Sosnow was still facing appeals that were expected to last three to five years (p. 162). According to www.bodyobjective.com in a story by Peri Escarda accessed on April 7, 2003, Florida's 8th Circuit Court of Appeals overturned Kayla Sosnow's disorderly conduct conviction three years and eight months after her initial arrest.] Even before Sosnow's absurd experience in 1996, people had been fighting to eliminate the gender discrimination involved in her case. These feminists are proponents of topfreedom, which is the notion that women have the right to not wear a top in any situation that men also have that option (Topfree! 2003). The same website explains, The word 'topfree' is used because it does not have the negative connotations of 'topless' in regard to online essay services College commercial sex work. Essays On Work? Although equality between the my childhood Istituto Marangoni sexes has long been an Universiteit, ideal throughout most of to write Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS) western society, very little attention has been paid to this area of striking discrimination.
In order to delve into the gap between current topless laws and the fight against gender discrimination, it is important that the essays on work arguments on both sides of the issue are elucidated so as to encourage understanding and change. Therefore, this essay explores the main arguments for how to write essay of Birmingham and against topfreedom circulating in the public sphere and groups them into rhetorical categories for essays on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam future analysis. To begin, this essay first reviews the female breast's historical role and write an essay in an hour Lime, the emergence of the topfree movement. Second, it identifies and analyzes arguments for and against topfreedom using Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca's (1969) work The New Rhetoric: A treatise on argumentation as a guide. Ultimately, this work creates an Vrije Universiteit, initial, and long overdue, theoretical basis for future research concerning this important social protest movement. The Female Breast's Historical Role. In western culture, the female breast is overladen with contrasting and paradoxical meanings. The breast has consistently played a central role in the perception of women as divine idols, sexual deviants, consumers, mothers, citizens, employees, and medical patients.
In A History of the Breast , Yalom (1997) traces the ambiguous nature of the female breast throughout history. On one hand, the breast has long been a symbol of spirituality and online essay services College, the sacred role of motherhood that is Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, modeled after the Virgin Mary nursing the baby Jesus (p. Stages Of Critical Thinking Kendall College? 31). It has been said that as Mary provided nourishment for essays on work Vrije Amsterdam the divine child and is worthy of veneration, so are the best online Ashbury College nursing mothers who follow in her footsteps. This view is evident in the numerous paintings, sculptures, and other ancient and modern art works that feature the sacred act of a woman nursing her baby (p. 40). On Work Vrije Amsterdam? On the other hand, the breast has also worked for ages as a symbol of the erotic. Separated from the innocent divinity of the Virgin Mary, the display of the best online essay services Ashbury breast is essays Vrije, associated with sexuality and carnal lust (p. 49).
The erotic breast was, and continues to be, dominated by men. In this light, breasts are offered up for in an hour Lime School the pleasure of essays Vrije a male . . . with the intent of stages College arousing him, not her (p. 90). Latteier (1998) tackles the breast's sacred and erotic role from a modern perspective. Essays Amsterdam? She identifies the stages of critical College ambiguity surrounding the female breast and the issue that brings this ambiguity to the forefront: breastfeeding. Latteier claims that with the modern day commercialization of the breast as a sexual object, breastfeeding has become a taboo:
First, we do not trust the essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam female body, and we feel squeamish about bodily secretions in general. Then, we value breasts for their erotic appeal. Essay Marangoni? We believe that breasts should be attractive and that nursing wrecks them. Many people feel uncomfortable seeing a baby suckle, an act they view as sexual. (p. 89) With this outlook, the Western world has adopted numerous alternatives to breastfeeding. Before formula and bottles, many upper class women hired wet nurses to nurse their children for them. Essays On Work Universiteit? By the write late 18th century, wet nurses fed 90 percent of babies born in Paris, and other European urban areas boasted similarly high statistics (p.
106). In an effort to reverse this phenomenon, numerous governmental campaigns began equating nursing one's own child with civic responsibility. Yalom (1997) explains, The nursing mother was seen as fulfilling her duty first to her family and then to the commonwealth as she nourished its future citizens (p. 107). Today, Nadesan and Sotirin (1998) argue that the essays act of best online essay services College breastfeeding is essays Amsterdam, still rich with ambiguous symbolism and that a new slant is brought to the mother/sexual-object dichotomy in the science of Lime School breast feeding (p.
227). Science and essays Vrije, medicine collapse the Ashbury act into a normalized procedure that values the chemistry of the essays Vrije product, breast milk (p. Essay? 227). Modern campaigns encourage breastfeeding by essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam using slogans such as Breast is best, which frame the female breast as an object of health, prosperity, and monetary profit (women who decide to an essay in an House School breast feed are often encouraged by the medical community to essays on work Vrije Amsterdam purchase nursing pumps, specialized bras, and expensive nutritional supplements). In this light, the breast is not a symbol of motherhood or sexuality, but rather, simply a producer of write an essay in an hour House School a medically endorsed item for consumption, equivalent to a faucet or perhaps an assembly line part (p. 229). As both Yalom and Latteier point out, the medical establishment has also become involved with the fight against breast cancer.
Breast cancer has recently reached epic proportions with one in eight women in the United States contracting the disease in on work Universiteit, their lifetimes (American Cancer Society, 2002, p. 7). Treatment for breast cancer can include a harsh dose of House School chemotherapy, radiation, and a lumpectomy or mastectomy (Accad, 2001, p. 231). These methods have proven to be extremely effective in ridding the body of cancer and extending breast cancer patients' lives. Despite this reality, some people, including Accad (2001) in The Wounded Breast , hold that the essays on work Vrije Amsterdam removal of the breast is often an unnecessary procedure that contributes to the objectification and in an Lime House School, mistreatment of the female body (pp. 229-230). For this reason, increasing numbers of women with breast cancer are turning to alternative medicines in order to on work Universiteit escape the essay The University sometimes harsh world of medical technology (Yalom, 1997, p. 276). On Work Vrije Universiteit? On the other side, there are some women who seek standard medical treatment for augmentation or reduction surgery. Maine (2000) reports, Between 1997 and 1998, nearly a quarter million American women risked general anesthesia, routine surgical complications, and known long-term side effects to [alter] their bust size (p. 132).
While those who get breast reduction surgery usually do so to take weight off of their backs and increase their mobility, women who risk the how to many side effects of breast implantation often have purely aesthetic aims (Yalom, 1997, p. 239). Clearly, the essays female breast has a long and many-sided history grounded in unrealistic expectations, symbolic power, and patriarchal control. The Emergence of the Topfree Movement. The many historical and contemporary issues surrounding the female breast have framed the emergence of what Latteier (1998) labels breast activism, where individuals and groups encourage women to take the possession of their breasts away from the market economy (p. 153). Men were fighting for the right to go topfree in i need Gordon University (NAVITAS), the United States until at least the mid-1930s (Heat, 1934, p. 3). [According to the Topfree Equal Rights Association webpage, accessed on essays Vrije Amsterdam March 20, 2003, men continued to be arrested for going topless in other parts of the world such as South Africa.] The day on Coney Island in 1934 with which I opened this essay was one of the last instances where men had to fight for the right to writing Marangoni Paris go topfree in the western world, but it was just the beginning of women's battle to earn the same right. For instance, La Leche League was founded in 1956 and not only on work Vrije, encouraged women to breast feed their children, an write an autobiography essay Moreton, action that was frowned upon in the sexually repressed, sterile environment of the mid-20th century, but eventually defended women who nursed their babies and toddlers in public (Latteier, 1998, p. On Work Universiteit Amsterdam? 154). To this day, La Leche League continues to my childhood Istituto play an Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, active role in changing state obscenity laws that do not make exceptions for the exposure of nursing mothers.
While the League was one of the earliest groups to support breast exposure, they have done so exclusively for the benefit of nursing mothers. In the early 1970s, other groups began to fight against anti-topfree laws in general. During this time, some women removed their shirts and i need an essay Robert Gordon (NAVITAS), bras as a statement against patriarchy and the objectification of the essays female breast (Yalom, 1997, p. Best Online Essay Writing College? 276; Latteier, 1998, p. 39). These women challenged anti-nudity clauses that include the female breast in the list of essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam genitalia that must be covered in i need an essay Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS), public (Hyde, 1997, p. 133). [Although the ordinances vary from on work Vrije state to state, most of them resemble one cited in a California case from 1975. Nudity is defined as displaying 'the genitals, vulva, pubis, pubic, symphysis, pubic hair, buttocks, natal cleft, perineum, anus, anal region, or public hair region of an essay Robert (NAVITAS) any person, or any portion of the breast at or below the upper edge of the areola thereof the female person' (p. Vrije Universiteit? 133).] For the write an autobiography Moreton Hall most part, such efforts were shot down in on work Vrije, the courts. For instance, in 1975 a California judge ruled that because men and women's chests are biologically different, laws that limit only the exposure of women's breasts do not constitute sexual discrimination (p. 144).
Similarly, in 1977 a Florida judge charged women with disorderly conduct for online Ashbury College showing their breasts in public (Latteier, 1998, p. 161). On Work Amsterdam? Yet, the tides began to in an Lime House School shift in favor of the topfree movement in 1992 with the case of People v. Santorelli . This case centered around seven women who had been arrested for exposing their breasts in essays Universiteit, a public park. The judge decided that there was no governmental interest at stake in requiring women to cover their breasts and that the breasts of both men and women are legally the same (Hyde, 1997, p. 144). Kendall College? Anti-topfree laws were thus eliminated in the state of New York, supporting the argument that power, not nature, tells us when and whether a breast is a sexual organ (p. 148). On Work Vrije Universiteit? Similar decisions have since been made in services Ashbury College, places as diverse as the province of Ontario, Canada, the District of Columbia, and the state of Ohio. In addition, between 1995 and 1997, 12 states enacted laws that allow nursing mothers to essays Universiteit feed their children in public (Latteier, 1998, p. Stages? 155). While these recent successes in Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the effort to liberate the breast are encouraging, there are even more instances of governmental resistance to Robert Gordon University the topfree movement. Sosnow's experience is neither isolated nor exceptional. For instance, Evangeline Godron. was arrested in August 1998 for swimming topfree in a city pool in Canada.
This 64-year-old woman was literally carried out of the pool and charged with two counts of assault and one of mischief. She was then jailed for two days as a 'threat to society.' (Woman's Choice, 2003) Similarly, in New Jersey v. Vogt (2001) Arlene Vogt was charged $500 dollars for appearing topfree in a New Jersey public beach (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). In 1997, the Topfree Equal Rights Association, TERA, was created to help women who encounter legal difficulty going without tops in on work Amsterdam, public places in Canada and to inform the public on the issue. It also helps women in the USA (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). Other groups including Women's Choice, Topfreedom USA, Right2Bare, Topfree Equality for Women, and Kendall College, Topfree! have followed suit by on work Universiteit setting up websites, organizing local and national topfree rallies to how to write essay The University of Birmingham create media attention and on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, show support for the movement, and raising money to support the cause. I Need An Essay Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS)? Yet, as of 2003, no published works have focused exclusively on the topfree movement. Thus, the following analysis of the primary arguments for topfreedom will be based on on work Vrije Amsterdam websites, newspaper coverage, and court records in write an autobiography Moreton Hall, the hopes of essays Vrije Universiteit providing a starting point for research in this area. Before moving into the analysis, the next section of how to write essay Hall this essay introduces the analytical tools that will serve as a guide for this work. The New Rhetoric. In 1969, an English translation of essays Vrije Universiteit Perelman and a convincing, Olbrechts-Tyteca's work The New Rhetoric: A treatise on argumentation introduced a compendium of methods of securing adherence, both argumentative schemes and essays on work Universiteit, stylistic resources to a rhetorical tradition consumed by Cartesian logic (Conley, 1990, p. 298).
Rather than limit their study of argumentative schemes to self-evident facts and how to The University of Birmingham, logic, the authors developed a new rhetoric that is audience-centric, relying on logic as much as it does presumptions, values, and hierarchies (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. 2). Their goal was to characterize the different argumentative structures, the analysis of Amsterdam which must precede all experimental tests of their effectiveness (p. 9). Thus, their argumentative schema serves as a theoretical starting point in i need Robert University, the search for the most efficacious way of affecting minds (p. 8).
These aims are appropriate in Vrije, light of their definition of argumentation as the discursive means by which an audience is led to adhere to a given thesis, or by which its adherence is reinforced (Conley, 1990, p. Best Online Ashbury College? 297). Perelman and essays Universiteit Amsterdam, Olbrechts-Tyteca's (1969) work serves as an best services College, appropriate guide for the following categorization and analysis of the topfree movement for several reasons. First, the new rhetoric deals specifically with written texts rather than speeches (p. 6). Until the topfree movement gains more credibility in the western world, written texts will be the primary vehicle for making its points. Essays On Work Amsterdam? Most arguments surrounding topfreedom are currently transmitted via internet, newspaper coverage, and legal documents. Second, Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca wrote The New Rhetoric to serve as a theoretical starting point for future work in write in an School, the arena of argumentation (p. 9). Similarly, groundwork needs to be laid for the debate surrounding the topfree movement in the way of categorizing argumentative schemes before other work on this topic can be accomplished. Third, Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca sought to uncover the entire range of discursive means of argumentation, not just the logical forms (Conley, 1990, p. Essays Vrije? 297).
In other words, they recognized the best online writing Ashbury important role that arguments from value play in many areas of debate. The arguments surrounding the issue of topfreedom are heavily value-laden, making this debate a case-in-point of what the new rhetoric aimed to include in its analysis of argumentation. Ultimately, this project does not seek to force The New Rhetoric's categories onto the arguments surrounding topfreedom but, rather, aims to follow in Perelman and on work Universiteit, Olbrechts-Tyteca's footsteps by identifying key argumentative schema and pointing out where similarities exist between the new rhetoric's categories and online essay services Ashbury College, the arguments at hand. With any luck, this work will serve as a building block toward future experimental tests that will distinguish the essays on work Vrije most effective arguments for topfreedom. The Rhetoric Surrounding the Topfreedom Debat e. After analyzing topfree websites, newspaper articles covering media events surrounding topfreedom, and court documents obtained by using the search engines Lexis-Nexis and Google, I have divided the primary arguments for topfreedom into the following categories: rhetoric of write hour Lime House equality, rhetoric of sexuality, rhetoric of time, rhetoric of commerce, and rhetoric of health. I will look at each category by identifying arguments on both sides of the debate, giving a specific example for each side, and examining some of the theoretical assumptions underlying these arguments using The New Rhetoric as a guide. Rhetoric of Equality. First, the essays Vrije Universiteit primary arguments surrounding the topfreedom debate deal with the rhetoric of equality.
In most western societies, anti-topfree ordinances and court decisions tend to be grounded in the argument that men and women are inherently different and, therefore, laws must account for these differences. For instance, a few years after a group now called The Rochester Seven began to protest for topless rights in New York, a guest columnist for an essay Robert University (NAVITAS) USA Today criticized their goals, arguing, Bare-chested and bare-breasted are not the same, and on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, shouldn't be treated as if they are the same (Ellis, 1989, p. A8). On the other side, proponents of topfreedom make use of the tenets of liberal feminism and operate under the assumption that allowing men to go topless in the public sphere, but not women, is an example of inequality. Topfree advocates argue that the following two claims are incompatible: 1) women and men have equal rights; 2) women are required to cover their chests in areas where men are allowed to go topfree. How To Write A Convincing Essay? Specifically, the Right2bare website explains, Despite a Constitution that espouses equal right for all Americans, laws defining nudity reflect a severe breach in gender equity. A topless woman is essays on work Vrije, a criminal, while a topless man in the same situation is to write an essay Robert Gordon University, functioning within his constitutional rights (2003).
This argument from Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam incompatibility leads into the claim that anti-topfree laws are discriminatory. The Topfreedom USA website offers a case-in-point; it argues that laws against topfreedom are comparable to other practices that have been deemed discriminatory in the past: To those who disagree, or feel that topfree equal rights are unimportant, consider how you would feel if our laws made it illegal for people of your race, or religion to remove your shirts in public, while people of other races, and religions remained free to i need to write an essay Robert Gordon University do so. Vrije Amsterdam? Imagine the police rushing in to a crowd to stop an best writing services College, African American from dressing like a white person. Imagine a Jew being fined, and Vrije Amsterdam, forced to put on his shirt for trying to sunbathe like a Gentile. Imagine a woman being arrested for swimming in shorts like her husband. (2003) Obviously, forcing a person of a certain race or religious belief to wear a shirt when other people are given the choice to essay services Ashbury do otherwise would be an act of discrimination. In this light, the word discrimination is deemed an appropriate label for Amsterdam the application of anti-topfree ordinances that apply to stages of critical Kendall only one gender. The rhetoric of equality involves arguments from definition, the Vrije rule of justice, and arguments from incompatibility. I Need Robert (NAVITAS)? First, both sides of this debate make use of arguments from definition, a quasi-logical argument (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. On Work Vrije Universiteit? 210).
Those arguing against topfreedom define men and an essay (NAVITAS), women as biologically different and, therefore, conclude that the genders' equal treatment under the law will also have to be different as well. Advocates of essays Vrije Amsterdam topfreedom, on the other hand, begin their argument by defining anti-topfree laws as discriminatory. This argument from my childhood essay Istituto definition is on work Vrije, based on what the i need to write an essay Robert Gordon (NAVITAS) new rhetoric calls the rule of justice that requires giving identical treatment to beings or situations of the same kind (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. 218). Here, the rule of justice fits into what Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca label the rhetoric of incompatibility, another quasi-logical argument in which the essays Vrije theses one is disputing lead to an incompatibility, which resembles a contradiction in that it consists of two assertions between which a choice must be made, unless one rejects one or the other (p. 196). In the case at hand, one must reject either the claim that women and men should be treated equally or the claim that women should be required to i need an essay Robert Gordon (NAVITAS) cover their chests in situations where men are not similarly restricted. Rhetoric of Sexuality.
The rhetoric of sexuality is another category central to the topfreedom debate and involves two assumptions underlying anti-topfree ordinances and laws: women's breasts are inherently sexual and, therefore, allowing women to essays Universiteit Amsterdam be topfree in the public sphere will lead to an autobiography School increased cases of sexual assault. Carol Faraone, the essays on work Universiteit founder of Keep Tops On, an write essay Moreton Hall School, anti-topfreedom group, claims that topfreedom is 'walking pornography' and a practice that is essays Vrije Amsterdam, 'degrading to women and would harm children' (Gillis, 1998, p. 05). Another Canadian group, Keep It Kovered, also labels topfree women public pornography (Nolan, 1997, p. A1). On the my childhood essay Istituto other side, topfreedom advocates claim that women, like men, can choose when a certain body part is or is not sexual. Women's breasts are not part of the human genitalia and, thus, are sexual only in the way that a woman's legs or arms are sexual.
In other words: Different body parts arouse different people. Some are aroused by a beautiful face, yet women are not required to Vrije wear masks. Some are aroused by Istituto Marangoni feet, yet women can wear sandals. Some aroused by legs, yet women can wear dresses or shorts. Many women are aroused by men's chests, yet men can go top-free in most places. (Topfree Equality for essays Universiteit Women, 2001)
Similarly, children, it is argued, only get upset or bothered by something if they're taught to do so, and essay Hall School, given the fact that babies are nourished by breasts, it is ridiculous to essays on work Vrije Amsterdam claim that the sight of best online writing those same breasts are in essays on work Universiteit, any way harmful to children (Topfree Equality for Women, 2001). In response to the argument that allowing women to exercise topfreedom will lead to an increase in sexual assault cases, topfree advocates argue that men must take responsibility for their own actions. Ultimately, they assert, It's not a woman's task to prevent a man from harassing her#130; by stages of critical thinking wearing clothes men deem suitable on her! Women who wish to essays on work Amsterdam enjoy the same topfreedom as men are therefore not 'asking for it' (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). The Topfreedom USA website contributes to i need to write an essay Robert University this argument by explaining: Statistics show that Chinese women are raped more often than American women. It certainly isn't because they dress more provocatively than American women. It's because they aren't valued as equals by their society.
Their value is Amsterdam, disregarded, and their rights are denied. (2003) Ultimately, topfreedom advocates claim that a woman's clothing choices do not automatically instigate men to write essay School violate them. Several categories of essays Vrije argumentation underlie the rhetoric of an autobiography essay Moreton Hall sexuality: argument from definition, pragmatic argument, and essays Vrije Universiteit, the separation of the person from the how to a convincing essay The University of Birmingham act. Like the rhetoric of equality, both sides of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam topfreedom debate utilizing the rhetoric of stages thinking College sexuality are guided by essays on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam definition. How To An Autobiography Hall School? The definitions of words such as breast, genitalia, pornography, and indecency serve both as starting points for Vrije Universiteit the rhetoric of sexuality as well as points of contention. Arguments from definition often lead into pragmatic arguments, which allow a thing to be judged in terms of its present or its future consequences . Write An Autobiography Essay Hall School? . . (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. 267). For instance, those against topfreedom first define exposed breasts as pornography, then they deem the consequences of topfreedom, exposed breasts in the public sphere, to be unacceptable. On Work Vrije Universiteit? Topfreedom advocates often use a similar argumentative pattern by first defining the female breast as a sexually neutral body part and then deeming topfreedom appropriate given the consequences of not doing so: the criminalization of a non-sexual act. By claiming that topfree women will create an increase in sexual assault, those against topfreedom use an argument based on the separation of the person from the act where an act is interpreted as a function of the person, and it is how to of Birmingham, failure to on work respect this stability which is deplored when someone is stages of critical thinking, reproached for incoherent or unjustified change (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. 294). In this case, the Universiteit person himself is separated from the act of sexual assault because it is, supposedly, part of his nature to commit this act at the sight of topfree women. In response, topfree advocates have chosen an existentialist argument by putting the accent on the freedom of the person, which places him in how to, clear opposition to things (p.
295). In other words, it is on work Universiteit Amsterdam, argued that men can choose to control themselves in situations where they are exposed to topfree women. Rhetoric of Time. Both sides of this debate make use of arguments dealing with elements of time. On one side, the supporters of anti-topfree laws claim that because women are showing more skin than they ever have before, modern society is on a moral decline; the standards of the to write an essay past are deemed superior to the standards of the present and the future.
Howard Relin, a New York District Attorney, opposes topfreedom in an effort to maintain community standards (Nolan, 1997, p. A1). Similarly, an Ottawa deputy mayor, Allan Higdon, contends that keeping female breasts covered is a common courtesy and to do otherwise is thoughtless of the sensibilities of others (Gillis, 1998, p. 05). Superior Court of New Jersey judge Wells in New Jersey v. Wells (2001) argues for the necessity of Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam anti-topfree laws by noting that traditionally female breasts are unpalatable for the eyes of the general public (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). Contrarily, advocates of topfreedom claim that women are finally on the verge of a liberation that has never been available to them in the past. Over time, the covering of female body parts such as legs and arms has, for the most part, been deemed unnecessary and write hour School, repressive. The Women's Choice website argues: Let`s go to essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam recent history for a convincing essay a moment: until 70 or so years ago, women couldn't even show their ankles---for the same reason, that they are different. For centuries and on work Vrije, centuries women had to stages of critical College wear skirts that were ankle length (just imagine walking in that your whole life!). Today, women in essays on work Vrije, western culture can wear miniskirts showing even their knees---unimaginable for my childhood essay writing women before some 70 years ago. Vrije Amsterdam? And, what happened?
NOTHING. (2003, emphasis in original) This website also claims that if our decisions were always based on what has been the norm in the past, nothing would ever change. Slavery and other discriminatory activities would still be legal. Clearly, the rhetoric of topfreedom is stages Kendall College, appealing to essays Vrije Amsterdam the future, while the rhetoric of anti-topfreedom is appealing to write in an hour School the past. The latter is making use of what Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca (1969) label the loci of order, which affirms the superiority of that which is earlier over that which is essays on work Vrije Universiteit, later (p. 93).
This argument can also be understood in light of the device of stages, commonly referred to as the slippery slope argument, where the reasoning is described as follows: if you give in how to write an autobiography Moreton Hall School, this time, you will have to give in a little more next time, and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, heaven knows where you will stop (p. 282). School? In other words, as society has accepted women wearing less clothing over essays on work Universiteit Amsterdam, time, debauchery triumphs over morality. Topfreedom is yet another step in the wrong direction. Topfree proponents see things the other way around and appeal to arguments with unlimited development that: insist on the possibility of always going further in a certain direction without being able to foresee a limit to this direction, and this progress is accompanied by a continuous increase of value (p. How To The University Of Birmingham? 287). In this light, the more freedom that women have when it comes to their bodies, the better. Topfreedom is another sign of essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam progress. Rhetoric of Commerce and Health. These two categories are discussed together because, as this essay will discuss shortly, their argumentative structures are very similar. First, the marketplace is another point of contention in the topfreedom debate creating a rhetoric of commerce.
Generally, the conventions of business and capitalism require that exposed female breasts be strictly regulated and restricted to certain areas. A guest columnist for USA Today makes this claim by explaining, In all of life, rules and discipline are necessary (Ellis, 1989, p. A8). However, topfreedom proponents argue that current nudity laws go too far when prohibiting the exposure of best female breasts. Breasts are treated like a commodity, they say, and, as a result, women do not have control over their own breasts (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). In the spirit of Marxist feminism, or what Donovan (1992) labels socialist feminism and describes as the essays on work Vrije belief that women are oppressed by the combination of my childhood essay writing Marangoni Paris modern economic concerns and patriarchy, they identify a hypocrisy in the regulation of female breasts when topless bars, the pornography industry, and the world of advertising profit from the breast's exploitation. The Right2bare website claims that topfreedom is about women owning their own bodies rather than having them rented out by corporations as highly valuable marketing tools (2003). Essays? The Right2bare website also reports: They tell us to flaunt all the skin we possibly can---but not too much. What would happen to the pornography industry---magazines, clubs, internet---if women were free to walk around topless in stages of critical College, a park or down the Vrije street?
Our breasts would lose their magical marketability. They would run the risk of becoming just another mundane anatomical structure. Corporations would lose our bodies as tools to sell us everything from cars to stages of critical Kendall College cigarettes. (2003) Second, in light of the rhetoric of Vrije health, while those who support anti-topfree laws generally do not recognize a correlation between women's health and hour School, the regulation of their breasts, topfreedom supporters draw several conclusions about how these rules are detrimental to women's wellbeing. Some argue that requiring women to cover their breasts in situations where men are not required to Vrije Universiteit do so teaches women that their bodies are unacceptable and objects of which they should be ashamed. This effect is only exacerbated when the breasts that are highlighted in the media belong primarily to write young, extremely toned models. Women's feelings of embarrassment concerning their breasts can result in low self-esteem, leading to eating disorders, depression, and other harmful conditions. For instance, the Topfree Equality for Women website explains:
A grandmother of the author of this page had such a poor self-image and was afraid to have someone look at her body that she delayed going to a doctor until the cancer that she was suffering from on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam had gone too far to be treated, and she died as a result. Write In An Lime School? (2001) Correspondingly, it is argued that when women are ashamed of their breasts, they are less likely to breastfeed their children, possibly compromising the health of their offspring as well as their own health. In these final two categories, both the rhetoric of commerce and the rhetoric of health, Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca's (1969) concept of presence is especially pronounced. Presence relies on the fact that all argumentation is essays on work Universiteit Amsterdam, selective (p. Of Critical Thinking? 119). Thus, by the very fact of selecting certain elements and presenting them to the audience, their importance and pertinency to the discussion is implied (p. 116). Essays On Work Universiteit? The concept of presence is easy to spot in these two categories of argumentation because they discuss elements of the topfreedom debate that might not be immediately apparent to an uninitiated individual: the commercialization of the breast and the health consequences of anti-topfree laws. Of Critical College? These arguments illustrate a specific structure of reality highlighting aspects of that reality that the on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam authors wish to promote (p. How To A Convincing The University? 261). In the case of the rhetoric of essays Vrije Universiteit commerce and how to write a convincing The University, the rhetoric of Vrije health, topfreedom advocates are drawing causal links (i.e., that anti-topfreedom laws result in women's commercial exploitation and poor health) that their opponents deny.
They know that the same event will be interpreted, and stages thinking Kendall College, differently evaluated, according to essays Vrije Universiteit the idea formed of the nature---intended or involuntary---of its consequences (p. 270-271). Therefore, they have put forth arguments that feature consequences the services public might not explore by itself. Although topfreedom has a fairly long history in the western world, it continues to be an Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, issue that receives little thoughtful consideration or attention from the write an essay Lime general public. On Work? In fact, while discussing the how to write an autobiography Moreton project at hand with others, I found that upon hearing a brief synopsis of the essays Vrije Amsterdam topfreedom movement's goals, most people dismiss the idea that women should be allowed to best online writing Ashbury go topfree whenever men are given the choice to do so as ludicrous. At this point in time, even people that consider themselves to be feminists often have a difficult time understanding the important issues that underlie the topfreedom debate. In this light, it is apparent that arguments for essays Vrije Universiteit topfreedom must be thoughtful, purposive, and audience-centered in order to gain the consideration of an uninitiated public. Online Writing Services Ashbury? While it might be easy to essays create a media event featuring bare breasted ladies, the write a convincing title itself reminiscent of a circus act, it is not so easy to on work Amsterdam get the online essay writing College public to take those same ladies' concerns seriously. This essay seeks to begin the process of on work Amsterdam crafting argumentation that will bring the topfreedom movement forward by providing a theoretical starting point for the discovery of, as Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca (1969) put it, the most efficacious way of affecting minds to the issues surrounding topfreedom (p. An Essay Hour Lime House School? 8). Yet there are several limitations in this study that must be acknowledged.
First, I have identified the five primary categories of argumentation surrounding topfreedom as the rhetoric of equality, rhetoric of sexuality, rhetoric of time, rhetoric of essays on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam commerce, and write an essay in an House, rhetoric of essays health. However, there are also many secondary arguments surrounding the topfreedom debate that have yet to be addressed but are beyond the scope of this essay. Similarly, there are many complementary issues such as naturism and exhibitionism that need to be analyzed in light of the fight for writing Istituto Marangoni Paris topfreedom but are, again, beyond the scope of essays Vrije Universiteit this work. Second, more emphasis has been placed on the arguments for topfreedom than the an essay Robert University (NAVITAS) arguments against topfreedom in this essay. However, this is less of a biased oversight than a response to the number of on work Amsterdam anti-topfreedom arguments circulating in the public sphere. Currently, because the status quo has not been in write an autobiography Moreton Hall School, danger, arguments supporting these laws are few and Amsterdam, far between. Online Services College? However, as more people join the topfree movement, anti-topfree arguments will, in response, become more prominent.
Clearly, the topfreedom movement is on work Universiteit, ripe with research opportunities. Beyond the ideas mentioned above, future research must also continue to organize these arguments as the conditions surrounding this issue change. Perhaps most importantly, scholars will need to build from these theoretical categories to decide which arguments best interact with and inform audiences in various situations. Best Essay Ashbury College? Equal attention must be paid to on work Universiteit the arguments that uphold anti-topfree laws and ordinances so that we can both understand them and Hall, respond to them. Ultimately, topfreedom as an idea is Vrije Amsterdam, making its way into the agenda of public discourse and must continue on i need to write an essay Robert (NAVITAS) that path in order to achieve the important goals that it upholds. Accad, E. (2001). Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam? The wounded breast . Chicago: University of essay services Ashbury Illinois. American Cancer Society. Breast cancer: facts figures 2001-2002 . (2002).
Atlanta, Georgia: ACS. Ayalah, D., Weinstock, I.J. (1979). Breasts: Women speak about their breasts and their lives . New York: Summit Books. Conley, T. (1990). Rhetoric in the European tradition . Chicago: University of Chicago. Donovan, J. (1992). Feminist theory: the on work Amsterdam intellectual traditions of American feminism , 2nd ed. New York: Continuum. Ellis, T. (1989, July 6).
Face-off: Going bare-chested; Good taste is how to essay Moreton Hall, not discrimination. USA Today , p. A8. Gillis, M. (1998, July 5). Essays Vrije? Tempest in a d-cup: Topless debate chills as novelty of baring it all wears thin. How To A Convincing Essay The University? The Ottawa Sun , p. 05. Heat of 89.3 Degrees Ushers in Summer (1934, June 22). The New York Times , p. 3. Hyde, A. (1997). Bodies of law. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Latteier, C. (1998). Breasts: The woman's perspective on an American obsession . New York: Harrington Park Press. Maine, M. (2000). Body wars: making peace with women's bodies . Essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam? Carlsbad, CA: Gurze Books. Nolan, M.K. (1997, August 11). Topless women?
Not in stages of critical thinking, conservative Hamilton. Hamilton Spectator , p. A1. Perelman, C., Olbrechts-Tyteca, L. (1969). The New Rhetoric: A treatise on argumentation (J. Wilkinson P. Weaver, Trans.). On Work Universiteit Amsterdam? Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame. (Original work published 1958) Topfree Equal Rights Association. (2003). Retrieved April 1, 2003, from http://www.tera.ca/index.html . Topfree Equality for Women. My Childhood Writing Istituto? (2001). On Work Universiteit? Retrieved March 22, 2003, from http://www.ohnuderec.org/Topfree/tf.html . Yalom, M. (1997). The history of the breast . Write House? New York: Knopf. Copyright 2003 by Robin E. Jensen.
BARING OUR BREASTS. by Oquawka (Janie Rezner) This article was written in Amsterdam, September 2004. Writing Services Ashbury? The author lives in California. I recently stood with a small group of barebreasted women holding aloft signs that read, Letting Children Starve is essays Vrije Amsterdam, Indecent and write hour House School, other like messages, on a Sunday afternoon in downtown Mendocino. I was responding to the outrageous reaction to on work Universiteit the bare breast by the high and mighty of this country: John Ashcroft ordering the covering of a statue of a bare-breasted woman, the big to-do because someone's breast was seen for a moment on TV. I was responding to the efforts of the patriarchal powers to diminish and vilify this very wonderful attribute of women which allows them to feed their children from their own body. The folks in power strive to wipe out best essay Ashbury College any honouring of the maternal, and have been doing so for almost 5000 years.
Nothing new there, of course. Ammachi, the essays on work Amsterdam Indian saint, speaks at length about this loss. The maternal breast is very political. Best Online Essay College? It's about women taking back their own bodies---making birthing and nursing and feeding the norm, rather than war and essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, death, whose images are an everyday occurrence for our growing children. Rather than honouring scenes of violence and the taking of my childhood essay Istituto Marangoni Paris life, how about honouring the scenes of the giving of life? Nurturing rather than warring! I sent some of my photos and recent writings to Christopher Titmuss, international Buddhist meditation teacher in essays on work, England, who leads meditation retreats around the thinking world. He is also an activist. His response was: I loved the article and the photos. To wake up consciousness, we have to Vrije Amsterdam be bold.
We live in a society which has an obsessive fetish about women's breasts---particularly around size, shape, and an essay Gordon University (NAVITAS), age. A huge money-making industry feeds the fetish from porn to the operating table. It's big business. Essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam? All credit to you and your women friends for baring the truth. Love and longing for the breast are quite a natural instinct, since our first and primary life experience is being nursed at our mother's breast. Profound comfort, stimulation, satisfaction, a sense of how to an autobiography Moreton Hall security like none other while being held in our mother's arms---and most of all nourishment, without which we would have died.
These deep, primal feelings all spring from the baby's connection to the breast. We can see how this natural expression of seeking comfort that lives on in a man's intimate relationship with a woman has been perverted, like most primal feelings in this current patriarchal world. Riane Eisler says, We have to change the conversation. I'm hoping this issue and essays on work Universiteit Amsterdam, the deeper truth and reality that surround it will be brought more into the public eye. That's what we are all about, as conscious human beings on earth, aren't we?
Not only how to Moreton, doing our best to change the bigger conversation to on work Amsterdam the real concerns that are facing us, but for an autobiography Moreton some of us, bringing awareness of what our history as humans has been, and how we must come back into essays on work Vrije Universiteit balance, if we are to survive. As we now live, with one half of humanity controlling and having ultimate power over the other half, with the how to write Sacred Feminine dominated, her voice silenced, her wisdom scoffed at, a huge gap exists in our inner and on work Vrije, outer life. The anxiety and violence increase, life moving faster and faster, stimulation coming in at us from all directions. All to dull the pain of an essay Lime School a world gone awry, a world without love and compassion. ONE SMALL STEP FOR TOPFREEDOM. by a girl in Edmonton, Alberta.
This article was written in Amsterdam, May 2004. In the write an autobiography essay Moreton School summer of 2003, at Universiteit, the age of 14, I struck my first blow for topfreedom by my childhood Paris wearing only a bikini bottom at a beach at Gull Lake, Alberta. Though small in scope, it was a large personal move because I had dared to exercise my right and go barebreasted in public. I say dared because, though legal, this is not yet socially acceptable, and I could have caused a disturbance and essays, been subjected to ridicule and harassment, as so many women have in other places. I dropped my top on our beach blanket next to my father and ran for the water with my girlfriend (her top still on) beside me for moral support. What would happen now? Was I ready for to write an essay Robert this? Regardless of age, other girls seemed to express shock or envy; the boys expressed surprise and interest. No one said anything to me, and essays on work Vrije Universiteit, no one called the police. One couple nearby smiled and gave me a thumbs up.
There was only Paris, one dissenting voice, a friend of on work my mother#130; who thought I was breaking the my childhood essay Marangoni Paris law. It was my father who told her that it was legal in Canada for a woman to essays on work Vrije go topfree anywhere a man could, and offered to show her the proof when we got home. She didn't seem impressed; but I remained topfree for the rest of our stay. So I got away with it and am still getting away with it on a regular basis. Perhaps Albertans are not the rednecks we are portrayed as in write a convincing essay, the media; perhaps we are more open and on work Universiteit Amsterdam, progressive than people give us credit for.
Of course, these are the write an autobiography essay School same media that pilloried Janet Jackson when she flashed her semi-nude breast for essays Universiteit Amsterdam a split second during a show that also presented with impunity scantily clad and stages of critical thinking Kendall, suggestive dancers, half-dressed gladiatrixes, and erotic or demeaning song lyrics. Women's breasts are sexual and men's are not because men say so, hetero men anyways. But anyone familiar with the gay community will know that men's breasts may be just as sexual as women's. Essays On Work Universiteit? So why the controversy? I think women have not achieved topfreedom, some 75 years after men have done so, because their breasts and bodies have been a moneymaking commodity for so long. Write School? If you don't believe this, take a closer look the next time you pass a magazine stand. Women's sexualization is essays Vrije Amsterdam, used to sell everything from cars to candy bars. A financial resource of this magnitude must be protected. Perhaps Janet should have surrounded herself with topfree male dancers and suddenly exposed both breasts---and then have the FCC explain the double standard. That would have been one giant leap! Note: the how to write an autobiography Moreton Hall School legality as mentioned above is probably correct for essays on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam all of writing Istituto Paris Canada but has not been specifically established in some provinces, including Alberta.
Note: Topfreedom has been legal for women throughout New York State since July 7, 1992. I have included a photo of my significant other (Linda Marszalkowski) at Lawson Park, Cheektowaga, New York, enjoying the warm and sunny weather last summer. The newspaper never did a story on Linda because the police department finally found that she was acting within her legal rights removing her shirt in essays on work, the town park. But they weren't happy about telling me this. I talked to the police department after we got home.
Apparently, they told complainers that Linda wasn't doing anything wrong. But it didn't begin so easily. That day we took a short walk through the park and my childhood essay Marangoni, stopped for a picnic. Two park maintenance guys approached and told us that Linda had to put her shirt back on or she was going to be arrested. Essays On Work Vrije Amsterdam? I explained that she wasn't doing anything wrong and showed them the best essay College documentation to support that.
They said they were going to call the cops. I decided because the newspaper wasn't going to do the story that I was going to find out myself how many police departments in the towns around the area knew the law. Buffalo said that if she was spotted, she would be arrested. Tonawanda said that they knew it was legal---but gave me an attitude. Lancaster said that even if it wasn't legal, they wouldn't mind. West Seneca said that they knew that it was legal but they thought that there was some restriction about school yards. Kenmore gave me a hard time and on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, finally said that if I knew the answer ahead of time then why did I call, and why would I want my girlfriend running around without a top on anyways. Orchard Park said that they didn't know but took the name of the police chief in Cheektowaga to verify what I was telling them. Amherst said that they didn't know but also took the police chief's name to verify.
They thanked me for stages Kendall College informing them. Other towns around Buffalo either said that they were going to Vrije check or never got back to me. It really disturbs me that the Buffalo police department, the largest in best online, the area, initially didn't know the law and, even after hearing what I had to on work Vrije say, said that Linda would be arrested anyways. WAL-MART IS WRONG. by Julia Goforth. This letter was sent to how to essay The University of Birmingham Wal-Mart's American head office in December 2002. I have decided that I will no longer be shopping at any Wal-Mart or Sam's Club store.
I am greatly disturbed by the positions that Wal-Mart has taken recently. I am appalled that Tamie Dragone of Lincoln, Kansas had to on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam face horror and humiliation because of photos of her child that she entrusted to thinking College Wal-Mart. There is case law that outlines what is considered child pornography---it must meet four qualifications. Across the US and Canada, woman are fighting for and winning the right to on work Amsterdam be topfree in essay Paris, public as men are because the female breast is essays on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, not a sexual organ and write in an Lime House, is not indecent or sexual by nature. Many states recognize that to deprive a woman the on work Universiteit right to be topfree in public while men are allowed to be is discrimination based on sex, and how to write of Birmingham, have laws protecting women's rights, including the right to be topfree. States that haven't moved into that still don't require a girl younger than the age of on work Universiteit Amsterdam 10 to hour House wear a top in public, e. g. at a public swimming pool. The corporation's support of its over-zealous employees is absurd. I question the essays on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam mindset of this employee if he/she found the photos of a three-year-old old to be erotic. (Incidentally, some counties in Arkansas refuse to respond to a call about a woman being merely topfree in write a convincing of Birmingham, public.) To assume that nudity is automatically sexual ought to be an insult to us all.
We are all nude. Most of us have been indoctrinated into believing our bodies are shameful and dirty and need to be covered, and that uncovering them is sexual, regardless of one's age. But now, pulling pregnant Midge off the shelves because some customers feel it is sending the wrong message to children---this is utter nonsense. It's Barbie herself that sends the wrong message to children. If Barbie were real, due to her proportions she would not be able to Vrije Amsterdam walk upright. She would be skeletally malformed and obviously nutritionally deprived. However, her friend Midge, waiting until marriage to become pregnant and Lime House School, still having her husband and son, is being pulled from the shelves. As a mother of six, I agree that this doll would be an asset to my children. In child play-therapy, it could help a child work through issues regarding the Vrije pending arrival of a new sibling or the abuse witnessed of its pregnant mother. There are so many benefits to having this doll that I can't believe that it is write hour Lime House, being pulled from the shelves. The irony to me is that the toy, magazine, and electronics sections of Wal-Mart and Sam's Club are filled with things that promote violence, including destruction and murder, and titillate by showing the on work Universiteit peek-a-boo cleavage of women in order to sell a product.
And I won't even begin to discuss the my childhood essay writing Marangoni bathing suit section. Please. Wal-Mart purports to essays be family-centered and of high morals, which is the supposed reason behind the photo policy, but this is just a marketing ploy. I would rather drive farther and pay higher prices to a corporation that carries whatever in order to blatantly make a profit but doesn't lie to me by pretending to be moral and to have integrity. I remember how Sam would do spot checks in the stores to make sure customers were receiving good service. It was about the customers, balanced with the profit motive. I doubt Sam would have handled either of these incidents the way they were handled. Wal-Mart will no longer be getting any of my money.
And as an advocate for women and how to write an autobiography essay Moreton School, children recovering from abuse, I will advise my colleagues of my decision and the reasons behind it, and encourage them to follow suit. As a leader in female equality, I will advise my associates similarly. As an activist against child pornography, I will also advise all those I come into contact with in this realm. I am committed to my decision, as it directly and Universiteit Amsterdam, indirectly affects my children as well as the society in which they grow up in. Cette lettre était écrite par Isabelle, étudiante québécoise de 22 ans qui terminait sa deuxième année de baccalauréat. La cause des femmes que vous défendez m'intéresse beaucoup car, été après été, j'en souffre énormément. J'ai crié ma colère et ma révolte publiquement au sein des différents organismes, mais ils n'ont pas voulu m'écouter. À présent, je dois dire que je n'attends plus rien de cette société qui est, de toute évidence, très réfractaire aux changements. How To Write Essay? Mon but, pour l'instant, est de terminer mes études et m'en aller vers des lieux plus cléments et compréhensifs, où j'aurai enfin droit d'exprimer mes goûts et mes désirs librement, sans contrainte m'interdisant d'être ce que je suis, en me culpabilisant et me traitant comme une criminelle si je fais ce que les hommes ont toujours fait, tout ceci simplement parce que je suis une femme. Je dois toujours être sur mes gardes, ne jamais provoquer les pauvres hommes qui ne pensent qu'à saliver sur notre corps (si on se comporte de la même façon qu'eux); et agir de façon toujours conforme, sans jamais réprimander. Autrement on se fait pointer du doigt mais sans, pour autant, se faire entendre . . . L'an dernier , mon conjoint et moi avons écrit un texte qui, à notre avis, était complet et expliquait bien le droit que devraient avoir les femmes de se promener torse nu et ceci, aux mêmes endroits autorisés pour les hommes. Nous avons posté notre lettre aux ministères de la justice (Québec et Canada), à la charte des droits et libertés de la personne ainsi qu'à la condition féminine Canada.
Mon conjoint a également fait de nombreux téléphones pour savoir où en était rendu le dossier mais malheureusement, personne ne le savait et rien n'a avancé. Voilà la lettre écrite par Isabelle et son conjoint: Nous vous écrivons pour vous dire à quel point nous trouvons injuste de voir qu'encore aujourd'hui, au Québec, dans notre société, les femmes n'ont pas le droit de se promener le torse nu, aux mêmes endroits que les hommes. Après tout, l'été, lorsqu'il fait chaud, n'est-ce pas la même chaleur pour les femmes alors pourquoi ces dernières se voient refuser le droit de sentir l'air frais sur leur peau et de se faire bronzer uniformément, au même titre que les hommes? Vous ne pensez pas que si une femme est mieux dans sa peau le torse nu et qu'elle se sent plus confortable, elle devrait obtenir ce droit fondamental qu'ont toujours eu les hommes, c'est-à-dire le droit d'être enfin libre elle aussi? Ce n'est pas évident de toujours sentir un haut de bikini qui nous serre constamment la poitrine et vous ne pouvez pas vous imaginer jusqu'à quel point une femme peut être déprimée lorsqu'elle voit des hommes faire ce dont elle a toujours rêvé et que elle, vu qu'elle est née femme, elle se voit refuser ce droit.
Pourquoi est-ce légal pour un et illégal pour l'autre? Pourquoi est-ce naturel pour un et indécent pour l'autre? Bref, pourquoi considérons-nous une femme qui est bien dans sa peau avec le corps qu'elle a comme une criminelle, ni plus, ni moins? Tout ça est complètement illogique et représente une énorme injustice sociale car n'oublions pas que 100% des humains ont des seins, les femmes les ayant toutefois quelque peu plus développés. Quoi de plus normal qu'une femme qui allaite son enfant? Le sein est une source de vie et non un objet sexuel dédié à faire seulement plaisir aux hommes. Quand est-ce que les femmes pourront enfin cesser d'être dominées par les hommes et avoir une fois pour toute leur place dans cette société malade et discriminatoire à l'extrême? Nous ne voyons pas pourquoi cette situation est permis aux hommes et interdit aux femmes étant donné qu'en Europe, en République Dominicaine, dans les Antilles Françaises et beaucoup d'autres endroits, les femmes qui veulent se promener le torse nu peuvent le faire sans avoir de compte à rendre à personne ni obtenir de billet d'infraction. Nous pensons que c'est de la discrimination pure et simple vis-à-vis le droit des femmes. On brime leur liberté en ne les mettant pas égales aux hommes.
Il faudrait que la justice se fasse aussi au Québec puisqu'il y a un jugement basé sur la charte des droits et libertés de la personne qui interdit de faire une telle discrimination par rapport au sexe et que si une femme ne fait qu'avoir le torse nu comme un homme, aux mêmes endroits que celui-ci, en n'incitant pas les autres à avoir des contacts physiques ou sexuels avec elle, elle devrait avoir les mêmes droits que cet homme. La charte des droits et liberté est valide dans tout le Canada et mentionne clairement qu'en autorisant de faire une chose à quelqu'un qu'on interdit à une autre et ceci, à cause de son sexe, il s'agit là d'une situation très discriminatoire! Pour beaucoup de personnes, c'est totalement inacceptable de permettre quelque chose à un sexe et de l'interdire à l'autre. Pensez à nouveau aux endroits où toutes les femmes ont le droit de se promener les seins nus. On Work Universiteit? Ces femmes sont bien dans leur peau et les hommes s'y sont habitués et ne les remarquent même plus.
N'oublions pas que ce qui est érotique est ce qui est caché et que si toutes les femmes avaient le droit de se promener le torse nu, les seins ne seraient pas plus érotiques que le torse des hommes et, de ce fait, il y aurait sans doute beaucoup moins d'agressions sexuelles car les seins cesseraient enfin d'être considérés comme des objets sexuels, n'ayant toujours servis qu'à amuser les hommes. Au début, les gens regarderaient mais ça ne prendrait pas beaucoup de temps et les gens s'y habitueraient. Les hommes ne demandent pas aux femmes si leur torse nu les dérange alors pourquoi les femmes devraient-elles demander la permission aux hommes pour le faire? Ce n'est pas logique tout ça et pour ce qui est des enfants, n'oublions pas que ceux-ci adoptent le système de valeurs propre aux adultes, à la société, et que si les adultes informeraient et éduqueraient sainement leurs enfants par rapport à l'anatomie féminine et masculine au lieu de faire une aliénante phobie collective du torse nu des femmes, les enfants grandiraient dans tout cela et ne seraient pas plus dérangés de voir une femme torse nu qu'un homme actuellement. C'est sûr que tout changement comporte son lot de dérangements. I Need To Write An Essay Gordon University? à la première femme qui a porté un pantalon. Elle faisait scandale à cette époque et maintenant, toutes les femmes en portent. Dans un même ordre d'idées, la première femme qui a porté un bikini a fait tourner bien des têtes elle aussi et aujourd'hui, quoi de plus normal pour une femme qui a chaud que d'en porter un? Nous pensons que tout est une question de mentalité et de société et que cette vieille mentalité désuète doit changer au plus vite. Ce n'est vraiment pas juste pour les femmes que de voir pleins d'hommes le torse nu sans avoir droit à ce privilège. Comme mentionné plus haut, il y aurait sûrement moins de viols si les femmes se promenaient les seins nus sans être gênées car les seins deviendraient vite fait une partie du corps comme une autre, au même titre que le torse masculin et donc, beaucoup moins excitante pour les hommes qu'à l'heure actuelle. Alors, il va de soit qu'en 2002, il est grand temps que ces lois et règlements changent et permettent enfin aux femmes de se promener torse nu comme bon leur semble, du moins, aux même endroits autorisés pour les hommes.
Si les hommes ont le droit d'avoir le torse nu dans un endroit public, les femmes devraient avoir ce droit aussi ou si ce n'est pas le cas, les responsables de cet endroit devraient interdire le torse nu à tout le monde, ceci pour ne pas traiter les femmes de façon inférieure et discriminatoire. Sur ce, nous aimerions grandement avoir de vos nouvelles pour savoir ce que vous en pensez et ce que vous comptez faire afin de remédier à cette situation tout à fait pathétique. KEY WEST'S FANTASY FEST. by Bruce Frendahl. Bruce Frendahl is a member of the Board of Governors of the B.E.A.C.H.E.S. Foundation, located in Miami Shores, Florida. On Work Vrije? He and his wife Judy visited the October 2002 Fantasy Fest, known for some years for its topfree women, or at least for women attempting to be topfree, in how to The University, a variety of situations. I felt that a barrier had come down. Not that a woman could now feel free to be topfree on Duval Street at high noon on an average day, but at least the enforcement of discriminatory laws against Universiteit Amsterdam females typical of the state of Florida would magically be suspended for one brief if wild and crazy evening in the streets of Key West.
Whether the reason be Key West's finest finally giving in to of Birmingham the commercial demands of the Vrije Universiteit residential artist community---or the lack of sufficient vocal protest from the local religious extremists---or the write an essay in an hour Lime townwide revelation that women should be treated equally to men, especially if it could somehow be rationalized that there was an artsy side to Vrije Amsterdam the end result---or a realization that most of the i need to write an essay Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS) arrests or citations or police enforcement encounters were a result of forcing reluctant women to keep a fabric covering across their chests (both on floats and in the massive costumed crowd, admittedly inebriated to varying degrees)---or a combination of all these factors, and others of which we know not . . . it happened. It will likely continue to essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam happen, as long as women express their collective preference to do so, artists continue to of critical thinking Kendall make money from it, and law enforcement personnel realize that an arbitrary dress code (at least this aspect of it, on this particular night) is archaic and silly. Amsterdam? Such a code is better left to peer pressure and natural community standards. Key West has a wild and woolly history of pirates, bootleggers, drug smugglers, societal outcasts, eccentric artists and writers, ne'er-do-wells, and others outside the mainstream. Considering the town's seedy history, to deny this simple and innocuous pleasure on the craziest night of the year in Key West would be foolhardy to most independent observers. Not that the act of a woman being artfully topfree falls anywhere near those other activities. But it is write School, consistent with the Vrije traditionally independent attitude of the Conch Republic. For women, it represents a little progress in gaining more control over stages Kendall, their own bodies. And that's a good thing for everyone. by Claire Braz Valentine. This piece of work began circulating on the Internet in the spring of 2002 after US Attorney General John Ashcroft spent more than US$8000 to hide a breast on a statue in essays on work Universiteit Amsterdam, the Hall of Justice in best online Ashbury, Washington, DC.
Hear the author read this work (recording from essays on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Santa Cruz, California, March 2002) by going here. John, John, John, you've got your priorities all wrong. While men fly airplanes into skyscrapers, dive bomb the of critical pentagon, while they stick explosives into their shoes, and essays Vrije Amsterdam, then book a seat right next to us, while they hide knives in their luggage, steal kids on an essay hour Lime House School school buses, take little girls from their beds at night, drive trucks into our state capital buildings, while our president calls dangerous men all over the world evildoers and devils, while we live in the threat of biological warfare, nuclear destruction, annihilation, you are out buying yardage to save Americans from the essays Vrije Amsterdam appalling, alarming, abominable aluminum alloy of evil, that terrible ten foot tin tittie. You might not be able to write an essay in an Lime House School find Bin Laden, but you sure as heck found the hooter in the hall of justice. It's not that we aren't grateful, But while we were begging the women of Afghanistan To not cover up their faces, You are begging your staff members to Just cover up that nipple, to save the American people from that monstrous metal mammary. How can we ever thank you? So, in your office every morning in your secret prayer meeting, while an American woman is sexually assaulted every six seconds, while anthrax floats around the post office and essays on work Amsterdam, settles in the chest of senior citizens, you've got another chest on your mind. While American sons arrive home in body bags, and heat seeking missiles fly around a foreign country looking for any warm body, you think of another body.
And you pray for the biggest bra in the world, John, because you see that breast on the Spirit of Justice in the spirit of your own inhibited sexuality. Write Essay School? And when we women see our grandmothers, our mothers, our daughters, our granddaughters, our sisters, ourselves, when we women see that statue, the Spirit of Justice, we see the essays Vrije Universiteit spirit of strength, the spirit of survival. While every day we view innocent bodies dragged out of rubble, and women and children laid out like thin limp dolls and baptized into death as collateral damage, and the hollow eyed Afghani mother's milk has dried up underneath her burqa in how to The University, famine, in shame, and her children are dead at her breast. While you look at that breast, John, that jug on the Spirit of Justice, and deal with your thoughts of lust and sex and nakedness, we see it as a testimony to motherhood. Essays On Work Vrije? And you see it as a tit.
It's not the money it cost. It's the how to Moreton Hall School message you send. We've got the right to live in freedom. We've got the right to cheat Americans out of on work Vrije millions of dollars and then just not want to tell congress about it. We've got the right to drop bombs night and day on a small country that has no army, no navy, no military at all, because we've got the right to bear arms, but we just better not even think about the stages of critical thinking Kendall College right to bare breasts.
So now, John, you can be photographed while you stand there and talk about bombs and guns and on work Universiteit Amsterdam, poisons without the i need to write an essay Gordon University breast appearing over essays Amsterdam, your right shoulder, without that bodacious bosom bothering you. I Need Gordon University (NAVITAS)? And we just wanted to tell you in the Spirit of Justice, in the Spirit of Truth: John, there is still one very big boob left standing there in that picture. YORK, MAINE: CAN WE SAY AVOIDANCE? by Julia Goforth. Julia Goforth is a former Vice-President of the Topfree Equal Rights Association. Essays On Work Vrije Amsterdam? She wrote this article in early September 2001. In late July 2001, I visited York, Maine.
It is a busy, tourist-filled town, quaint and friendly, with miles of beach on the Atlantic Ocean. What a beautiful place to be! I sought to find out how to essay of Birmingham what to expect from law enforcement officials in the area should I decide to enjoy the Universiteit beach in my usual manner. While walking across a parking lot near Short Sands Beach, I saw a man officer and a convincing The University, a woman lifeguard speaking with each other. Universiteit Amsterdam? I approached them and thinking Kendall College, explained that I was visiting from Ontario and planned to Amsterdam spend time on the beach in how to a convincing of Birmingham, my monokini bathing suit (bottom only). I asked if I would encounter any problems from the police department.
Seeming to be surprised by my question, they both answered Yes. Essays On Work Universiteit Amsterdam? The police officer stated that not wearing a top could get me charged with disorderly conduct. The lifeguard said there was no dressing or undressing allowed on the beach, and my childhood essay writing Marangoni Paris, that the essays on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam city had an ordinance against stages thinking being without a top on Amsterdam the beach, with a fine of $50. I asked where I could get the exact wording of write an essay in an Lime House School these statutes and ordinances. Vrije Universiteit? Again, they seemed surprised at my question, but directed me to write an autobiography Moreton Hall School the police station just down the road. So I paid a visit to essays Vrije Amsterdam the Town of essay services College York police department. Officer Scott Cogger offered to assist me. Essays On Work Universiteit? When I stated what I was looking for, he said that he was terribly busy and suggested I come back the next day. I smiled and in an Lime House, said I didn't mind waiting for him to finish what he was doing. After a few minutes, a dispatcher offered to help me. I made my request known to him.
Then he politely declined to help. About 15 minutes later, Cogger returned with some photocopied papers for me, representing things that I could be charged with. Essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam? He requested that if I planned to write an essay in an hour Lime House School be on the beach without a top, I do so on a weekend so that the officers on essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam duty on weekdays would not have to handle the call. He also suggested that I go to Kittery Point Beach because it would look better on the front page of the paper than York Beach. Back at my campsite, located directly behind the police department, I read the applicable laws.
Here are the relevant parts: Maine Law Section 17A. 854. Indecent conduct. 1. A person is guilty of indent conduct if: A. In a public place, 1. The actor engages in a sexual act, as defined in my childhood essay writing Istituto Paris, section 251; or. 2. The actor knowingly exposes the actor's genitals under circumstances that, in fact, are likely to essays on work Vrije Universiteit cause affront or alarm. 501.
Disorderly conduct. A person is my childhood essay Istituto Marangoni, guilty of disorderly conduct if: 1. In a public place, he intentionally or recklessly causes annoyance to others by intentionally [sic]: A. Making loud and unreasonable noises; B. Activating a device, or exposing a substance, which releases noxious and offensive odors. C. Essays Vrije? Engaging in fighting . . . 2. In a public or private place, he knowingly accosts, insults, taunts, or challenges any person with offensive, derisive or annoying words, or by my childhood Istituto gestures or other physical conduct . . . The city ordinance spoken of essays on work Amsterdam is the ordinance prohibiting obscenity for commercial gain. Article 1 of the ordinance states its purpose as to prohibit any commercial enterprise from presenting or engaging in any obscene exhibitions for profit.
It is not intended to suppress or inhibit the free exchange of ideas of artistic expression. The Town of York has enacted this ordinance for the purpose of promoting and protecting the essay Marangoni general welfare, public safety, public order, and morals. Article 2, Section 5 of this ordinance defines obscene as any conduct of essays Universiteit a sexual nature and continues to writing Paris outline what would be considered of a sexual nature: anything. A. which, to the average individual applying contemporary community standards, considered as a whole appeals to the prurient interest; B. which presents in a patently offensive manner actual or simulated ultimate sexual acts, sodomy, beastiality, excretory functions, masturbation, direct physical stimulation of the unclothed genitals, flagellation or torture in Universiteit, context of College ultimate sexual acts, lewd exhibition of the human male or female genitals, pubic area, buttocks, or the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam female breast below the top of the nipple; and. C. which considered as a whole lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.
Article 3 outlines what is prohibited: any commercial enterprise is prohibited to present or engage in best online essay writing services, an obscene exhibition for profit; or to solicit, permit, promote, or assist any commercial enterprise or person to present or engage in any obscene exhibition within the Town of York. Violating this order, incidentally, carries a fine of $500 for each offense. On Work? The lifeguard was off a bit in her figures. Come to think of it, she was off a bit in a lot of this ordinance. In my interpretation, if I'm sunbathing or frolicking with my children in the surf, none of the above material applies. To Write Gordon University (NAVITAS)? Even if I'm selling promotional materials for essays Amsterdam TERA on write a convincing essay The University the beach, Article 2, Section 5, part C seems to address, and protect, my activity. Unfortunately, I left York at sunrise the following day and Universiteit Amsterdam, was unable to how to Moreton test my theory. But there is always next summer.
Stay tuned! by Kayla Sosnow, posted 2001 October 25. Kayla Sosnow wrote this about Judge Joe Williams while she spent 20 days in Amsterdam, jail for an essay in an Lime House School not wearing a shirt in a forest in Florida. For a photo of her singing/chanting this poem, go here. With a country twang. Chorus: (But) (still) Well I'm just sittin' here in essays on work Universiteit Amsterdam, jail Wondrin' how did I fail Why am I held without bail All I did was be female and wondrin' Why is it that the judge Is refusing to budge If I could just give him a nudge: See, it's only about pudge! But in court you can't speak free You got to pay a lawyer's fee For the priv'lege of giving up your voice There really ain't much choice So I made me a plan To get access to this man He'll let me out of the joint Once he understands my point And in this fantasy I invite him for herb tea And far from the halls of justice I ask what all the fuss is University (NAVITAS), Well, thoughtfully he sat Then said . . Essays Amsterdam? . Mine are flat, yours fat . . . Best Online Writing Services Ashbury College? And I think it's really shitty That you showed the essays Vrije world your titties. But then I explained to him our quest To gain freedom of the how to write an autobiography essay Moreton Hall School breast You see judge they aren't dirty You'll get used to essays on work Vrije that they're purty And who was it to decide That by law females must abide Our bodies in shame we must hide That seems most undignified! But if you are a man You're exempt from a convincing essay of Birmingham this ban And in essays, freedom you can Enjoy a tan and land and sand. Then I asked what next will be If they find our face sexy And he finally came to see With new eyes he looked at me and said, I must loosen up these ties That kept me hypnotized by lies I admit I've been unwise Now my consciousness must rise.
With that he handed me the key And said, You're out of jail free! A week later he wrote And from an essay in an hour his note I quote You have changed how I feel This prejudice must heal Good luck on essays on work Amsterdam your appeal I support your cause with zeal! Copyright 2001 by Kayla Sosnow. WHAT'S WRONG WITH MY BREASTS? by Ann-Marie, 2001 August 07. Ann-Marie lives in Texas. The following is taken from a longer essay.
I see breasts every day. Mine. So does my husband. Every woman has them. So why is writing Istituto, it such a horrible thing when they are seen on television? We see men and boys taking off their shirts every day, in the movies and on television, but as soon as a woman takes off hers, parts of the essays on work Universiteit Amsterdam picture become mosaic, or she pulls a bed sheet over her chest. Why? The funniest part is the controversial nipple. That's pretty much what's being hidden here. Stages Thinking Kendall College? In Pennsylvania, at a strip bar, the dancers have to wear pasties over on work, their nipples.
Doesn't matter how large her breasts are, as long as the nipples are covered. Now, I don't know about you, but I think it's the curve and fullness of the breast that is so pleasing to the eye. Nipples be damned! To cover nipples with pasties, especially glittery pasties, simply draws more attention to the whole breast. Obviously, this does nothing for the equality of men and women. Quite frankly, to be told that I have to cover my nipples simply because I do not have a penis is insulting. Best Essay Writing Ashbury College? Yeah, we're different . . . but we're equal.
If a man can take off his shirt and not have his nipples blurred out on television, a woman should be able to do the essays same. So ours look a little different . . . they're a little bigger . . . SO WHAT?! All women have them. All husbands and boyfriends see them. All children still nursing see them. All other women see them in changing and locker rooms. Do you honestly think that we all try to cover up in the locker room? And don't get me started on the whole breastfeeding in public issue. Anyone with a problem with that should try eating his or her dinner in the toilet and Hall School, see how they like it. A woman has two reasons to bare her breasts: the same reason any man would and to essays on work Universiteit Amsterdam feed her child!
Through this censorship, we are sending very mixed signals to our women and girls: that they should be ashamed of and hide their breasts at the same time they are taught by fashion magazines that they should enlarge and i need an essay Robert Gordon (NAVITAS), display them. What hypocrisy! We're also sending a signal to Vrije men and boys that they cannot control themselves at the sight of a breast. Do men commit assault as a result of seeing bare female breasts on PBS or in an essay hour House, a movie? Yeesh! I'm not saying that I want to walk around everywhere topfree. It's someone telling me that I cannot do something because I am a female that I question it at all---especially when female breasts serve a distinct purpose that requires occasional exposure.
Restrictions like this are ridiculous, illogical, and unfair. They need to be tested, pushed, and broken. If you are going to blur a woman's breasts on television, you might as well come into essays on work my home and digitize my breasts while I shower and change my clothes. CANADIAN TIRE ATTIRE. How I used a non-policy to begin educating the police and others. by Julia Goforth, 2001 July 07. This is a report of an incident on June 30, 2001 at my childhood essay Istituto Marangoni Paris, about 11:00 in a small city north of Toronto, Ontario. The dry approach reflects the author's calm, cool control. I went into a Canadian Tire store on Yonge Street in Newmarket with one female and two male friends. One of the men and I were topfree, while the other two chose to essays on work Vrije Amsterdam wear shirts. After a half hour of browsing and purchasing, Mr.
Allen Dodds, Retail Manager, approached me with Ms. Tanis Pottage, Manager, and how to an autobiography Hall School, another store employee. On Work Vrije? Mr. Dodds told me I was going to have to how to write essay of Birmingham put my shirt on. I informed him that there was no sign indicating that I had to wear a shirt while in on work Amsterdam, the store. He stated that Canadian Tire is private property and I had to put a shirt on or leave the store. I asked if this was a store policy. Best Ashbury? He said it was. Essays On Work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam? I requested to see the policy in writing.
He said that it was not written anywhere. As I put on writing Ashbury College my shirt, I said I found it curious that the store would have unwritten policies. I asked him to please put this one in writing for me, and that a hand-written copy would be acceptable. He then accused me of creating a disturbance with his customers. I pointed out that I was merely shopping and was not creating a disturbance of essays Universiteit Amsterdam any kind. He said that other customers were bothered by my being without a shirt. I told him that I was not responsible for other peoples' behaviour, only i need to write an essay, my own. He excused himself and essays on work Universiteit Amsterdam, went outside to talk to the police. When he returned, he informed me that the to write University police said that he didn't have to on work give me anything in writing.
I understood that he didn't have to, but I was requesting that he do so as a courtesy. He refused. The topfree man with me was never told to put his shirt on by any of the Canadian Tire employees. Taking note of how to write a convincing The University of Birmingham this, I asked Mr. Vrije? Dodds, Is this a gender issue?
He said, Yes. For confirmation, I asked, So, because I am a woman, I have to wear a shirt in your store? He paused a moment, then said, I don't want to get into this. I don't want to argue about it. I stated that I didn't want to hour argue either, but that I wanted clarification. Then he informed me that there was a police officer outside and that he would come in Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, and charge me.
I asked what I would be charged with, since I wasn't doing anything illegal. He said he didn't know---whatever the officer wanted to charge me with. I replied that I would be charged if he pressed charges, so I would like to Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS) know what he was planning to have me charged with. He threatened once again to bring in the police. I encouraged him to include the officer in essays on work Universiteit, our discussion.
Stunned, he excused himself to speak with the a convincing The University officer. Upon his return, he informed me that the officer would be in to talk with me shortly. Then Mr. Dodds left, not to be seen again during the rest of the incident. After about on work Universiteit, 15 minutes, York Regional Officer Goddard, badge #1030, appeared. The officer, the other woman and the topfree man in my party, and I all joined Ms. Write Essay The University? Pottage in the office in the customer service area. Officer Goddard clarified, The manager told you to put your shirt on. I said, Yes.
After a pause, he asked, So what is the problem? I said there was no problem, merely that I had put on my shirt when I was told to, but that I was asking for essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam their store policy in writing regarding the wearing of shirts, since it was not posted. I suggested that to require me to wear a shirt while allowing men to essay Marangoni be without one was illegal. Officer Goddard informed me that my being without a shirt was drawing attention from the other customers; that was the essays Vrije Universiteit reason I was confronted. Stages? I pointed out that if my son had a gross deformity that drew attention, I would not be asked to cover him or leave the store. The officer agreed. I then pointed out that this was basically the same kind of thing. He said he understood, but that this was a cultural thing. Essays Vrije Amsterdam? I compared it to the cultural act of discrimination based on race or religion. He offered, Well, it's going to take some time for an essay in an hour Lime House School society to change.
I explained that that's exactly why I exercise my right to be topfree, that I want to reclaim our breasts and have them viewed as something other than mere sexual playthings. I am helping not just women but men as well, by changing how they view women in general. Officer Goddard said that the store did not understand the laws about Vrije, women being able to hour Lime School go without a shirt, and that because the essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam law was so new, even the police were unsure how to best online essay writing handle this type of situation. [Ed. Vrije Amsterdam? note: the law was only 4.5 years old at this point!] I recalled that I had once encountered an officer who was so unsure what to do that he begged me to put my shirt on long enough for him to get into his cruiser and leave. That sort of action weakened the police's position and effectiveness in the public eye. I informed Officer Goddard that as Vice-President of the Topfree Equal Rights Association, I would like the opportunity to help the police deal with the public when they receive a call regarding a topfree woman. I asked whom he would recommend that I get in touch with to arrange an write, informative presentation.
I didn't want to tell anyone how to do their job, just offer more viable options on on work Vrije ways to deal with the issue that keep everyone happy without violating anyone's rights. He suggested that I speak with the write an essay in an hour Lime House Chief at York Regional Headquarters. As the discussion came to on work Amsterdam an end, Ms. Pottage stated that they would contact Canadian Tire's corporate office and institute a shirts required policy in how to a convincing The University of Birmingham, all Canadian Tire stores. I thanked Officer Goddard and Ms. Pottage for their professional attitudes, then asked the officer for directions to another store. He gave me the directions and then asked, Am I going to be getting a call from that store in a little bit? BEAUTY AND THE BREAST: AN ART EXHIBITION.
by Allison Roberts. Allison Roberts, a student at Bellevue Community College, Washington, coordinated its art show Beauty and the Breast on June 1, 2001. For more on essays Vrije that day's presentations, go here . Although I do not consider myself an activist, I felt compelled to work on this project from the thinking Kendall moment I heard about it. Maybe my perspective will inspire people a little, or at essays on work Vrije Amsterdam, least inspire some thought about topfreedom, sexualization, and body image. In the US today, the average 7-year-old girl has been on at least two diets. Younger and an essay Gordon, younger girls are influenced by our culture's constant pressure to conform to essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam an unrealistic body expectation.
I have heard teenagers talking about TV movies that chronicle women's battles with eating disorders; and instead of being sickened, saddened, or moved by these stories, they look to them for more tips on how to starve themselves. A recent documentary on in an hour School bulimia stated that the Vrije no. 1 inspiration for girls with eating disorders is the how to write of Birmingham movies and Vrije, books intended to stop them. They think they're glamorous. Virtually every woman I know has resorted to drastic measures to best online writing services obtain what our culture teaches is the ideal body. What we consider that body to be is probably a very sick one. Eating disorders and essays on work Universiteit Amsterdam, serious negative body image are destroying tomorrow's women. Now, how does this tie into how to essay Moreton School topfreedom? Even at the age of 27, I have probably seen only 10 or 15 pairs of real breasts. Essays On Work Universiteit Amsterdam? Most of my knowledge about breasts comes from movies and magazines.
But actresses use body doubles to give the illusion of a more perfect body, and photographs of models have been airbrushed to how to a convincing essay of Birmingham remove any unsightly bumps or discoloration. On Work Vrije Universiteit? These women, whom we consider ideal, represent a mere 1% of society. When girls as young as 12 talk about getting breast implants based on this standard, I say we have a serious problem. Three 14-year-old girls have told me separately that they need breast enlargement surgery, with nothing to base their body hatred on stages thinking College but a stolen copy of Playboy. How can a girl who has little to no idea what real breasts look like be expected to essays Universiteit Amsterdam accept her own body as normal and natural? How can we teach our children that our bodies belong to us and write essay Moreton, are perfect as they are, if we are also teaching them that their breasts are merely dangerous sexual objects to be hidden? How can we say that to view a woman's breasts will damage children, when it is so clear what not seeing them is doing? Allison Roberts and essays Vrije Amsterdam, her painting American Woman. We pulled this show together in how to write, just under two weeks. I was overwhelmed by the response from the Universiteit Amsterdam artists I contacted---by their support, enthusiasm, creativity, and inspiration. It was both a gift and a pleasure to work on the show, to an essay Lime House School spend even two weeks on something I believe in passionately.
THE KAYLA SOSNOW INTERVIEW. by Peri, 2000 March 30. In 1996, Kayla Sosnow was taking part in a Rainbow Gathering at Osceola National Forest in on work Universiteit, Florida. There were many topfree women at i need to write an essay Gordon University, this gathering, and Kayla felt perfectly comfortable in Vrije Amsterdam, her surroundings. Of Critical Kendall College? But when she and a male friend left the festivities to fill up their water jugs, she was jolted back into the reality of life here in The United States---where every person is supposedly created equal. Even though there were several topfree men in the area (including her male companion), a passing forest ranger singled her out for harassment. He told her that her bare chest was illegal, and that she would have to essays Amsterdam put on a top. Really? Kayla responded. Do you have a local law about how to a convincing essay The University, this?
Her question flustered the ranger, and he went back to his radio. Soon after, three Sheriff cars pulled up. The Sheriffs were not interested in discussing the situation. Essays Vrije Universiteit? Kayla was told that she must cover up or go to jail. At this point, her male companion suggested that maybe she had just better put on Istituto Paris her top. Now, let's all pause for a moment and put ourselves in this situation. You are enjoying time with friends in a beautiful national forest.
Suddenly, you find yourself facing jail time. There is Amsterdam, only one way to to write Robert University (NAVITAS) escape the on work Universiteit situation: you must agree to abide by a law that is thinking College, obviously discriminating against you simply because of essays your sex. What would you do? What's wrong with this photo? Kayla Sosnow chose to go to how to write The University jail. She was handcuffed and driven to a county jail. She was to spend four days there, and on work Universiteit, because she refused to plead guilty, she ended up serving another sixteen days after conviction. When speaking about Topfreedom, people often shrug and say that it isn't really a big issue; there are, after all, more important issues to writing Istituto Marangoni Paris worry about. But if topfreedom is such a small, unimportant issue, why in the world are we sending topfree women like Kayla Sosnow to jail?
Taking away a person's freedom by incarceration is never a small issue. On Work? Inequality between the two halves of humanity (the male and the female) is never a small issue. State-sanctioned sexual discrimination and in an School, police-enforced sexual harassment is never a small issue. Kayla's actions were not premeditated: she simply found herself in an intolerable situation and Universiteit, felt compelled to an essay Gordon stand up for what she believed in. Kayla was not raised in an atmosphere that specifically encouraged topfreedom, but she was raised in surroundings that respected social activism. Social activism is actually prescribed in Judaism, says Kayla, who has been involved with many different civil rights movements, because our people were once slaves in Egypt. Criminalized for being a woman! Kayla Sosnow in handcuffs. Kayla also considers the topfreedom movement to be a women's health movement. Women are not getting screened for breast cancer because of our attitudes about breasts.
Women are not doing their breast self exams because of our negative attitudes about breasts. On Work Vrije Universiteit? And women are dying because of this. Also, women are not breastfeeding their babies---I can't believe that our society is still making women feel uncomfortable about write, such a natural process! I asked Kayla how she responds when people tell her that men will not be able to control themselves if women walk around topfree. It always surprises me when I talk about this issue, she answered, that the discussion always turns to men, how men will feel, what men will do. That is not the issue here. This is about women choosing for essays on work Amsterdam themselves.
Kayla believes that the best online services Ashbury College general public could handle the situation just fine if the government would get out of the on work Universiteit Amsterdam way. She has tested this theory by being topfree around her house. She has answered the door topfree to letter carriers, courier drivers, and even a clergyman. All of stages thinking Kendall College these men were able to essays on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam control themselves just fine. In fact, she said with calm assurance, people are a lot more ready for this than we give them credit for.
Kayla came to this conclusion in write essay of Birmingham, the years after her arrest, when she received widespread support for her appeal. She actually won this appeal last year , and is now involved in a suit against the state of essays on work Universiteit Amsterdam Florida. The American Civil Liberties Union of Florida has filed this lawsuit on behalf of Kayla and nine other females---including a nine-year-old girl. It is very encouraging to see that a reputable organization like the essay writing Marangoni Paris ACLU is offering support on this issue! Because of her leadership in the topfreedom movement, Kayla has a unique perspective on the progress that has been made in recent years.
The more I talk about this issue, the on work Vrije more I hear about women who have been arrested for being topfree. This has not been organized: it is a grassroots movement! Many, many different women are starting to get fed up and are saying that they don't want to take it any more. Thinking College? I want women to know that they can choose to challenge these laws. We don't have to take it anymore! Throughout my interview with Kayla, I was struck by her calm but fearless attitude about topfreedom. Obviously, they picked the wrong woman to harass at that Rainbow Gathering.
Or perhaps this was the right woman! Although we are sorry that Kayla had to go through her horrendous legal battle, we are eternally grateful that she chose to stand up and fight for on work all women's equal rights under the law. She will continue to inspire other women to i need Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS) question the unfair laws that keep women from on work Amsterdam reclaiming ownership of write essay The University of Birmingham their own breasts. Read on for more topfree inspiration! Q: How do you respond when people say that topfreedom is not safe for women? A: The evidence does not bear this out. Vrije Amsterdam? When was the last time you heard of a topfree woman being attacked on a nude beach, topfree beach, or nudist park?
Concert or festival, even? Any topfree woman anywhere? Never! I have never heard of one! And I've heard of lots of topfree women! Not only does the evidence not bear this out, but neither does my personal experience. An Essay In An Lime House? I have gone topfree plenty, and essays on work Universiteit, have never been attacked. There is an stages of critical Kendall College, element of strength to essays on work Universiteit Amsterdam going topfree, while at the same time exposing the world to the soft and nourishing parts of of critical women that for too long have been devalued in favour of the essays tough competitive ideal of our society.
There is also an element of openness to going topfree which seems to inspire people to treat me with the utmost respect and dignity, even admiration. People have thanked me for acting on behalf of equal rights. Speaking of equal rights, statements about men misbehaving show a profound lack of respect for them. Believe it or not, men really can control themselves in essay Marangoni Paris, the presence of a topfree woman! Q: How do you respond when people say that topfreedom is inappropriate for children to Amsterdam witness?
A: Silly rabbit, breasts are for how to a convincing essay kids! It is so unfortunate that in our society the essays Vrije Universiteit media have fetishized breasts so much that they have been co-opted away from their owners and away from children. Do you realize how many children miss out on the nourishing benefits of breastfeeding? All because of the view that this statement represents, that breasts are sex objects, meaning that they are for men, not women and how to, children. Q: Do you have any advice for women who might want to essays Vrije try being topfree in public but haven't quite got up the hour House courage? A: Pick a place you think is mellow and free of legal hassles---a natural spot, maybe---and use your judgement. Then, you know how you take off your shirt at night to go to bed? It's just like that. Essays? Really. Just like you've been doing since you were a kid.
You just take it off. Once it's off, it's off. People can handle it, and best essay writing Ashbury, noticing that, you'll be able to handle it too. I'll bet there'll be a surprising lack of fanfare. Once you've tried it, and felt the sun and wind on your body, you'll never want to be encased in a hot, sweaty garment again. Universiteit Amsterdam? Why do you think men go topfree? It feels better. Stages Kendall? Let's not be denied! I AM NOT A SEX OBJECT.
I OWN MY OWN BODY. by Allison Ezell, 2001 April 10. In April 2001, Allison Ezell began a project to decriminalize women's exposed breasts in Indiana. Her website operated for a couple of years. I can't tell you how great it feels to be doing what I am doing. It is almost cathartic, like I am purging myself of years and years of bullshit and body propaganda that I internalized. Essays On Work Universiteit Amsterdam? And I am trying to help other women.
I have been involved in several activist endeavors. There are an online essay writing services Ashbury, infinite number of Amsterdam worthy causes to promote in this world. But I have found one that gives me peace. Write A Convincing Essay Of Birmingham? This issue is essays Vrije Universiteit, so personal to me. I don't have to adjust or apologize or explain or be ashamed. I am not a sex object. I own my body. It is not government property.
The fact that I have to wear a shirt to cover my breasts because they are obscene or because they might entice men to violence is write an autobiography Hall School, beyond me (even though the essays Universiteit Amsterdam overwhelming evidence does not support this notion). It is they who have the problem but I am the my childhood essay writing Marangoni Paris one whom they legislate. Women will never be able to accept their bodies as long as we are expected to keep covering up and concealing and hiding from the essays on work world with makeup and in an House, bras and and control top pantyhose and $60-a-jar wrinkle cream. If we all walked around naked and Vrije, unadorned for Marangoni Paris a little while and essays on work, turned off our TVs, would we still believe that everyone has to writing Ashbury College look like a Barbie (or a Ken for on work that matter)? Would women still force themselves to puke? Would we still spend over $80 million a year on diet bullshit? How in the world will women be able to love and accept their very bodies if every other part is write essay of Birmingham, either flawed or criminal? YOU CAN THINK FOR YOURSELF. In April 2001, Whitney McCleskey began a project to decriminalize women's exposed breasts in Alabama.
Her website is under construction. On January 24, 2002, she gave birth to essays on work Victoria Eve, whose photo from Winter 2002 this is: Out of my own curiosity, I've been investigating the writing Istituto social problems surrounding topfreedom for on work Universiteit almost two years now. I have learned that it is best writing, difficult for most people to improve their perspectives on something which their culture has taught them to view with contempt. But it can be done. Most of us grow up in on work Universiteit Amsterdam, societies which place restrictions on women's breasts, saying that the mere exposure of my childhood Marangoni Paris one is morally threatening to the welfare of the public. We adapt to this belief without question. Essays On Work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam? Our media reinforce it through ads, movies, and TV programs. Basically, people believe women's breasts are indecent, obscene, and immoral, because that's what their culture's mainstream has trained them to believe.
In all of writing Paris my questioning, I've found no one who has ever been able to tell me what it is about the human female breast that is so immoral, obscene, or indecent. Nor has anyone ever been able to produce anatomical facts supporting the on work Universiteit general concept that women's breasts are primarily for how to a convincing The University of Birmingham sex. I've concluded that the female breast is the most misunderstood part of the human anatomy. The sight of Amsterdam one (that's not being used for sexual or commercial purposes) is only detrimental if you want it to be. Immorality, indecency, and obscenity, like beauty, are all in the eye of the a convincing essay The University beholder. Basically, you can think for yourself. You can purge yourself of the misleading impression promulgated by the state and essays on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, mainstream media.
Personal opinion is one thing the state can't outlaw, the media can't censor. Instead they induce the general population into seeing women's breasts perniciously. How To Write Essay Of Birmingham? Women's topfreedom is in itself harmless. Our freedom to choose our standpoint is essays on work Universiteit Amsterdam, precious. For many people topfreedom is also precious, a freedom that men have but women do not.
Ask yourself (not your government or the media), Are women's breasts really nocuous to essay writing College society? TOPFREE AS YOU WANNA BE! by Peri, 1999 September 7. When I was 16, I spent a summer in Mexico. One of the Vrije girls I met there had just returned from Spain. A hundred percent of the women who had frequented the beach outside her hotel were topfree.
My friend felt very conspicuous with her top on because people were constantly staring at her. Still, she was uncomfortable taking off her top because she came from a different culture. But after a few days, she became weary of being the object of so much attention. Best Essay Services Ashbury? So she took off her top. She noticed the difference immediately; there were no more stares directed her way. This story demonstrates that people stare at what they consider to be different or odd. In a culture where topfreedom is essays Universiteit Amsterdam, accepted and even expected, people will stare at the unusual sight of a woman wearing a top. Writing Paris? In a culture (such as ours) where topfreedom is neither accepted nor expected, people will stare at a woman who is essays Amsterdam, not wearing a top. The deciding factor is write essay Moreton Hall, not the woman's breasts, but the context in on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, which they are seen. Unfortunately, our society does more than simply stare: we also harass, ticket, and even arrest women who are simply trying to exercise the same topfreedom that men enjoy.
This can be seen in the case of writing Marangoni Paris The Moscow Three, a trio of women who dared remove their shirts last year during the 32° degree heat of a summer day in Moscow, Idaho. For this crime, the Universiteit three women (Lori Graves, Natalie Shapiro, and Stacy Temple) were hauled off to the local jail in handcuffs--while their topfree, male companions stood by, barechested and unharassed. Of Critical Kendall? If this is not a blatant example of essays on work Vrije Amsterdam discrimination, I don't know what is! The prejudice against topfree women is due in part to the sexualization of the female breasts. Since women are not allowed to bare their breasts in nonsexual situations, our society immediately associates bare breasts with sexuality. Now, I am not saying that men would cease to be aroused by breasts if we all walked around topfree. Of course some would! Just as some men are aroused by long hair, or bare legs, or blue eyes. Should we respond to this potential arousal by shrouding ourselves in shoulder to floor garments? Should we cover our hair and faces, leaving only a small opening to see the world?
This has been the solution in some cultures, but it's not a solution I much like! Instead, we can demand that our society grow up and College, learn to deal with the existence of our physical bodies. Essays Universiteit Amsterdam? We must teach society that bare breasts are not an invitation to be touched, just as we teach that short skirts are not an invitation to be raped. When we look at the larger picture, we see that sexual violence against women is perpetuated by an essay hour Lime School our present system: a system that legally sanctions women to be topfree only when they are performing striptease acts or serving men drinks in a topless bar. In my town, a woman cannot walk down the street topfree, but she can take off her shirt in a bar for paying customers. This hypocrisy encourages men to think of breasts as sexual objects: mere sexual commodities to be bought and sold! Modern society often has a short memory, so people do not remember that men gained their topfree rights fairly recently.
If you look at those old black and white photos of turn-of-the-century bathing suits, you will notice that the men's nipples were also covered. It wasn't until Clark Gable bared his chest in a film in essays on work Vrije Amsterdam, the thirties that men began to go topfree in great numbers. A few old timers probably fainted, but I'm sure they eventually revived and (NAVITAS), got on essays Vrije Amsterdam with life. Now male topfreedom is so commonplace that few men would consider putting on a top to go swimming. Istituto Paris? If we want women to enjoy the same rights, some of us are going to have to be brave and essays, just do it! This is easier said than done. How To Write The University Of Birmingham? Each woman needs to choose the time and on work, place that feels safe and stages Kendall College, appropriate. Essays On Work Universiteit? Believe it or not, I do not enjoy making myself a public spectacle! Neither do I like making other people feel uncomfortable when they are trying to enjoy the outdoors with their families. But the solution is not to segregate topfree women onto certain beaches or sections of town.
We have to remember that some people are uncomfortable sharing space with African Americans or Mexicans or Jews. The old adage Separate but Equal did not fly with the ethnic minorities in this country, and it doesn't apply any better to topfree women! In fact, segregation encouraged bigotry because it kept people ignorant of their common humanity. The same applies to topfreedom. Until people experience topfree women around them, they will continue to believe that topfree women are dangerous sluts--out to steal husbands and corrupt children!
It's important to provide the information that will help end this ignorance: to know cases where women have challenged unfair laws in court, to discuss how topfreedom affects breastfeeding, motherhood, and body esteem. Whenever there's temperate weather, pluck up that courage and get yourself as topfree as you wanna be! A TASTE OF FREEDOM. by Cindy Olsen, 1999 September 14. I remember the day the photos below were taken. It was a very gray, January day . My Childhood Essay Writing Istituto Paris? . . On Work Universiteit Amsterdam? long before I really got involved in best online writing services Ashbury, topfreedom. My husband, our children, and another family member had gone out to Vrije Amsterdam the beach for photos of the children and for the opportunity of writing Marangoni fresh air during the essays on work Universiteit long, cold winter. The wind was fierce. Stronger than I could ever remember.
I was in best writing Ashbury College, a different place then. It was not the normal thing for me to Vrije Amsterdam shed my top on a public beach, but somehow the wind beckoned me. First, I stripped down to best Ashbury College my bra. But when I felt the cool sting of the wind whipping my skin, I had to on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam be completely free. Free I was. Without any real thought, I slid my bra off and held up my shirt like it was a cape for a superhero. Istituto Marangoni Paris? It was, without a doubt, one of the on work Universiteit Amsterdam most liberating feelings I have ever had in my life. The coolness of the air. The wind whisking away my breath. Stages Kendall? My breasts standing in the wind and shouting, I am free!
I am beautiful! I am decent! I haven't looked over these photos in quite some time. Looking at essays on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, them today, I realize that this was my first real taste of best writing services College (top)freedom! MY BREASTS RECLAIMED. by a woman in essays Amsterdam, Ontario, Canada, 2001 April 27. This story makes the essay writing Istituto Marangoni connection between women's topfreedom and breastfeeding, in the context of life-giving well-being . I'm certain that any small-breasted woman (as I am considered) remembers the agony of the first comparisons to other girls. On Work Vrije? In high school, changing for i need an essay Gordon University (NAVITAS) gym class made me self-conscious. On Work Universiteit Amsterdam? I was the only girl in Grade 9 not wearing a bra. After school, I asked my (similarly small-breasted) mother if I could pleeeease have a bra. A training bra? she asked.
Any bra, I answered, wondering what a training bra was---and more importantly, if it could train my breasts to grow bigger! Some time around puberty, my next older brother had mock-inducted me into the itty bitty titty club. His teasing was the beginning of nearly 20 years of shame, embarrassment, and feelings of i need to write an essay Robert University (NAVITAS) inadequacy regarding my breasts. Did I ever toy with the idea of breast surgery to incease my cup size? You bet. After the birth of my first daughter, I was committed to breastfeeding her for as long as possible. On Work? With the books The Womanly Art of write in an hour House School Breastfeeding and BestFeeding as my guides, I suffered through six weeks of painful cracking, bleeding, and screaming nipples---but finally drifted into essays on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam six additional months of how to a convincing of Birmingham comfortable breastfeeding. On Work Vrije Amsterdam? Ah, relief. And confidence. WOW, the confidence!
I finally realized that I measured perfectly. When did this new woman emerge? Exactly the moment that everyone's focus (most importantly one's own) shifted from the size of the breasts to their true purpose. It was exhilarating. I read an Kendall, article in a breastfeeding newsletter about the essays on work bond between mother and nursing child entitled My Breasts Adored. I beamed with recognition. After the powerful experience of successful breastfeeding, I decided that the how to essay The University only changes to my breasts that I was willing to essays on work Vrije Amsterdam undergo were natural ones, associated with nourishing my children. Shortly thereafter, the topfree equal rights issue came to the fore in our local paper. Of Critical Thinking Kendall? I felt a spark, a confirmation. Essays On Work Vrije Universiteit? How dare anyone limit the purpose or visibility of my breasts?
How dare anyone put labels of indecency on them, my new-found, perfectly functioning and perfectly proportioned, life-nourishing breasts? I was not in high school any more and refused to be patronized and online, pigeon-holed yet again. Essays Universiteit Amsterdam? When my breast size diminished after my daughter was weaned, my confidence remained. Now, after the birth of my second daughter (only three weeks of screaming nipples this time), I'm at it again. We're into our 13th month, and nursing anywhere and everywhere. Stages Thinking College? People hardly notice my exposed areolas and nipples. When I'm feeding my child, I don't care what they see. by Paul Rapoport. Hamilton [Ontario, Canada] Spectator , November 28, 2005. Vrije Amsterdam? This article relates topfreedom, nudity, and stages of critical Kendall, sexuality to increase understanding in a few areas. . . . there's innocence at risk.
But are we really kidding ourselves about children, nudity and sexuality? Are we sending them a harmful message in the process? Actress Kim Cattrall posed in the altogether for the cover of her newest book, Sexual Intelligence. Essays Vrije Amsterdam? What does it---or people's reaction to essay it---say about society's attitudes towards nudity and sexuality? From Sexual Intelligence, Published by Greystone Books. [the photo was printed 23 cm high in the newspaper article] A few weeks ago, on a Go section cover, The Spectator printed a large photo of actor Kim Cattrall in essays, connection with a new book of hers.
Some readers complained about the photo because Cattrall was naked. The main argument against the photo was that it does not belong in a family newspaper. Stages Of Critical Thinking? Family means a few things, chiefly the presence of children, also a certain parental attitude: young minds should not be polluted by nudity in on work Vrije, a newspaper that arrives for best online essay writing Ashbury breakfast. Behind this lie two major assumptions: that children are innocent and their innocence needs protection. Although in some ways children are innocent, many parents narrow that to essays Universiteit Amsterdam mean ignorant and a convincing essay The University, try to essays on work Vrije Amsterdam keep them so, especially in an essay in an hour House, sexual matters. On Work? Protection via ignorance then easily backfires as a method of upbringing.
It also loads burdens onto minors of all ages that adults fail socially to best online essay Ashbury College deal with. Bodies are one of those failures, in their unclothed state and sexual potential. We act in imaginative ways to Vrije keep even the topics of nudity and sexuality from minors. Stages Thinking Kendall? It doesn't matter that young children in all cultures prefer to be naked, that at very early ages they masturbate, if non-erotically, and that in Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, adolescence they know well what erotic experience is. North Americans may be very unsettled at children's developing sexuality. Marangoni? Our culture deals with this inevitability, writes the social critic James Kincaid, by issuing orders to deny it. Ideological and commercial interests help to maintain that unsettled denial. Ideologically, we falsely believe that teens learning sexual facts will use them indiscriminately. Essays Universiteit Amsterdam? Commercially, advertising blasts us with sexual messages that we try to prevent many of their intended targets from heeding. Many deny reality constantly to maintain the an essay Gordon myth that we can enforce minors' distancing from sex. Essays? The United States, for example, officially promotes and exorbitantly funds abstinence-only sex education.
Five of the best American professional organizations have shown scientifically that it doesn't work, that vows of abstinence break far more easily than a good condom. The result: the U.S. Writing Services Ashbury? government says that's not science. That kind of on work Universiteit reaction reached its nadir a few years ago. In 1998, a scientific analysis by best writing College Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman claimed that not all sexual experiences of minors presumed harmful are actually so. What did the U.S.
Congress do? It didn't say, We'd better study this or We think your stats are wrong. As soon as it could, in a fit of political hysteria, it denounced the analysis in unanimous votes in on work Amsterdam, both House and Senate. It lynched the best online messenger because it didn't want to understand the message. On Work Amsterdam? Promoting baseless fear reaps far more political benefits. Don't sneer at our southern neighbours, however. My Childhood Essay Writing? Canada, while better, is Vrije, hardly free from criticism. Its government has tried hard to my childhood essay writing Istituto make some thoughts about sex a crime. Its pornography laws are based on discredited theories.
Its police often wrongly claim that child sexual abuse is an epidemic. Ontario's Children's Aid societies threaten nudist families, who refuse to buy into body shame and phobia. And its sex-ed curriculum for elementary schools is warped by omission of important concepts. Obsession with sexuality may become absurd. Essays Universiteit Amsterdam? Often, it results in those most afraid of it inducing plenty of harm where none existed. In Florida in 2004, a 22-year-old female babysitter undressed in front of her four-year-old male charge because he asked her to persistently, in his innocent way. My Childhood Essay Writing Istituto Marangoni Paris? The boy was declared psychologically damaged and sent to counselling. Essays On Work Amsterdam? The babysitter faced 30 years in essay Ashbury, prison, much more than for murder.
That unhappy tale reminds me of an old joke about a four-year-old boy who spotted a totally naked woman standing up in essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, a convertible. Mommy, he blurted out, clearly disturbed, that woman's not wearing a seat-belt! The crusade for children's innocence takes other forms. Write An Essay In An House School? Just this month, two women protested in essays on work Amsterdam, California bare-breasted -- by no means a new tactic. Essay Services? Sacramento police arrested them for indecency and disorder, claiming their act could corrupt children . and cause sex offenders to run amok. There is no evidence whatever to support such claims. Nonetheless, the women face permanent listing as sex offenders, right next to real child abusers.
That sort of thing happens in Canada, too. In the past 10 years, arrests of bare-breasted women in essays on work Universiteit, several provinces have been major news. In 2001, when the magnificent Breast of Canada calendar from Guelph showed women's complete breasts, it was labelled pornographic. Even our original problem, Kim Cattrall's photo, hides what are often called naughty bits. What message does that send to children? So we, too, can pin major harm on a tiny part of women's bodies.
This nipplemania is the ultimate fetish. It blames women's nipples for disorder subsequently caused by police and essay writing, calls them indecent to essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam support false claims of protecting misconstrued innocence. Of Critical Kendall College? We do not help children by on work Universiteit teaching them intolerance, disgust, and unjust discrimination towards women's bodies or by hiding from them as much information as possible about bodies and sexuality. Cattrall's new book is called Sexual Intelligence. In North America, we could use some of College that to essays on work Vrije Amsterdam move towards a sex positive culture. Currently we convey mostly body negativity, in sexual politics of fear and hypocrisy.
As protective measures for children, nothing could be worse. 'TOPFREEDOM' GAINING GROUND. Society is coming to accept that bare breasts are not threatening. by Paul Rapoport. [Dr. Rapoport's article is below. It is from The Hamilton Spectator, Hamilton Ontario Canada, March 1, 2000. It was written in response to the article at the right by Lydia Lovric, which appeared in best, the same newspaper on essays on work Amsterdam February 23, 2000.
Her article is posted with her kind permission. At the time, as the article says at i need to write (NAVITAS), its end, she was an undergraduate student at McMaster University in on work Vrije, Hamilton, the same place where Dr. Rapoport is a professor. The two authors met for the first time on July 25, 2001, and found each other excellent company.] Last week Lydia Lovric wrote a Forum article criticizing topless women [above and to the right]. I prefer the term topfree. It's closer to what these women feel when they throw off their tops on i need Robert University (NAVITAS) a hot day as men do.
Topless also suggests strippers, but there's no connection here. Indeed, it's insulting to topfree women to tell them to on work Vrije Amsterdam head to the nearest strip joint. Many make that suggestion in in an, exasperation. It reveals confusion between bare breasts and sexual activity. So does the notion that any topfree woman is parading about. Such words also imply puzzlement at why women would expose their breasts. Many women have explained topfreedom.
To them it's about being comfortable, gaining confidence, expressing body acceptance, aiding breastfeeding, or protesting men's authority over their bodies. Lovric claimed that society won't accept topfree women. Let's see what's happened recently to some of on work Vrije them in to write Robert Gordon University, North America. Gwen Jacob in Ontario: acquitted of indecency. Linda Meyer in BC: public nudity charge dropped.
Kathleen Rice and essays on work Universiteit Amsterdam, Evangeline Godron in Saskatchewan: acquitted of indecent exhibition. Three women in Idaho: acquitted of indecent exposure. Kayla Sosnow in a convincing The University of Birmingham, Florida: acquitted of disorderly conduct. Despite a few cases pending or on appeal, the essays on work Amsterdam trend is clear. Laws used to convict topfree women are failing. Most often, topfree women are not arrested and a convincing of Birmingham, not news. What about those great markers of popular culture---television and film? These days, many mainstream films have scenes with bare female breasts.
TV programs too. Importantly, such scenes may be in nonsexual contexts. On February 8th, CBS showed a lot of topfree women on a beach in prime time, with hardly a bleep from viewers. On the 21st, CBC news showed a tape of essays Universiteit Linda Meyer topfree without censoring her nipples. The sun still rises daily, and the moral collapse of Marangoni Paris North America will have to be blamed on something else.
North America does have an obsession with women's breasts. Essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam? It's closely connected to online writing Ashbury women's lack of Universiteit self-esteem, often manifested in debilitating eating disorders and dangerous surgeries. Breast banning also restricts breast feeding and a convincing essay The University of Birmingham, makes women less likely to examine their breasts for disease. Men's obsessive fantasies of women's breasts demand those breasts be hidden except when men permit them to be uncovered. Those demands control, exploit, and degrade women. They are the real perversion, said anthropologist Ashley Montagu--not some women wishing to essays Vrije Amsterdam go without tops. Discomfort or embarrassment may accompany the sight of women's or men's bare breasts, understandably. But that alone is not a sound basis for criminal law.
It's also easier to relieve than most people think. Fear, panic, and disgust really can be avoided too. Regardless, like men, women don't go barebreasted everywhere. Ms. Lovric and I may agree on that. Nor do women walk fully clothed alone on certain streets after dark. Should we criminalize them if they do and blame them for men's assaults? May every hot and bothered male harass a woman because of what she's wearing---or not wearing? Lovric concluded that requiring breasts to be covered is a reasonable limit on women's freedom. Twenty years ago, lawyer Carol Agate explained how the imposition on women is essay Istituto Marangoni Paris, great, the inconvenience real, the on work stigma pernicious---and the banning of my childhood Istituto Marangoni bare breasts unjust.
It applies to girls with childhood breasts, women with two, one, or no breasts, but never to men with any size of breasts. Females are therefore restricted solely because they are female. That contravenes Article 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which forbids discrimination in law based on sex. It's hard to imagine a court upholding these restrictions on women only, as a reasonable and essays on work, justifiable exception to write Hall School Article 15 and essays on work Vrije, others in the Charter. Yes, men and women are different.
That difference has been used to deny women property ownership, education, civil rights, jobs, and to write an essay Robert University (NAVITAS), money. On Work Vrije? It's no argument in this case either. Remember when pregnant school teachers were assumed to damage children? When bikinis would cause complete social breakdown? In a few years we may laugh too at the notion that women's bare breasts are weapons of how to essay destruction. Aren't women's breasts sexual?
If that still needs an answer, how's this: They may be, in some situations determined by their owner. Why are women's breasts so frightful when nipples are visible but OK when they're not? To ban women's bare breasts fosters a prejudicial, harmful notion that men own them. Amsterdam? Gwen Jacob said it well in 1992, long before she was acquitted for her topfree walk in stages of critical, Guelph: My breasts are for everyone else's pleasure and my own oppression. Whose breasts are they anyway? If women made the on work Vrije laws, would they denigrate and stages, criminalize their breasts but not men's? We are undergoing a revolution in Vrije, body culture, and women's topfree equality is a big part of how to Moreton School it. BREASTFEEDING FRENZY: TWO VIEWS.
People's reaction to breastfeeding and bare breasts reflects revulsion at the body. Such harmful attitudes shouldn't override the law. by Paul Rapoport. [from The Hamilton Spectator, Hamilton Ontario Canada, February 25, 1999. The other view referred to in the title argued that women should not breastfeed in public if their nipples might be seen.] Even though it's not yet summer, there have already been incidents where women with exposed breasts have encountered trouble. Recently, Julia Goforth was removed from Vrije a Niagara Falls YMCA, and Shannon Wray was told to leave an of critical, indoor pool in on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Hamilton. Both were breastfeeding. The minor public health issue in the latter case is swamped by the major public sensitivity issue. Letters in this newspaper said that Ms. Wray was insensitive to best online Ashbury College breastfeed in view of others.
Since breastfeeding is natural and beneficial, the act itself isn't the problem. It's the actual or threatened public exposure of Vrije Amsterdam those breasts, or more accurately, areolas and nipples. Many assume that women who expose breasts engage in or invite sexual acts. This assumption is created and maintained by heterosexual men. I Need An Essay Robert? They act as if women's breasts belong to them--an act of corporeal misappropriation and emotional thievery.
No wonder many women won't breastfeed in public! A corollary is that men seeing women's breasts can't control themselves. It's false. It also sounds like the old and discredited notion that women are asking for Universiteit Amsterdam it in dressing or not dressing a certain way. Several letters also implied, I wouldn't breastfeed in stages thinking, public, so she shouldn't. Essays On Work Universiteit Amsterdam? Aside from the i need to write Robert University defective logic, this represents the kind of coercion our laws are designed to prevent. At the heart of the matter is the issue of offense. People have the right to be offended. They do not have the right to remove their offense by removing others who are causing no harm. It would help if people unsettled at the thought of women breastfeeding or uncovering their breasts in public would recognize the source of what is mostly their own problem.
That source is often revulsion at the body. It helps produce calamities---mostly for women---such as bulimia/anorexia, low self-esteem, mutilating surgery, reduced breastfeeding, and essays on work Vrije Amsterdam, sexual dysfunction. Not least is the debilitating body shame and guilt adults lay on children, based on best essay writing services Ashbury peculiar and damaging adult phobias. But where does all that come from? Two major places: misapplication of Freudian ideas---some of them untenable in the first place---and misunderstanding of religion, often manifested in inappropriate use of Christian scripture.
Not least is the precept that the mind is pure and essays, the body is an essay Robert Gordon (NAVITAS), filthy. That attitude doesn't do much for Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam the temple of the soul, or human beings created in God's image. Disgust at women's breasts causes women to live their entire socially conscious lives as if there is something bad or wrong about the upper parts of i need Robert Gordon their bodies but not men's. Why? Because men say so. Women are forced to treat their breasts publicly as hidden sex objects for men, even though their breasts have other functions. An Ontario Court of Appeal ruling in 1996 made much of this clear, and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms forbids discrimination on on work Vrije the basis of sex.
Still we have Shannon Wray being criticized and insulted, and a specific policy of Hamilton Culture and Recreation that promotes such harassment. Policies and municipal bylaws banning women's bare breasts are unconstitutional, whether breastfeeding is involved or not. Legal arguments aside, such regulations are unfair, unnecessary, and Kendall, unwise. Essays On Work? Women have brains. They can decide whether to uncover their breasts or not without others telling them and treating them like outcasts or criminals. Many jurisdictions in North America have decided they have better things to an essay hour do than prosecute barebreasted women who are innocent of any crime. Of Canadian provinces, three out of three that have dealt with this issue judicially have essentially agreed.
Should women choosing to doff their tops be sensitive to Universiteit those around them? Of course. Online Writing Services Ashbury College? So should everyone else. But you can't legislate sensitivity. What happens when sensitivities collide?
Perhaps Shannon Wray could have explained nicely what her rights and wishes were, at least to essays Amsterdam breastfeed in the pool area. Then others might have understood. But she is hardly required to do that. Those decrying Ms. Wray should recognize her sensitivities too, and educate themselves about what her rights are, why she has them, and thinking College, the consequences of denying them.
[In August 2001, Shannon Wray was awarded CA$6,000 in a human rights action against the city of Hamilton in connection with the above incident.] WOMEN'S BARE BREASTS: EQUAL RIGHTS OR DOUBLE STANDARD? On March 11, 1998, Paul Rapoport presented an hour-long talk at essays on work Vrije Amsterdam, McMaster University in Hamilton Ontario. The title was: Women's Bare Breasts: Equal Rights or Double Standard?
Dr. How To Write? Rapoport is President of the Topfree Equal Rights Association. The talk ranged over many topfree issues, primarily legal, psychological, political, and sociolgical. Essays On Work Universiteit Amsterdam? It reviewed cases around North America (in both the USA and Canada) before concentrating on events in Cambridge Ontario in 1997. Dr. Rapoport showed that the i need to write an essay Gordon main opposition to essays Universiteit Amsterdam topfree women results from confusion between nudity and sexuality. Thinking Kendall? He also showed that topfree women do not harm children or cause violence to women, contrary to the claims made by Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam certain political grandstanders in Canada and their supporters, many of whom are members of write an autobiography essay Moreton Hall School extremist groups. Ultimately, he said, the matter is essays on work Vrije Amsterdam, one of equal rights for men and women. It is also a matter of respecting the Ontario Court of Appeal decision on women's topfreedom, which ruled in Ontario in 1996 that it was legal. To illustrate his points, Dr.
Rapoport showed a dozen videotape excerpts from the 1990s, as well as photographs of best online essay women around North America who have been harassed, intimidated, and charged by Universiteit law officials merely because they are women exercising their rights. He also offered suggestions to people who still fear women's breasts in public. At the end of the write essay Moreton Hall talk, Dr. Rapoport introduced the two heroic women from the Cambridge-Kitchener area who were charged in 1997 for swimming topfree: Jeannette Tossounian and Vrije Amsterdam, Fatima Pereira Henson. Both defeated the of critical thinking Kendall College charge, and Ms. Pereira Henson convinced the Cambridge City Council to rescind its anti-breast bylaw, so that today in Cambridge, as she puts it, women are human beings. Amsterdam? She and Ms.
Tossounian answered questions from the audience and reinforced points about women's equality. Dr. Rapoport is one of the foremost authorities on the subject of women's topfree rights. He has written many articles on it and services Ashbury, has appeared many times on radio and television. He is Vrije Universiteit, available to speak at write a convincing of Birmingham, other locations in essays on work Amsterdam, Canada and the USA This talk was very well received by the audience, which was mostly university students. It was sponsored by the Ontario Public Interest Research Group at McMaster University. WOMEN TAKE BACK THEIR BREASTS: CANADIAN TOPFREE STRUGGLES IN 1997. by Paul Rapoport. Despite its title, this article includes much general information and discussion of philosophy and law.
It has been widely quoted since its original appearance in 1997 in the magazine Nude Natural, vol. 17, no.2, published by The Naturist Society in best writing services Ashbury College, late 1997. The article is now on a different site, that of Topfree Action. The article itself is here. Only one problem: the online version lacks the footnotes. They provide not only references but more of the argument. If you wish to have an Vrije Universiteit, electronic copy of the footnotes, contact us. Meanwhile . . . here are a couple of paragraphs from near the essay writing Paris end of the article: Independent judicial decisions cannot be made on the basis of public opinion. As TERA states, moreover, in a free and essays on work, democratic society, fundamental rights such as equality of the my childhood Istituto Marangoni sexes are not subject to the whim of a majority.
If they were, then those who shout the most about how upset they are could punish any group whose only crime is on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, that it does not conform. The issue has been deemed trivial by many supporters of women who do not recognize its wide implications, or who may believe that legal rights are obvious. Topfreedom involves fundamental questions of power and control; of justice and of critical thinking, rights; of body freedom, respect and Universiteit Amsterdam, acceptance; of how to an autobiography Moreton Hall School self-expression and self-image; as well as centuries-old patterns of essays on work Vrije Amsterdam male-female relationships which the last third of the 20th century has fought hard to change through the best online essay writing services College ongoing social revolution of feminism and its struggle for equal rights for more than half the population of the Earth. ARE BAREBREASTED WOMEN MONSTERS FROM SPACE? by Paul Rapoport. The following article was written in August 1997 but was refused without comment by the newspaper it was intended for. It was on essays on work Vrije Amsterdam The Body Objective website for some time. American and how to Moreton Hall, other non-Canadian readers may wonder about the Canadian references; but lots of Canadian readers might too. The main points come across fairly easily. The so-called topless issue has engendered more debate recently than nearly anything, certainly in Ontario.
Epecially in small towns, misinformation has grown bigger and smellier daily, like mounds of uncollected garbage. It's time to Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam remove the essay writing Paris garbage and freshen up the air. The catalyst for Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam the arguing is the December 1996 Ontario Court of Appeal decision acquitting a woman of a charge of indecency for walking in Guelph topfree. (Topless is loaded; topfree captures the freedom many women feel when doing what men have been allowed to do for decades.) This summer I've heard complaints about equal topfreedom for women that are quite revealing--about the best online College arguers, not the issue. My husband won't be able to control himself if he sees a topless woman. I'm being harassed and perverted by these topless women.
I want to enjoy this country as it was originally designed. Go rot in Hell, you sinner! More acceptable expressions still come from misperceptions. The main one is that a half-uncovered woman's body in public constitutes sexual activity. This can be demolished best by on work Vrije Universiteit reading, consulting experts, or gaining experience, which the fearful understandably will not do. A Convincing Essay The University Of Birmingham? But both experts and experience are close to home. In 1992, this same ordeal took place in New York State, where the matter was resolved in essays on work Vrije Amsterdam, favour of women's equality. Shortly after, bare breasts there became a non-issue. The automatic connection between women's breasts and sexual activity is one which some media exploit ceaselessly. Stages Thinking Kendall College? We can and should reject it. Both women and men may choose to be nonsexual in on work Vrije Universiteit, many topfree situations: lying on grass, swimming, strolling down a street, etc.
What is worn may have no connection to the sexuality of a situation. Robert (NAVITAS)? There may indeed be more flirting in complete outfits than in topfree attire. Women who wish to enjoy the same topfreedom as men are therefore not asking for it. Related assumptions are common, for example that bare breasts increase sex crimes. Sociologists know that the two are unrelated. Furthermore, people remove tops when they think it is safe, not when assault is likely. Does the sight of a topfree woman lead to later crime or public immorality? The evidence for this elsewhere is nil. Who controls women's bodies?
Significantly, men may pay women to strip but will not allow them to remove tops on their own. Now there is a real connection. The more people become used to essays on work Vrije Amsterdam topfreedom, the of critical thinking College less the media and pornographers can exploit, demean, and control women. Many people also think that bare breasts destroy children. That is a myth perpetrated by unthinking adults. If adults cover children's eyes at the sight of a bare-breasted woman and essays, whisk them away as if they'd seen a monster from space, they teach children intolerance and irrational fear. How To Write An Autobiography Essay Moreton Hall? They also teach them that bodies are shameful, topfree women are essentially hookers, and women don't have equal rights. Indeed, if children saw women's breasts more often, they would easily dismiss their elders' phobia and hypocrisy.
Maybe we should also close galleries of Renaissance paintings! A few women and men may behave illegally while bare-breasted or not. Essays On Work? We have law enforcers for that. But we can't condemn others because a few break a law. Otherwise we not only throw out the baby with the bathwater, but blow up the i need to write Robert Gordon (NAVITAS) bathroom as well. The loudest argument is on work Universiteit, that the best writing Ashbury majority of women won't be taking their tops off. But is this a reason to on work Universiteit remove women's equal rights? In a free and democratic society the majority cannot take away the fundamental rights of how to essay School a minority merely for not conforming. The same holds for community standards.
This has particular meaning and use in this issue, discussed in on work Vrije, relevant case law. How To Essay Moreton Hall? The Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Article 15, forbids discrimination on the basis of Universiteit sex. The right to equal treatment under the law can hardly be subject to community whim. Of Critical College? If it were, we would invite widespread racial and religious discrimination. Body freedom, body acceptance. People have a right to feel offended, but not the right to criminalize women in on work Vrije Universiteit, order to Ashbury College make themsleves feel better. The feeling of offense can be taken care of privately and socially, but not in law, because topfreedom per se does not imply intent to offend or public disorder. Essays Vrije? The ready legal solution is to ban topfree men too, a step which would destroy healthy concepts of body freedom and acceptance, as well as make Canada the laughingstock of the western world. For centuries women's physical differences denied them voting, education, jobs, public life, safety, and health. The topfree issue is no different.
If we recognize women's equal rights, we will not use the law to placate uninformed alarmists and Istituto Marangoni, their sincere but repressive and groundless predictions.
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Telephones and E-mail have made communication between people less personal. Use specific reasons and an essay in an hour Lime School, examples to essays on work Vrije Amsterdam support your opinion. 90. If you could travel back in time to meet a famous person from history, what person would you like to meet? Use specific reasons and writing Marangoni, examples to support your choice. 91.
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When you write your answer, you are not limited to the examples listed in the question. 105. It is generally agreed that society benefits from the work of its members. Compare the contributions of artists to society with the contributions of scientists to society. Which type of contribution do you think is valued more by your society? Give specific reasons to support your answer. 106. Students at universities often have a choice of places to live. They may choose to live in university dormitories, or they may choose to live in apartments in the community.
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Duke Fuqua MBA Essay Tips #038; Deadlines. Leadership, teamwork, ethics, and a global approach to essays business are essential elements of the Duke Fuqua MBA, which is why you’ll need to make sure you express your passion for these ideals in your application essays. Impress the Fuqua adcom by essay writing Istituto Paris, positioning yourself as an innovative leader and team player, as someone who can see the essays on work Vrije Amsterdam, big picture, work collaboratively, and shape global business. My tips are in my childhood writing Istituto, blue below. Three short answer questions and two essays are required from all applicants. • Responses should use 1.5 line spacing and a font size no smaller than 10-point. • Do not copy the Amsterdam, essay question in the document you upload with your application. • Respond fully and concisely. Length requirements vary by question, and my childhood writing Istituto Marangoni, are detailed below.
• Responses must be completed before submitting your application. • Prepare your responses carefully. The Admissions Committee considers your answers important in the selection process. • All essays are scanned using plagiarism detection software. Expressing your ideas by using verbiage from essays Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, existing sources, including other applicants’ essays or materials, without properly crediting those sources constitutes an how to write essay Hall School act of plagiarism. Plagiarism is considered a cheating violation within the Honor Code and will result in on work Universiteit, an application denial. Note: if you have worked with a consultant to complete your application materials, please ensure that the write The University of Birmingham, honor code policy is discussed and he/she will not share your essays with other potential applicants. Instructions: Answer all 3 of the following questions. For each question, respond in 500 characters only (the equivalent of on work Vrije about 100 words) . 1. What are your short-term goals, post-MBA?
State what you see yourself doing immediately after you earn your MBA in terms of function and industry. If location or geography are important to your goal, include them. If you know the type of companies you would like to work for, you can include that information too, but don’t say you want to work for Company X, unless Company X is sponsoring you. Without sponsorship, a “Company X” answer is probably too narrow, but saying you would like to work for a firm like Company X would work. 2. What are your long-term goals? Your long term goals should flow logically from essay The University, your short-term goals. They can be fuzzier both in terms of direction and timing. But you should have them. They can, but don’t have to, include larger aspirations and present a broader perspective on where you are headed.
But please don’t go so general as to say something like “I aspire to on work Amsterdam be a good person” or “I strive to leave a lasting impact on best online essay writing services, my community.” Nice sentiments, but way too vague. 3. Life is full of uncertainties, and plans and circumstances can change. As a result, navigating a career requires you to be adaptable. Should the short-term goals that you provided above not materialize what alternative directions have you considered? What’s your Plan B? If you can’t get a job at a leading strategy consulting firm – your first choice – what do you want to do? If Plan A is investment banking, what’s Plan B? First Required Essay: 25 Random Things About Yourself. Instructions: Present your response in list form, numbered 1 to 25. Some points may be only a few words, while others may be longer. Your complete list should not exceed 2 pages. The “Team Fuqua” spirit and community is one of the things that sets The Duke MBA experience apart, and Universiteit Amsterdam, it is to write an essay University a concept that extends beyond the student body to include faculty, staff, and essays Amsterdam, administration.
When a new person joins the how to write essay of Birmingham, Admissions team, we ask that person to share with everyone in on work Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the office a list of how to write an autobiography essay Moreton “25 Random Things About Yourself.” As an Admissions team, we already know the new hire’s professional and essays Universiteit Amsterdam, academic background, so learning these “25 Random Things” helps us get to know someone’s personality, background, special talents, and thinking, more. In this spirit, the Admissions Committee also wants to get to know you–beyond the professional and academic achievements listed in your resume and essays Vrije, transcript. You can share with us important life experiences, your likes/dislikes, hobbies, achievements, fun facts, or anything that helps us understand what makes you who you are. Share with us your list of an essay in an House School “25 Random Things” about YOU. Have some fun with this list. It certainly allows a more creative approach than permitted by on work Universiteit Amsterdam, most essay prompts. Note that the questions asks you to go “beyond the professional and academic achievements listed in your resume and transcript.” So you can list your Pez collection or perhaps your brief membership in a rock band or the fact that you took violin from ages 6-18 or your membership in a gospel choir or your volunteer work in thinking Kendall College, a hospital, your needlepoint, your favorite recipe or photo. Essays On Work. Gosh – the list is endless. Stages. Just let it reflect you.
Think of this list as an introduction to potential friends. For more insight into this question and on work Universiteit, the motivation behind, please read Megan Overbay’s, the former Director of Admissions’, advice. Yes, it’s old, but I believe you will find it helpful. And very friendly. Instructions: Your response should be no more than 2 pages in length. Fuqua prides itself on cultivating a culture of engagement. Thinking Kendall. Our students enjoy a wide range of student-led organizations that provide opportunities for leadership development and personal fulfillment, as well as an outlet for essays Vrije, contributing to essay Marangoni society. Our student-led government, clubs, centers, and events are an integral part of the Universiteit Amsterdam, student culture and are vital to providing you with a range of experiential learning and individual development experiences. Based on your understanding of the Fuqua culture, how do you see yourself engaging in and contributing to our community, outside of the to write Gordon University, classroom? Do your homework about Fuqua (and yourself) before responding to Universiteit this question. What activities and groups appeal to you?
How do you see yourself participating? Making a difference? Then look at best online writing College, Duke’s multi-faceted definition of “Consequential Leaders.” Which do you most identify with? Imagine how you would participate and sometimes lead. While you can reference similar activities in the past, keep the focus of this essay on what you would do at Fuqua. One approach to on work Vrije Amsterdam responding to this question: Address a letter to a close friend or colleague and tell her how you would contribute to this very participatory culture. That letter could morph into this essay. If you feel there are circumstances of which the Admissions Committee should be aware, please explain them in an optional essay (such as unexplained gaps in work, choice of recommenders, inconsistent or questionable academic performance). • Do NOT upload additional essays nor additional recommendations in this area of the stages of critical College, application.
• The Optional Essay is intended to provide the Admissions Committee with insight into your extenuating circumstances only. • Limit your response to on work Universiteit two pages. Why isn’t your current supervisor writing your rec? Why is there a six-month gap on your resume? Why did your grades dip during the first semester of your senior year? What are your responsibilities while working for a family business after having left a prestigious investment bank, and why did you make the change?
Answering any of best online College those questions (but not all) could be the topic of your optional essay. ***Disclaimer: Information is subject to change. Essays Universiteit. Please check with individual programs to verify the essay questions, instructions and deadlines.*** Hi Linda. I’d appreciate your feedback on my profile and school choices. 1) I have 3 years of my childhood essay Marangoni Paris experience as a market risk analyst at a mid-sized commercial bank ($5 billion asset base) in Pakistan. Promoted in my first year and spent six months as an interim head of my team, and have been in essays on work Vrije Universiteit, a supervisory role for the last 15 months or so. 2) 760 GMAT, 49Q (75%), 45V (99%) 3) Graduated from the Lahore University of Management Sciences (one of Pakistan’s top-ranked universities) with a BSc in Robert Gordon University, Politics and Economics.
CGPA is low: 2.8, mainly due to poor freshman and essays on work Universiteit, sophomore years. Worked to bring it up and write an essay hour Lime School, averaged a 3.2 over junior and senior year. Planning to address this in the optional essays by highlighting this upward trend as well as my solid GMAT score and the fact that my work is pretty technical in nature and requires a lot of financial modeling / statistics / programming. 4) Active soccer player and occasional volunteer coach. Minor community/volunteer work here and essays Amsterdam, there, nothing really big. 5) Want to work in consulting post-MBA, with a focus on analytics. Looking for a role where I can leverage my technical ability in a more dynamic, directly client-focused setting.
I am also applying to MIT Sloan, Tepper, Darden, Anderson, Owen, Marshall and Mendoza. Hi Linda. Of Critical Kendall. I’d appreciate your feedback on my profile and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, school choices. 1) I have 3 years of experience as a market risk analyst at a mid-sized commercial bank ($5 billion asset base) in Pakistan. Write Hour House. Promoted in my first year and spent six months as an interim head of my team, and have been in a supervisory role for the last 15 months or so. 2) 760 GMAT, 49Q (75%), 45V (99%) 3) Graduated from the Lahore University of Management Sciences (one of Pakistan’s top-ranked universities) with a BSc in essays Universiteit Amsterdam, Politics and Economics. CGPA is low: 2.8, mainly due to poor freshman and sophomore years. Worked to to write Robert Gordon bring it up and Amsterdam, averaged a 3.2 over of critical thinking Kendall College junior and senior year. Planning to essays Universiteit Amsterdam address this in the optional essays by highlighting this upward trend as well as my solid GMAT score and best essay writing Ashbury College, the fact that my work is pretty technical in essays Vrije Amsterdam, nature and to write University, requires a lot of Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam financial modeling / statistics / programming. 4) Active soccer player and essay writing, occasional volunteer coach.
Minor community/volunteer work here and there, nothing really big. 5) Want to work in consulting post-MBA, with a focus on essays Vrije, analytics. Looking for a role where I can leverage my technical ability in a more dynamic, directly client-focused setting. I am also applying to MIT Sloan, Tepper, Darden, Anderson, Owen, Marshall and an essay in an, Mendoza. Obviously you’re going to need to address that GPA. Otherwise you have a competitive profile and stellar GMAT. On Work Vrije. MIT Sloan is online writing College a stretch, but you have a good shot at all the essays on work, other programs you are applying to. Hi Linda! Not quite sure if this forum is open for discussion anymore but here goes nothing. 1) 5 years (including 2 years internship) with a Big 4 Accounting Firm (think KPMG, EY, PwC) as a business and tax consultant with a major focus on transaction advisory, financial transformation and business model restructuring for Energy, Telecom and Tech clients. I Need An Essay Gordon University (NAVITAS). Led a team of 6. 1 promotion.
Currently, 1.5 years with a Solar Solutions company (not quite big) as a Manager of Finance and Commercials. 2) GMAT 730 – Q50 (87%) V40 (92%) 3) Bachelor of Commerce from Mumbai University, India. Top 5%-10% score on graduation. 4) Currently team leader for 40 volunteers and 2 mentors who teach and mentor underprivileged children living in shelter homes. Previously taught Math for 2 years. Also, active in Soccer. Essays On Work Universiteit Amsterdam. Formed and School, led my company’s soccer for Universiteit Amsterdam, 3 years and won 2 championships. 5) Chartered Accountant from Institute of how to write a convincing The University Chartered Accountancy of India. 6) ST Goal – Strategy Consulting at MBB in Energy or Tech sector. Focus on emerging market strategies through alliances and MAs.
I am applying to Fuqua, Kellogg, Yale SOM and Tuck. Would really appreciate your thoughts. I think I replied to on work Vrije someone with an identical post below. Hi Linda! Not quite sure if this forum is my childhood Marangoni Paris open for discussion anymore but here goes nothing. 1) 5 years (including 2 years internship) with a Big 4 Accounting Firm (think KPMG, EY, PwC) as a business and tax consultant with a major focus on transaction advisory, financial transformation and business model restructuring for Energy, Telecom and Tech clients. Led a team of 6. 1 promotion.
Currently, 1.5 years with a Solar Solutions company (not quite big) as a Manager of essays on work Universiteit Amsterdam Finance and Commercials. 2) GMAT 730 – Q50 (87%) V40 (92%) 3) Bachelor of Commerce from write an essay in an, Mumbai University, India. Top 5%-10% score on graduation. Also, Chartered Accountant from essays Vrije Amsterdam, Institute of Chartered Accountancy of best services Ashbury College India. 4) Currently team leader for 40 volunteers and 2 mentors who teach and mentor underprivileged children living in shelter homes. Previously taught Math for 2 years.
Also, active in Soccer. Essays Vrije Amsterdam. Formed and led my company’s soccer for 3 years and won 2 championships. 5) ST Goal – Strategy Consulting at MBB in Energy or Tech sector. Focus on online essay College, emerging market strategies through alliances and MAs. I am applying to Fuqua, Kellogg, Yale SOM and Tuck. Would really appreciate your thoughts. You have a competitive profile for your target programs and essays Universiteit Amsterdam, are applying appropriately. Also consider Ross and essay writing Istituto, MIT Sloan. Hi Linda!
I apologize for the duplicate post. Pressed a few wrong buttons here and on work Universiteit Amsterdam, there! I have a small follow-up. With Kellogg’s average GMAT score increased to 732 does an ‘Indian-male’ applicant still have a chance of getting in stages of critical thinking College, with average GMAT score on an upward trajectory? Really appreciate you taking your time out to essays Vrije Amsterdam do this.
In short, yes I still feel you have a chance at Kellogg. Is it possible that another applicant like you but with a higher score will beat you out? yes. That means however that you just have to work harder at distinguishing yourself and showing that you are a standout. Thanks for you help, Linda! Choose your desired degree and best online services College, then the service that best meets your needs.
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